Power management

Power management

Power management is a feature of some electrical appliances, especially copiers, computers and computer peripherals such as monitors and printers, that turns off the power or switches the system to a low-power state when inactive. One power management standard for computers is ACPI, which supersedes
APM. All recent (consumer) computers have ACPI support.

Motivations

Power management for computer systems are desired for many reasons, particularly:
* Prolong battery life for portable and embedded systems.
* Reduce cooling requirements.
* Reduce noise.
* Reduce operating costs for energy and cooling.

Lower power consumption also means lower heat dissipation, which increases system stability, and less energy use, which saves money and reduces the impact on the environment.

Processor level techniques

The power management for microprocessors can be done over the whole processor, or in specific areas.

With dynamic voltage scaling and dynamic frequency scaling, the CPU core voltage, clock rate, or both, can be altered to decrease power consumption at the price of slower performance. This is sometimes done in real time to optimize the power-performance tradeoff.

Examples:
* Intel SpeedStep
* AMD Cool'n'Quiet
* AMD PowerNow!
* VIA LongHaul (PowerSaver)
* Transmeta LongRun and LongRun2

Newer Intel Core processors support ultra-fine power control over the function units within the processors.

Intel VRT technology split the chip into a 3.3V I/O section and a 2.9V core section. The lower core voltage reduces power consumption.

Operating system level: Hibernation

When a computer system hibernates it saves the contents of the RAM to disk and powers down the machine. On startup it reloads the data. This allows the system to be completely powered off while in hibernate mode. This requires a file the size of the installed RAM to be placed on the hard disk, potentially using up space even when not in hibernate mode. Hibernate mode is enabled by default in some versions of Windows and can be disabled in order to recover this disk space.

ee also

*CPU power dissipation
*Low-power electronics

*Dynamic voltage scaling
*Dynamic frequency scaling

*Advanced Power Management (APM)
*Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
**Hibernate
**Sleep mode
*VESA Display Power Management Signaling (DPMS)
*Energy Star
*Thermal Design Power
*80 Plus
*Green computing
*PowerTOP - diagnostic tool
*Standby power

External links

* [http://www.eu-energystar.org/calculator.htm Energy Consumption Calculator]
* [http://www4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/Research/PowerManagement/Bibliography/ Research Bibliography on Power Management]


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