- Capability-based security
Capability-based security is a concept in the design of
secure computingsystems. A capability (known in some systems as a key) is a communicable, unforgeable token of authority. It refers to a value that references an object along with an associated set of access rights. A user program on a capability-based operating systemmust use a capability to access an object. Capability-based security refers to the principle of designing user programs such that they directly share capabilities with each other according to the principle of least privilege, and to the operating system infrastructure necessary to make such transactions efficient and secure.
Although most operating systems implement a facility which resembles capabilities, they typically do not provide enough support to allow for the exchange of capabilities among possibly mutually untrusting entities to be the primary means of granting and distributing access rights throughout the system. A capability-based system, in contrast, is designed with that goal in mind.
Capabilities as discussed on this page should not be confused with POSIX 1e/2c "Capabilities". The latter are coarse-grained privileges that cannot be transferred between processes.
Capabilities and capability-based security
Capabilities achieve their objective of improving system security by being used in place of forgeable references. A forgeable reference (for example, a path name) identifies an object, but does not specify which access rights are appropriate for that object and the user program which holds that reference. Consequently, any attempt to access the referenced object must be validated by the operating system, typically via the use of an
access control list(ACL). Instead, in a system with capabilities, the mere fact that a user program possesses that capability entitles it to use the referenced object in accordance with the rights that are specified by that capability. In theory, a system with capabilities removes the need for any access control list or similar mechanism by giving all entities all and only the capabilities they will actually need.
A capability is typically implemented as a privileged
data structurethat consists of a section that specifies access rights, and a section that uniquely identifies the object to be accessed. In practice, it is used much like a file descriptorin a traditional operating system, but to access every object on the system. Capabilities are typically stored by the operating system in a list, with some mechanism in place to prevent the program from directly modifying the contents of the capability (so as to forge access rights or change the object it points to). Some systems have also been based on capability-based addressing(hardware support for capabilities), such as Plessey System 250.
Programs possessing capabilities can perform functions on them, such as passing them on to other programs, converting them to a less-privileged version, or deleting them. The operating system must ensure that only specific operations can occur to the capabilities in the system, in order to maintain the integrity of the security policy.
Introduction to capability-based security
"(The following introduction assumes some basic knowledge of
A capability is defined to be a protected object reference which, by virtue of its possession by a user process, grants that process the capability (hence the name) to interact with an object in certain ways. Those ways might include reading data associated with an object, modifying the object, executing the data in the object as a process, and other conceivable access rights. The capability logically consists of a reference that uniquely identifies a particular object and a set of one or more of these rights.
Suppose that, in a user process's memory space, there exists the following string:
Although this identifies a unique object on the system, it does not specify access rights and hence is not a capability. Suppose there is instead the following two values:
This identifies an object along with a set of access rights. It, however, is still not a capability because the user process's "possession" of these values says nothing about whether that access would actually be legitimate.
Now suppose that the user program successfully executes the following statement:
int fd = open("/etc/passwd", O_RDWR);
The variable fd now contains the index of a file descriptor in the process's file descriptor table. This file descriptor "is" a capability. Its existence in the process's file descriptor table is sufficient to know that the process does indeed have legitimate access to the object. A key feature of this arrangement is that the file descriptor table is in kernel memory and cannot be directly manipulated by the user program.
haring of capabilities between processes
In traditional operating systems, programs often communicate with each other and with storage using references like those in the first two examples. Path names are often passed as command-line parameters, sent via sockets, and stored on disk. These references are not capabilities, and must be validated before they can be used. In these systems, a central question is "on whose "authority" is a given reference to be evaluated?" This becomes a critical issue especially for processes which must act on behalf of two different authority-bearing entities. They become susceptible to a programming error known as the
Confused deputy problem, very frequently resulting in a security hole.
In a capability-based system, the capabilities themselves are passed between processes and storage using a mechanism that is known by the operating system to maintain the integrity of those capabilities.
Although many operating systems implement facilities very similar to capabilities through the use of
file descriptors or file handles — for example, in UNIX, file descriptors can be discarded (closed), inherited by child processes, and even sent to other processes via sockets — there are several obstaclesFact|date=July 2007 that prevent all of the benefits of a capability-based addressingsystem from being realized in a traditional operating system environment. ChiefFact|date=July 2007 among these obstacles is the fact that entities which might hold capabilities (such as processes and files) cannot be made persistent in such a way that maintains the integrity of the secure information that a capability represents.Fact|date=July 2007 The operating system cannot trust a user program to read back a capability and not tamper with the object reference or the access rights.Fact|date=July 2007 Consequently, when a program wishes to regain access to an object that is referenced on disk, the operating system must have some way of validating that access request,Fact|date=July 2007 and an access control list or similar mechanism is mandated.
One novel approach to solving this problem involves the use of an orthogonally persistent operating system. (This was realised in the Flex machine. See
Ten15). In such a system, there is no need for entities to be discarded and their capabilities be invalidated, and hence require an ACL-like mechanism to restore those capabilities at a later time. The operating system maintains the integrity and security of the capabilities contained within all storage, both volatile and nonvolatile, at all times; in part by performing all serializationtasks by itself, rather than requiring user programs to do so, as is the case in most operating systems. Because user programs are relieved of this responsibility, there is no need to trust them to reproduce only legal capabilities, nor to validate requests for access using an access controlmechanism.
POSIX draft 1003.1e specifies concept of permissions called “capabilities”. However POSIX capabilities differ from capabilities in this article — POSIX capability is not associated to any object: Process having CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE capability can listen on any TCP port under 1024.
Research and commercial systems
** EROS - The
Extremely Reliable Operating System- KeyKOS successor
CapROS- EROS successor, project to further develop EROS code base for commercial use
Coyotos- EROS successor, for research
Cambridge CAP computer
Carnegie Mellon University C.mmpwith Hydra (operating system)
Carnegie Mellon UniversityCM* with StarOS
Intel iAPX 432
* Plessey System 250
* L4 microkernel - Open Kernel Labs - OKL4 and NICTA - seL4
Amoeba distributed operating system
* Levy, Henry M., "* [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=538134&dl=ACM&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618 Capability-Based Computer Systems] ", Digital Equipment Corporation 1984. ISBN 0-932376-22-3. An electronic version is available [http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/levy/capabook/ here] .
* [http://www.eros-os.org/ The EROS Project]
* E, a programming language based around capability security ( [http://www.erights.org/ ERights.org] )
* Mark S. Miller, Ka-Ping Yee, Jonathan Shapiro. "Capability Myths Demolished", Technical Report SRL2003-02, Systems Research Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University. [http://srl.cs.jhu.edu/pubs/SRL2003-02.pdf Available online.]
* [http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/levy/capabook/Chapter5.pdf The Cambridge CAP Computer] , Levy, 1988not currently used:
Capability-based addressing: cite journal | author= Theodore A. Linden |title=Operating System Structures to Support Security and Reliable Software | journal = ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) | pages=409-445 | volume=8 | issue=4 | year=1976| month = December |id=ISSN 0360-0300 } | url = http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=356682&coll=&dl=ACM&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618
* Li Gong, " [http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/SECPRI.1989.36277 A Secure Identity-Based Capability System] ", sp, p. 56, 1989 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 1989
* [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=361070&dl=ACM&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618 Capability-based addressing]
* [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=850709&dl=ACM&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618 A hardware implementation of capability-based addressing]
* [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=850701&coll=&dl=ACM&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618 An implementation of capabilities on the PDP-11/45]
* [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=801885&dl=ACM&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618 IBM System/38 support for capability-based addressing]
* [http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=319163&dl=ACM&coll=&CFID=15151515&CFTOKEN=6184618 EROS: a fast capability system] POSIX "capabilities" in Linux:
* [http://www.friedhoff.org/posixfilecaps.html POSIX Capabilities & Files]
* [http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/library/l-posixcap.html POSIX file capabilities: Parceling the power of root]
* [http://www.eros-os.org/mailman/listinfo/cap-talk The cap-talk mailing list]
* [http://www.eros-os.org/pipermail/cap-talk/2003-March/001133.html Reviews of 'Capability Myths Demolished'] Some criticism of the reference above.
* [http://www.eros-os.org/essays/capintro.html What is a Capability?] : an informal introduction to capabilities.
* Rick Smith [http://infosecuritymag.techtarget.com/articles/february00/covera.shtml interviews]
Jonathan Shapiro, designer of EROS, in 2000.
* [http://www.cap-lore.com/CapTheory/index.html Capability Theory by Sound Bytes]
* [http://www.nabble.com/On-the-Spread-of-the-Capability-Approach-t2037962.html History of the Capability Approach]
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