List of new religious movements

List of new religious movements

A new religious movement is a religious community or ethical, spiritual, or philosophical group of modern origin, which has a peripheral place within the dominant religious culture. NRMs may be novel in origin or they may be part of a wider religion, such as Christianity, Hinduism or Buddhism, in which case they will be distinct from pre-existing denominations. Scholars studying the sociology of religion have almost unanimously adopted this term as a neutral alternative to the word "cult". They continue to try to reach definitions and boundaries.[1]

An NRM may be one of a wide range of movements ranging from those with loose affiliations based on novel approaches to spirituality or religion to communitarian enterprises that demand a considerable amount of group conformity and a social identity that separates their adherents from mainstream society. Use of the term is not universally accepted among the groups to which it is applied.[2] NRMs do not necessarily share a set of particular attributes, but have been "assigned to the fringe of the dominant religious culture", and "exist in a relatively contested space within society as a whole".[3]

Contents

List

Separate lists by type:

  • Hinduism-oriented new religious movements
  • List of Neopagan movements
  • List of groups referred to as cults or sects in government documents
Name Founder Year founded Type
3HO[4] Harbhajan Singh Yogi[5] 1969[5] Sikhism[5]
Aaronic Order[6][7] Maurice Lerrie Glendenning[6] 1930s[6] Mormonism[6]
Aetherius Society[8] George King[8] 1955[8] UFO religions[8]
Adidam, previously Free Daist Avabhasan Communion, Free Daist Communion, Crazy Wisdom Fellowship, Johannine Daist Community, Laughing Man Institute, Dawn Horse Communion, Free Primitive Church of Divine Communion, Free Communion Church, Dawn Horse Fellowship[9][10] Adi Da[10] 1972[10] Hindu-inspired[10]
Adonai-Shomo[11] Frederick T. Howland[12] 1861[12] Adventist Communal[12]
Adonism[13] Franz Sättler[13] 1925[13] Neopagan[13]
Adventures in Enlightenment, A Foundation[14]
Aetherius Society[15][16][17] George King[15] 1954[15] UFO-Christian[15]
African Church Incorporated[18] Jacob Kehinde Coker[19] 1901[19]
African Independent Churches, also known as African Initiated Churches[20]
African Theological Archministry, previously Order of Damballah Hwedo Ancestor Priests, Shango Temple, and Yoruba Temple[21] Walter Eugene King[22] 1973[22] Voodoo[22]
Agasha Temple of Wisdom[23] Richard Zenor[24] 1943[24] Spiritualism[24]
Agni Yoga Society[23][25] Nicholas Roerich[26] mid-1920s[26] Theosophical[26]
Ahmadiyya Movement[25][27][28] Mirza Ghulam Ahmad[29] 1889[29] Black Islam[29]
Aladura[30][31] Josiah Ositelu[32] 1930[32] Pentecostal[32]
Alamo Christian Foundation, also known as Alamo Christian Church, Consecrated, Alamo Christian Ministries, and Music Square Church[30][33][34] Tony Alamo; Susan Alamo[35] 1969[35] Fundamentalist; Communal[35]
Altruria[36] Edward Biron Payne[12] 1894[12] Christian Socialist Communal[12]
Amana Church Society, also known as Church of True Inspiration[37][38] Eberhard Gruber; Johann Rock[12] 1714[12] Communal [12]
American Buddhist Movement[39] 1980[40] Western Buddhism[40]
American Buddhist Society and Fellowship, Inc.[41] Robert Ernest Dickhoff[42] 1945[42] Tibetan Buddhism[42]
American World Patriarchs[43] Uladyslau Ryzy-Ryski[44] 1972[44] Eastern Liturgy[44]
Amica Temple of Radiance[45] Ivah Berg Whitten[26] 1932[26] Theosophical[26]
Ananda Marga[46][47][48][49] Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[50] 1955[50] Hinduism[50]
Ancient British Church in North America[51] Jonathan V. Zotique[52] Homosexually Oriented[52]
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis[46][53][54] H. Spencer Lewis[55] 1915[55] Rosicrucianism[55]
Ancient Teachings of the Masters, also known as ATOM[51] Darwin Gross[56] 1983[56] Sant Mat[56]
Anglo-Saxon Federation of America[57][58] Howard B. Rand[59] 1928[59] British Israelism[59]
Ansaaru Allah Community[60] As Siddid Al Imaan Al Haahi Al Mahdi[61] late 1960s[61] Black Islam[61]
Anthroposophy[57][62][63] Rudolf Steiner[64] 1912[64] Western Occultist[64]
Antiochian Catholic Church in America[65] Gordon Mar Peter[66] 1980s[66] Independent Catholic, Monophysite[66]
Antoinism[67] Louis-Joseph Antoine[67] 1910[67] Healing, Christian[67]
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean)[68] Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[69] 1906[69] European Free-Church[69]
Apostolic Christian Church of America[68] Samuel Heinrich Froehlich[69] 1830[69] European Free-Church[69]
Apostolic Church[70] Daniel Powell Williams[71] 1916[71] Pentecostal[71]
Apostolic Church of Christ (Pentecostal)[72] Johnnie Draft; Wallace Snow[73] 1969[73] Apostolic Pentecostal[73]
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God[74] William Thomas Phillips[75] 1920[75] Apostolic Pentecostal[75]
Arcane School[76] Alice and Foster Bailey[77] 1937[77] Alice Bailey Groups[77]
Arica School[78][79] Oscar Ichazo[80] 1968[80] Sufism[80]
Art of Living Foundation, also known as Association for Inner Growth and Ved Vignan Maha Vidya Preeth[81] Sri Sri Ravi Shankar[81] 1981[81] Hinduism[81]
Arya Samaj[82][83] Mul Shankara[81] 1875[81] Hinduism[81]
Aryan Nations, also known as Church of Jesus Christ Christian, Aryan Nations[84] Wesley Swift[85] late 1940s[85] British Israelism[85]
Ásatrú[86] Stephen McNallen[86] 1970s[86] Neo-pagan[86]
Assemblies of God[87] merger[88] 1914[88] Pentecostalism[88]
Assemblies of the Lord Jesus Christ[82] merger[89] 1952[89] Apostolic Pentecostal[89]
Assemblies of Yahweh[90][91] C.O. Dodd[92] 1937[92] Adventist; Sacred Name[92]
Assembly of Christian Soldiers[93] Jessie L. Thrift[94] 1971[94] Unclassified, Ku Klux Klan-based[94]
Assembly of Yahweh[90][91] Lorenzo Dow Snow
E. B. Adam[95]
1949[95] Adventist[95]
Association for Research and Enlightenment[93][96] Edgar Cayce[97] 1931[97] Occultist[97]
Association of Vineyard Churches[98] John Wimber[99] 1982[99] White Trinitarian Pentecostals[99]
Astara, Inc.[100][101] Robert and Earlyne Chaney[102] 1951[102] Occult Orders[102]
Aum Shinrikyo, also known as Aleph[103][104][105][106] Shoko Asahara[107] 1987[107] Japanese Buddhism[107]
Ausar Auset Society[108] R.A. Straughn[109] mid-1970s[109] Rosicrucianism[109]
Babism[110] Báb[110] 1844[110] Islam[110]
Bahá'í Faith[111][112] Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri[113] 1863[113] Middle Eastern, Baha'i[113]
Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship[114] Bawa Muhaiyaddeen[115] 1971[115] Sufism[115]
Bethel Ministerial Association[116] Albert Franklin Varnell[89] 1934[89] Apostolic Pentecostal[89]
Bible Presbyterian Church[117] Carl McIntire[118] 1938[118] Reformed Presbyterian[118]
Bible Way Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ[119][120] schism[89] 1957[89] Apostolic Pentecostal[89]
Brahma Kumaris[121][122][123] Dada Lekhraj[124] 1936[124] Hinduism[124]
Branch Davidian[125][126] Victor T. Houteff[127] 1930[127] Seventh Day Adventist[127]
Branhamism[128] William M. Branham[128] 1951[128] Oneness Pentecostal[128]
Breatharians also known as Inedia[129] Wiley Brooks[130] 1970s[130] Hinduism-influenced[130]
The Brethren (Jim Roberts group), also known as The Body of Christ and The Garbage Eaters[131] Jimmie T. Roberts[131] c. 1970[131] Unclassified Christian Churches[131]
British Israelism, also called Anglo-Israelism[132][133]
Bruderhof, also known as the Hutterian Brethren and Hutterian Society of Brothers[134] Eberhard Arnold[135] c. 1920[135] Communal[135]
Brunstad Christian Church[136]
Builders of the Adytum[137][138] Paul Foster Case[139] 1922[139] Ritual Magick[139]
Candomblé[140][141] 19th century[142] Syncretistic; Neo-African; Divination[142]
Cao Dai, also known as Dai Dao Tam Ky Pho Do[143][144] Ngô Văn Chiêu; Lê Văn Trung[142] 1919[142] Syncretistic; Vietnamese Millenarian[142]
Cargo cults[145][146] Syncretistic; Nativist[147]
CAUSA International[148] Sun Myung Moon[149] 1970[149] Other Psychic New Age Groups; Unification Movement[149]
Celestial Church of Christ[150] Samuel Oshoffa[151] 1947[151] Nativist Christian Pentecostal[151]
The Centers Network[152]
Chabad[146][153]
Charismatic Movement[154] 1950s[155]
Chen Tao, also called God's Salvation Church and God Saves the Earth Flying Saucer Foundation[156]
Cheondoism, also called Chendogyo[157]
Cherubim and Seraphim, also known as Sacred Cherubim and Seraphim Society and Eternal Sacred Order of Cherubim and Seraphim[158] Moses Orimolade Tunolase[159] c. 1925[159] African Pentecostal[159]
Christ Apostolic Church[160] T. O. Obadare[161] 1941[161] Pentecostal[161]
Christadelphians, also called Thomasites[162][163] John Thomas[164] 1844[165] Baptist family[165]
The Christian Community, also known as the Christian Community Church and Christengemeinschaft[166] Rudolf Steiner
Friedrich Rittelmeyer[167]
1922[167] Anthroposophy[167]
Christian Identity[168][169] 1982[170] British Israelism[170]
Christian Reformed Church in North America[171] Gijsbert Haan[172] 1857[172] Reformed Presbyterian[172]
Christian Science[173][174] Mary Baker Eddy[175] 1876[175] Christian Science; Metaphysical[175]
Christian World Liberation Front, also known as the Spiritual Counterfeits Project[176] Jack Sparks; Fred Dyson; Pat Matrisciana[177] 1969[177] Christian Fundamentalist-Millenarian[177]
Church of All Worlds[178][179] Tim Zell; Lance Christie[180] 1962[180] Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[180]
Church of Aphrodite[178] Gleb Botkin[181] 1939[181] Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[181]
Church of Bible Understanding[182][183] Stewart Traill[184] 1971[184] Adventist; Fundamentalist[184]
Church of Daniel's Band[185] 1893[186] Non-Episcopal Methodism[186]
Church of God in Christ[187] Charles H. Mason[188] 1908[188] Pentecostal[188]
Church of God in Christ, Mennonite[187][189] John Holdeman[189] c. 1870[189] German Mennonite[189]
The Church of God (Jerusalem Acres)[187] Grady R. Kent[190] 1957[190] White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[190]
Church of God Mountain Assembly[191] J.H. Parks, Steve N. Bryant, Tom Moses, William O. Douglas 1906[190] White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[190]
Church of God of Prophecy[192] Ambrose Tomlinson[193] 1903[193] White Trinitarian Holiness Pentecostal[193]
Church of Israel[194] Dan Gayman[195] 1974[195] British Israelism[195]
Church of Satan[196] Anton LaVey[197] 1966[197] Satanism[197]
Church of the Lamb of God[198] Ervil LeBaron[199] 1970[199] Latter-day Saints; Polygamy Practicing[199]
Church of the Living Word, also known as The Walk[200] John Robert Stevens[201] 1954[201] Fundamentalist; Occultist[201]
Church of the Lord (Aladura)[202] Josiah Ositelu[32] 1930[32] Pentecostal Family[32]
Church of World Messianity[203][204] Mokichi Okada[205] 1934[205] Shintoism[205]
Church Universal and Triumphant[206][207] Mark Prophet; Elizabeth Clare (Wolf) Prophet[208] 1958[208] Theosophical; Occultist[208]
Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles, also known as CARP[209] Sun Myung Moon[210][210] 1955[210] Unification Church[210]
Commandment Keepers: Holy Church of the Living God[211][212] Arnold Josiah Ford[213] 1924[213] Black Judaism[213]
Community Chapel and Bible Training Center[214] Donald Lee Barnett[215] 1967[215] Latter Rain Pentecostal[215]
Community of Christ[216] Jason Briggs, Zenos Gurley, William Marks[217] 1860[217] Missouri Mormons[217]
Concerned Christians[218]
Confederate Nations of Israel[214] Alexander Joseph[219] 1978[219] Latter-day Saints; Polygamy Practicing[219]
Conservative Judaism[220][221] Sabato Morais, Marcus Jastrow, H. Pereira Mendes[222] 1887[222] Mainline Judaism[222]
A Course in Miracles[223][224] Helen Schucman
William Thetford[225]
1975[225] New Thought[225]
Covenant of the Goddess[112][226] merger[227] 1975[227] Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[227]
Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans[228][229] Margot Adler[227] 1987[227] Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[227]
The Covenant, the Sword, and the Arm of the Lord[230][231] James D. Ellison[85] mid-1970s[85] British Israelism[85]
Creativity[232] Ben Klassen[233] early-1970's Pantheism and Agnostic Atheism and White Racialism.[234]
Crossroads Movement[235] 1970s[236]
Cyberchurches[237]
Dalit Buddhist movement[238] Bhimrao Ramji Sakpal[239] 1956[240] Buddhism[241]
Dances of Universal Peace[242]
Dianic Wicca[243] merger[244] 1971[244] Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[244]
Eckankar[245] Paul Twitchell[246] 1971[246] Sant Mat[246]
Elan Vital (formerly Divine Light Mission)[122][247][248] Shri Hans Ji Maharaj[249] 1920s[249] Sant Mat[249]
Esoteric Nazism[250]
Eucharistic Catholic Church[251] Robert Clement[252] 1974[252] Homosexually Oriented[252]
Evangelical Methodist Church[251] J.H. Hamblen[253] 1946[253] Non-Episcopal Methodist[253]
Falun Gong[254] Li Hongzhi[255] 1992[255] Taoist[255]
Family International, previously known as the Children of God, the Family of Love and the Family[122][256][257] David Berg[256] 1968[256] Fundamentalist,[256] Jesus movement offshoot,[257] with countercultural and Evangelical beliefs[258]
Fellowship of Isis[259] Olivia Robertson[260] 1976[260] Magick Family[260]
Feraferia[261] Frederick Adams[261] 1967[261] Neopagan, Goddess[261]
Findhorn Foundation[262] Eileen Caddy; Peter Caddy; Alexis Edwards; Roger Benson[263] 1963[263] Christian-Anthroposophistical-Rosicrucian[263]
Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God of the Americas[262] W.E. Fuller[264] 1898[264] Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[264]
Followers of Christ[265] Marion Reece (or Riess)[265][266] late 19th century[265] Unclassified[265] Pentecostal [266]
Foundation for A Course In Miracles[267] Kenneth and Gloria Wapnick[268] 1983[268] Christian Science-Metaphysical; New Thought[268]
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis[269] Paschal Beverly Randolph[270] 1858[270] Rosicrucianism[270]
Freedomites[271]
Friends of the Western Buddhist Order (FWBO)[272] Sangharakshita (Dennis Lingwood) 1967[272] Buddhism
Fundamentalist Christianity[273]
General Assembly and Church of the First Born[274] 1927[275] White Trinitarian Pentecostal[275]
General Church of the New Jerusalem[274] schism[276] 1890[276] Swedeborgianism[276]
Ghost Dance[277]
Global Peace Festival[278] Hyun Jin Moon[279] 2007[278] Unification Church[278]
Grail Movement[280] Oskar Ernst Bernhardt[281] 1924[281] Spiritualist, Psychic and New Age; Channeling[281]
Hanuman Foundation[282] Richard Alpert (Ram Dass)[283] 1980[284] Hinduism[284]
Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy[285] Swami Rama[286] 1971[286] Hinduism[286]
"I AM" Activity[169] Guy Ballard[287] I AM Groups; Ascended Masters[287]
Independent Fundamental Churches of America[288] R. Lee Kirkland[289] 1922[289] Unaffiliated Fundamentalist[289]
Insight Meditation Society[290] Jack Kornfield, Sharon Salzberg, Joseph Goldstein[291] 1976[291] Theravada Buddhism[291]
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel[269] Aimee Semple McPherson[292] 1923[292] White Trinitarian Pentecostal[292]
International Community of Christ also known as Church of the Second Advent (CSA) and Jamilians[293] Eugene Douglas Savoy[293] 1972[293] New Age Occultist[293]
International Society for Krishna Consciousness[294] Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta[295] mid-1960s[295] Hinduism[295]
Jediism[296] 2000s[296] New Age[296]
Jehovah's Witnesses[297] Charles Taze Russell[298] 1870[298] Adventist; Bible Student Groups[298]
Jesus Army (also known as "Jesus Fellowship Church" and "Bugbrooke Jesus Fellowship")[299] Noel Stanton (split from Baptist Union)[300] 1977[300] Fundamentalist, Communal [300]
Jesus Movement[299][301] late 1960s[302] Fundamentalist[302]
Jews for Jesus[303] Moishe Rosen[304] 1970[304] Hebrew Christians; Fundamentalist[304]
John Frum[303] 1936[304] Syncretistic; Millenarian[304]
Kemetic Orthodoxy[305] Tamara Siuda[305] 1988[305] Kemetic[305]
Kerista[306] John Presmont[307] 1956[307] Communal—After 1960[307]
Konkokyo[308] Bunjiro Kawate[309] 1859[309] Shintoism[309]
Kripalu Center (Kirpalu)[308] Amrit Desai[310] 1966[310] Hinduism[310]
Lama Foundation[311] Steve Durkee[312] 1967[312] Communal—After 1960[312]
Landmark Education (formerly Erhard Seminars Training) also known as Forum and LEC[122][248] Werner Erhard[313] 1971[314] Human Potential Movement[314]
Latter Rain Movement[315] schism led by George Hawtin and Percy Hunt[316] 1946[316] Millenarian Pentecostal[316]
Laymen's Home Missionary Movement[315] Paul S. L. Johnson[317] c. 1920[317] Adventist; Bible Student Groups[317]
Lectorium Rosicrucianum[318] 1924[319] Rosicrucianism[319]
The Living Word Fellowship[320] John Robert Stevens[321] 1951[321] Latter Rain Pentecostals[321]
Local Church movement[322] Ni Shu-tsu (Watchman Nee)[323] 1920s[323] Independent Fundamentalist; Other Bible Students[323]
Love Family, also known as the Church of Jesus Christ at Armageddon and Love Israel[324] Paul Erdman[325] 1969[325] Communal[325]
Lucis Trust[326] Alice A. Bailey[327] 1923[327] Occultist; Theosophical[327]
Mahikari[328] Kotama Okada[329] 1959[329] Shintoism[329]
Maranatha Campus Ministries[330] Bob Weiner[331] 1972[331] Pentecostalism[331]
Mazdaznan[332] Otoman Zar-Adusht Ha'nish[333] 1902[333] Zoroastrianism[333]
Meher Baba followers[248] Merwan Sheriar Irani[333] 1921[333] Zoroastrianism[333]
Messianic Judaism[334]
Mita Congregation[335] Juanita García Peraza[92] 1940[92] Deliverance Pentecostal[92]
Moody Church[335] Dwight L. Moody[336] 1864[336] Fundamentalist and Evangelical Churches[336]
Moorish Science Temple of America[337] Timothy Drew[338] 1925[338] Black Islam[338]
Moral Re-Armament[339] Frank N. D. Buchman[340] 1921[340]
Mormonism[341] Joseph Smith, Jr.[342] 1830[342] Latter-day Saints
Movement of Spiritual Inner Awareness[343] John-Roger Hinkins[56] 1971[56] Sant Mat[56]
Namdhari[344] Balak Singh[345] mid-19th century[345] Sikhism[345]
Nation of Islam[346] Elijah Muhammad[347] mid-1930s[347] Black Muslims[347]
Nation of Yahweh[348][349] Hulon Mitchell, Jr.[350] 1970s[350] Black Judaism[350]
National Spiritualist Association of Churches[351] Harrison D Barrett, James M. Peebles, Cora L. Richmond[352] 1893[352] Spiritualism[352]
Native American Church[353] 1906[354] Drug-related Groups[354]
New Apostolic Church[355] Heinrich Geyer[356] 1863[356] Unclassified Christian Churches[356]
New Kadampa Tradition[357] Geshe Kelsang Gyatso[358] mid-1970s[358] Tibetan Buddhism[358]
New Reformed Orthodox Order of the Golden Dawn[359] 1969[360] Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism[360]
New Thought[361] Phineas Parkhurst Quimby[362] mid-19th century[362] Metaphysical[362]
Odinism[363] Orestes Brownson[363] 1848 [363] Neo-paganism[363]
Oomoto[364] Mrs. Nao Deguchi[365] 1899[365] Millenarian Shintoism[365]
Open Bible Standard Churches[366] merger[367] 1935[367] White Trinitarian Pentecostals[367]
Opus Dei[122][368][369][370][371][372][373] Saint Josemaría Escrivá de Balaguer[368] 1928[368] Roman Catholic[368]
Ordo Templi Orientis[374] Carl Kellner;[374][375] Theodor Reuss[375] 1895;[374] 1906[375] Ritual Magick[375]
Pentecostal Church of God[376] 1919[377] Pentecostalism[377]
Pentecostalism[378]
Peoples Temple[379][380] Jim Jones[381] 1955[381] Other Psychic, New Age Groups[381]
Philosophical Research Society[382] Manly Palmer Hall[383] 1934[383] Occult Orders[383]
Pilgrims of Arès[384] Michel Potay[384] 1974[384]
Plymouth Brethren[385][386] John Nelson Darby[387] 1830[387] Millenarian[387]
Potter's House also known as Chritian Fellowship Ministries (CFM), The Door, Victory Chapel, Christian Center, Crossroads Chapel, etc.[283] Wayman Mitchell[283] 1970[283] Pentecostalism[283]
Radha Soami Satsang Beas[388] Seth Shiv Dayal Singh[389] 1861[389] Sant Mat[389]
Raëlism[388] Claude Vorilhon (Rael)[390] 1973[390] Flying Saucer Groups[390]
Rainbow Family[391] Barry Adams[392] late-1960s[392] Communal—After 1960[392]
Rajneesh movement[393] Rajneesh Chandra Mohan[394] 1966[394] Eastern Family[394]
Rama computer cult[395]
Rastafari[396][397] Leonard Howell, Joseph Hibbert, Archibald Dunkley, Robert Hinds[398] 1935[398] Black Judaism[398]
Reformed Druids of North America[399] 1960s[400] Neo-Paganism[400]
Religious Science[401] Ernest Holmes[402] 1948[402] New Thought[402]
Risshō Kōsei Kai[403] Nikkyo Niwano and Myoko Naganuma[404] 1938 [404] Nichiren Buddhist[404]
Rosicrucian Fellowship[405] Carl Louis von Grasshof[406] 1909[406] Rosicrucianism[406]
Sacred Name Movement[407]
Sahaja Yoga[408] Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi[409] 1970[409] Hinduism[409]
Saiva Siddhanta Church[407] Subramuniy[409] 1957[409] Hinduism[409]
The Salvation Army[410] William Booth[411] 1865[411] Nineteenth Century Holiness[411]
Sant Nirankari Mission[412]
Sawan Kirpal Ruhani Mission[413] schism[414] mid-1970s[414] Sant Mat[414]
Scientology[122][415][416][417] L. Ron Hubbard[418] 1955[418] Other Psychic, New Age Groups[418]
Self-Realization Fellowship[419] Paramahansa Yogananda[420] 1935[420] Hinduism[420]
Semitic Neopaganism[421] Raphael Patai[421] 1960s[421] Neo-paganism, Feminism[421]
Seventh-day Adventist Church[422] Ellen G. White[423] 1860[423] Seventh Day Adventists[423]
Seventh-day Adventist Reform Movement[424] schism[425] 1925[425] Seventh Day Adventists[425]
Shakers[426] Ann Lee[427] 1750s[427] Communal—Before 1960[427]
Shepherd's Rod, also known as the Davidian Seventh-day Adventist Association[428] Victor T. Houteff[429] 1935[429] Seventh Day Adventists[429]
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers[430] John J. Higgins, Jr.[431] 1969[431] Communal—After 1960[431]
Shinnyo-en[432] Shinjo Ito and Tomoji Ito[433] 1936[433] Japanese Buddhism[433]
Shinreikyo[430] Kanichi Otsuka[329] post–World War II[329] Shintoism[329]
Shri Ram Chandra Mission[434] Shri Ram Chandraji Maharaj[434] 1945[434] Hinduism[434]
Sivananda Yoga Vedanta Centres[435] Kuppuswami Iyer[436] 1935[436] Hinduism[436]
Soka Gakkai International[437][438] Tsunesaburo Makiguchi[439] 1930[439] Nichiren Buddhism[439]
Subud[440] Muhammed Subud[441] 1933[441] Sufism[441]
Sufi Ruhaniat International[440] Samuel L. Lewis[442] 1968[442] Sufism[442]
Sukyo Mahikari[206] Sekiguchi Sakae[443] 1978[443] Mahikari Syncretistic[443]
Summum[206] Claude Rex Nowell[444] 1975[444] Unclassified Christian Churches[444]
Tenrikyo[445] Miki Nakayama[446] 1838[446] Shintoism[446]
Toronto Blessing[447] Randy Clark[448] 1994[448] Pentecostalism[448]
Transcendental Meditation[449] Brahmananda Saraswati (Guru Dev), Maharishi Mahesh Yogi[450] 1958[450] Hinduism[450]
True Buddha School[451] Lu Sheng-yen[451] Late 1980s Tibetan Buddhism/Taoism[451]
Twelve Tribes[452] Gene and Marsha Spriggs[453] 1972[453] Communal—After 1960[453]
Two by Twos, also known as Cooneyites, Christian Conventions, the Workers and Friends, the Truth, etc.[454] William Irvine[455] 1897[456] Independent fundamentalist family[457]
Umbanda[458] Zélio Fernandino de Moraes[459] 1920[459] Spiritism[459]
Unification Church[460] Sun Myung Moon[461] 1954[461] Millenarian; Pentecostal; Syncretistic[461]
Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations[462] 1979[463] Fundamentalist and Evangelical Churches[463]
Unitarian Universalism [464] merger[465] 1961[465] Unitarian Universalism[465]
United Holy Church of America[466] Isaac Cheshier[467] 1900[467] Black Trinitarian Pentecostal[467]
United House of Prayer for All People[468] Marcelino Manoel de Graca[469] 1925[469] African American Pentecostal[469]
United Israel World Union[470] David Horowitz[471] 1944[471] Other Jewish Groups[471]
United Lodge of Theosophists[472] Robert Crosbie[473] 1909[473] Theosophy[473]
United Pentecostal Church International[474] merger[475] 1945[475] Apostolic Pentecostals[475]
Unity Church[476] Charles Fillmore[477] 1903[477] New Thought[477]
Universal Great Brotherhood[478] Serge Raynaud de la Ferriere[479] late 1940s[479] Other Theosophical Groups[479]
Universal Life Church[480] Kirby Hensley[481] 1962[481] Liberal Family[481]
Universal White Brotherhood[482] Peter Deunov[483] 1900[483] Other Theosophical Groups[483]
Urantia[484] William S. Sadler[484] 1934[484] UFO[484]
Vajradhatu[485] Chögyam Trungpa[486] 1973[486] Tibetan Buddhism[486]
Vedanta Society[487] Swami Vivekananda[488] 1894[488] Hinduism[488]
Volunteers of America[98] Ballington Booth and Maud Booth[489] 1896[489] Nineteenth Century Holiness[489]
The Way International[490] Victor Paul Wierwille[491] 1942[491] Independent fundamentalist family[491]
White Eagle Lodge[492] Lady Elizabeth Carey[493] 1943[493] Other Theosophical Groups[493]
Wicca[494] Gerald Gardner[495] c. 1949[495] Occultist[495]
Women's Federation for World Peace[496] Hak Ja Han[496] 1992[496] Unification Church[496]
The Word Foundation[497] Harold W. Percival[498] c. 1904[498] Theosophy[498]
Zion's Order, Inc.[499] Dr. Merle Kilgore[500] 1938[500] Utah Mormons[500]

See also

Notes

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  18. ^ Chryssides 2001, p. 26.
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