- Jesus movement
The Jesus movement was the major
Christianelement within the hippie counterculture, or, conversely, the major hippie element within some strands of Protestantism. Members of the movement were called "Jesus people", or " Jesus freaks". The movement arose on the West Coast of the United Statesin the late 1960s and early 1970s and spread primarily through North Americaand Europe, before dying out by the early 1980s. The Jesus movement left a legacy of various denominations and other Christian organizations, and had an impact on both the development of the contemporary Christian rightand the Christian left, as well as Jesus music, which greatly influenced contemporary Christian music. The movement itself helped to create various musical subgenres such as Christian rockand Christian metal.
The terms "Jesus movement" and "Jesus people" were coined by
Duane Pedersonin his writings for the Hollywood Free Paper. The term Jesus freakwas originally a pejorativelabel imposed on the group by non-Christian hippies, but members of the Jesus movement reclaimed the phrase as a positive self-identifier.
Though still a part of the broader hippie movement, the Jesus movement was partly a reaction against the counterculture from which it originated. Some people became disenchanted with the
status quoand became hippies. Later, some of these people became disenchanted with the hippie lifestyleand became "Jesus people". [Larry Eskridge, "Jesus People" in Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley, David B. Barrett, "Encyclopedia of Christianity" "The beginnings of the Jesus People movement can be traced to the San Francisco Bay area, where in 1965 a group of young bohemian converts began to gather within John MacDonald's First Baptist Church in Mill Valley, California."] The Jesus movement kept many of the mannerisms and styles of the hippies, but changed the cultural content to reflect their newfound religion. For example, the Jesus people gave hippie slanga Christian spin: " free love", instead of designating a rejection of traditional morality regarding sex, became the free ( agape) love of Godand people;Fact|date=February 2007 phrases like "One Way" supplanted the focus on the individual with a focus on God, and; "Just Drop Jesus" replaced "dropping" acid or being "high on Jesus". It also became quite common to speak of "Truckin' with Jesus" in place of the Biblical term "Walking with the Lord." When inquiring of someone's well-being, it would often be said, "Oh, he's TRUCKIN'" meaning that he is doing really well.
The movement as a whole was characterized by a resurgence of brotherly love and kindness during an era in which society was being torn apart by the
Vietnam War, venereal diseaseand other social maladies of the day.
Beliefs and practices
The Jesus movement was restorationist in
theology, seeking to return to the original life of the early Christians. As a result, Jesus people often viewed churches, especially those in the United States, as apostate, and took a decidedly anti-American political stance in general. The theology of the Jesus movement also called for a return to simple living, and asceticismin some cases. The Jesus people had a strong belief in miracles, signs and wonders, faith healing, spiritual possessionand exorcism.Fact|date=June 2008 For example, a miracle-filled revival at Asbury Collegein 1970 grabbed the attention of the secular news media and became known nation-wide, [ [http://forerunner.com/asbury/asbury2006.html Revival Breaks Out at Asbury College in 2006 ] ] as told in the book "One Divine Movement". [ [http://www.francisasburysociety.com/booksprayer.htm Prayer Preaching Healing ] ]
The movement tended towards strong
evangelismand millennialism. The group's theology rejected any middle ground. What they lacked in theological depth, Jesus people made up for in zealfor Christ and love of others. Some of the most read books by those within the movement included Ron Sider's " Rich Christians in an Age of Hunger" and Hal Lindsey's " The Late Great Planet Earth". [Larry Eskridge, "Jesus People" in Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley, David B. Barrett, "Encyclopedia of Christianity" "... the popularity of books like Hal Lindsey's "Late Great Planet Earth" (1970) mirrored hippie perceptions of the apocalyptic direction of modern America"]
Perhaps the most illustrative aspect of the Jesus movement was its communal aspect. Many Jesus People lived in communes. Though there were some groups, such as the
Calvary Chapelmovement, which did not live in communes, these remained more on the fringes of the Jesus movement. Within the commune, the group became more important than the individual, and communal sharing of possessions was the norm. One example would be Graham Pulkingham's community described in "They Left Their Nets". Some of the communes became highly authoritarian.
Growth and Decline
Secular and Christian media exposure in 1971 and 1972 caused the Jesus movement to explode across the United States, attracting evangelical youth eager to identify with the movement. The Shiloh communities and the
Children of Godattracted many new recruits, while many other communes and fellowships sprang up.
Perhaps the height of the Jesus movement was in the week-long gathering in
Dallas, Texasknown as Explo '72, which attracted 80,000 young people and brought the hippies of the Jesus movement together with young people from traditional, Christian families and churches. The event was organized by the very traditional Campus Crusade for Christand involved such traditional leaders as Bill Brightand Billy Graham. Many of the young Jesus People attending Explo '72 discovered for the first time these and other traditional avenues of Christian worship and experience.
Although Explo '72 marked the highwater mark of media interest, the Jesus movement continued at a grass roots level until well into the late 1970s. The decline has been attributed partly to the lifestyle decisions made by the original adherents as they grew older, but perhaps more significant were the changes in the youth culture towards a more materialistic society.
Although the Jesus movement lasted no more than a decade (except for the
Jesus People USAwhich continues to exist in Chicago), its continuing influence was profound. Thousands of converts moved into leadership positions in churches and parachurch organisations. The informality of the Jesus movement's music and worship affected almost all evangelical churches. Some of the fastest growing US denominations of the late 20th century, such as Calvary Chapel, Hope Churchand the Vineyard Churches, trace their roots directly back to the Jesus movement, as do parachurch organisations like Jews for Jesusas well as the multi-million dollar contemporary Christian music industry. Perhaps the most significant and lasting influence however, was the growth of an emerging strand within evangelical Christianity that appealed to the contemporary youth culture.
There has been a long legacy of Christian music connected to the Jesus movement. Jesus music, also known as gospel beat music in the UK, primarily began when some hippie and street musicians of the late 1960s and early 1970s converted to Christianity. They continued to play the same style of music they had played previously, but began to write lyrics with a Christian message. Many music groups developed out of this, and some became leaders within the Jesus movement, most notably
Barry McGuire, Love Song, Second Chapter of Acts, All Saved Freak Band, Servant, Petra, Resurrection Band, Phil Keaggy, Randy Stonehill, Randy Matthews, Andraé Crouch (and the Disciples), the late Keith Greenand Larry Norman. The Joyful NoiseBand traveled with a Christian community throughout the U.S. & Europe, performing in festivals held underneath giant tents. In the UK, Malcolm and Alwynwere the most notable agents of the gospel beat.According to "The Jesus People: Old-Time Religion in the Age of Aquarius" by Enroth, Ericson, and Peters, the Reverend Chuck Smith of Calvary Chapel in Costa Mesa, California founded the first Christian rock label when he launched the Maranatha Musiclabel as an outlet for the Jesus music bands performing at Calvary worship services.
Belmont Church Of Christ
Nashville saw a tremendous resurgence of interest in Jesus among the hippies, the street people and the unchurched college students of Music City in the early 1970s. It began independently of the other Jesus Movement oases of the day, most of them being on the USA West Coast. In 1971 a young pastor was ejected from a local college after ministering to some students implicated in a drug seizure on campus. Rev. Don Finto was called to an ailing old inner city church on
Music Rowbetween the public housing and several universities - Peabody, Vanderbilt and Belmont Collegeetc. Back in the summer of 1971, the roll had dropped to about 75 elderly members. The church had mainstream roots, but all that changed when the long-hairs showed up in shorts and with bare feet. When seating ran out, they sat in the window sills or on the stage. With a vision for reaching out in love to hurting youth, Don and his friends were dedicated to turning the city upside down. It was not uncommon to find them walking the worst parts of Lower Broadway bringing good news to the hookers and addicts. Within a year or two the fellowship grew to hundreds and the famous Koinonia Coffee House was opened by Bob And Peggy Hughey. Koinonia had been an old "Five and Dime" store on Music Squarethat had closed down. The east coast Christian Musicexploded on the scene, much of it started out of concerts in that old barnwood paneled Bookstore crammed to the walls with cross-legged youngsters on the shag rug every Friday and Saturday night. The house band was Dogwood, and many a famous musician regularly hit the stage, including Amy Grant, Brown Bannister, Chris Christian, Don Francisco, Fireworks, Annie and Steve Chapman, Clay In The Potter's Hand and many others.
Unlike many other Christian movements, there was no single leader or figurehead of the Jesus movement. Some of the larger names include
Duane Pederson, Jack Sparks, who led the Christian World Liberation Front, as well as Lonnie Frisbee, who worked for a time along with Chuck Smith, founder of the Calvary Chapelmovement. Frisbee was a key evangelist during the growth of the Calvary churches; Smith was one of the few pastors who welcomed in the Jesus Freaks, and thus allowed for the dramatic future growth of his affiliate church network. Sparks and Pederson later became priests in the Eastern Orthodox Church. The international Potter's House Church (CFM) was birthed out of this movement.
Children of God
Another early leader was
Linda Meissner, who formed the Jesus People Armyin Seattle. She later joined her group with the Children of God, not discovering until later the controversial practices of that group.
Christ Is The Answer
Beginning in 1971,
Christ Is The Answertook the concept of Christian community in a unique direction. Originally comprised of former hippies, musicians, and artists, this mobile group featured Christian rock music, theatrical presentations, and discipleship preaching underneath a giant tent (a la Jesus Christ Superstarand Godspell). Their traveling festivals were held in cities throughout the U.S. & Europe. CITA's New Mannanational street paper was cutting-edge with its challenging editorial content, relevant cartoons, and observations about mainstream society and church life. Evangelistic outreach teams were sent to various nations throughout the world, many of which are still in operation today.
Fellowship House Church
Steve Freeman and others opened the Kingdom Come Christian Coffee House in
Greenville, South Carolina, in 1971. Each Saturday night hippies and Jesus People gathered for worship, songs and fellowship. In 1972 several people who were highly involved in the Kingdom Come graduated from high schools and dispersed in several colleges and universities throughout the Southeastern United States. Each one started a Fellowship House Church. Maynard Pittendreighestablished one at Erskine College, Jay Holmesestablished one at the University of South Carolina, Steve Freemanestablished on at Furman University, etc. Leadership moved from Steve Freeman to a charismatic preacher named Erskine Holt, a self-described apostle of the movement who lived in Florida. By 1973 nearly every campus throughout Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia had Fellowship House Churches. These generally died out by 1977, with many of the members moving to more traditional campus ministries. Many, however, moved onto similar ministry in such organizations as Calvary Chapel.
His Young People
A short lived group founded during the Jesus Movement was His Young People. Started as a home Bible study group in the winter of 1971 by former Foursquare Preacher Dave Compton, His Young People grew to 300-400 youth meeting 4 times a week at Dave Compton's Diamond Bar, California three-car garage. The group was abruptly ended in early 1972 when Dave Compton met an untimely death at the age of 34 when tossed from a horse. Many of the new converts at His Young People came out of the hippie/rock 'n roll/drug culture of the early 70's. The Children of God, a group of Brethren Christian believers and others tried to take over the group after Dave Compton's death but most of the group either filtered out, went to Christian Chapel of Walnut Valley or joined Calvary Chapel of Costa Mesa (Pastor Chuck Smith). A number of the His Young People converts went on to become church leaders and pastors.
In the UK, the
Jesus Armywas among the groups most influenced by the Jesus movement, embracing (former) hippies, bikers and drug addicts, among others. Many of the church adopted a communal lifestyle, which continues to this day, with over 600 living in Christian Community.
Jesus People USA
One of Meissner's disciples was
Jim Palosaari, who, along with his wife, Sue, started a number of Christian communes, discipleshipschools (to develop theological depth), and rock bands. One group toured through Europe, developing Christian music and drama, while some went off to start Christ is the Answer. Another eventually became Jesus People USA(JPUSA), the largest and most enduring of the Jesus people communes.
hiloh Youth Revival Centers
Shiloh Youth Revival Centersmovement was the largest Jesus People communal movement in the United States in the 1970s. Founded by John Higgins in 1968 as a small communal house - House of Miracles - in Costa Mesa, CA, the movement quickly grew to a very large movement catering mostly to disaffected college-age youth. There were over 100,000 people involved and 175 communal houses established during its lifespan. Two years after the movement's founding, Higgins and some of the core members of the movement bought 90 acres of land near Dexter, Oregonand built a new headquarters which they called "The Land". The movement grew quickly until the mid-1970s when increasing competition and high turn-over rates likely slowed its growth.
In the spring of 1978 the board members of the fledgling religion forced the resignation of the charismatic leader of the movement, John Higgins, alleging the improper use of the growing funds of the movement. Rather than fight the board's recommendations, Higgins stepped down and the movement quickly dissolved. Higgins is currently the Pastor of Calvary Chapel in
Tempe, Arizona. Several individuals remained on the Oregon property as caretakers, but an eventual legal battle with the IRS over the charitable status of incomes earned by members during the movements existence ultimately led to the complete dissolution and liquidation of the movement and its assets in 1989.
While membership in the movement was voluntary, it was also communal and required substantial commitment. To join the movement, members were expected to make a commitment to Jesus Christ and, in return, they would be given free food, clothes, shelter, and medical care. All members worked together for the support of the ministry, so all wages went into the common fund.
* Di Sabatino, David. "The Jesus People Movement: An Annotated Bibliography and General Resource" (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999). [http://www.jesuspeoplemovement.com]
* Ronald M. Enroth, Edward E. Ericson and C. Breckinridge Peters, "The Jesus People: Old-Time Religion in the Age of Aquarius" (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans, 1972). ISBN 0-8028-1443-3
* Larry Eskridge, "Jesus People" in Erwin Fahlbusch, Geoffrey William Bromiley, David B. Barrett, "Encyclopedia of Christianity" (Grand Rapids:William B. Eerdmans, 1999). ISBN 0-802-82415-3
* Donald Heinz, "The Christian World Liberation Front," in "The New Religious Consciousness", Charles Y. Glock and
Robert N. Bellah, eds. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1976) pp. 143-161. ISBN 0-520-03083-4
* Edward E. Plowman, "The Jesus Movement" (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1972). ISBN 0-340-16125-6
* Young, Shawn David, M.A., Hippies, Jesus Freaks, and Music (Ann Arbor: Xanedu/Copley Original Works, 2005). ISBN 1-59399-201-7
*"Frisbee: The Life And Death Of a Hippie Preacher" A Jester Media production. Produced, directed by David Di Sabatino. [http://www.lonniefrisbee.com lonniefrisbee.com]
Children of God
Jesus Freaks (youth movement)
Potter's House Christian Fellowship
Shiloh Youth Revival Centers
* [http://www.lonniefrisbee.com/ Lonnie Frisbee]
* [http://video.yahoo.com/video/play?p=Lonnie+Frisbee&ei=UTF-8&b=1&oid=7b130ee5f0f6760e&rurl=www.one-way.org Jesus movement Video Mpeg ]
* [http://www.jesus.org.uk Jesus Army]
* [http://www.jpusa.org JPUSA]
* [http://www.one-way.org/jesusmusic/index.html One-Way.org]
* [http://www.one-way.org/jesusmovement/index.html Remembering the Jesus Movement]
* [http://www.jesuspeoplemovement.com/home.html The Jesus People Movement]
* [http://www.geocities.com/abdulmuhib Palosaari's Page]
* [http://www.hollywoodfreepaper.org Hollywood Free Paper and Movement history]
* [http://www.zoecarnate.com/#hippie Jesus Movements Past and Present]
* [http://www.hippiechristian.org HippieChristian.org]
* [http://www.jesusfreak.com JesusFreak.com]
* [http://www.jrothraministries.com/pdfdocs/JesusRevolution.pdf The Jesus Revolution]
* [http://www.wordjourney.com WordJourney.com]
* [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,905202,00.html Time Magazine June, 1971: "The New Rebel Cry: Jesus Is Coming!"]
* [http://members.tripod.com/shiloh_youth_revival/ Shiloh Youth Revival Centers]
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