Sun Myung Moon

Sun Myung Moon
Sun Myung Moon

Sun Myung Moon and Hak Ja Han
Korean name
Hangul 문선명
Revised Romanization Mun Seon-myeong
McCune–Reischauer Mun Sŏnmyŏng
Birth name
Hangul 문용명
Hanja 文龍明
Revised Romanization Mun Yong-myeong
McCune–Reischauer Mun Yongmyŏng
Japanese name:
Emoto Ryūmei (?)

Sun Myung Moon (born January 6, 1920) is the Korean founder and leader of the worldwide Unification Church. He is also the founder of many other organizations and projects. One of the best-known of these is News World Communications, an international media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times and other newspapers,[1] and the Tongil Group, a South Korean business group or chaebol with business interests world-wide. Moon and his wife Hak Ja Han are also famous for holding blessing ceremonies, often referred to as "mass weddings".

Moon has claimed, and it is generally believed by Unification Church members, that he is the Messiah and the Second Coming of Christ and is fulfilling Jesus' unfinished mission.[2][3] He has been among the most controversial modern religious leaders, both for his religious beliefs and for his social and political activism.[4]


Name and titles

Moon was born Mun Yong Myong. In 1953 he changed this to Mun Son-myong (also spelled Moon Sun Myung). In a speech Moon explained that the hanja for moon (문, 文), his surname, means "word" or "literature" in Korean. The character sun (선, 鮮), composed of "fish" and "lamb" (symbols of Christianity), means "fresh." The character myung (명, 明), composed of "sun" and "moon", (which was part of his given name), means "bright." Together, sun-myung means "make clear." So the full name can be taken to mean "the word made clear." Moon concluded: "My name is prophetic." [5]

In the English-speaking world, Moon is often referred to as Reverend Moon by Unification Church members, the general public, and the media. Unification Church members most often call him Father or True Father. He is also sometimes called Father Moon. Similar titles are used for his wife: Mother, True Mother, or Mother Moon. Dr. Moon has also occasionally been used, especially in connection with the Universal Peace Federation, because Moon received an honorary doctorate from the Shaw Divinity School of Shaw University.

Early life and education

Moon was born in 1920 in modern-day Sangsa-ri (上思里, lit. "high-thought village"), Deogun-myon, Jeongju-gun, North P'yŏng'an Province, North Korea. His birthday was recorded as January 6 by the traditional lunar calendar (February 25, 1920, according to the Gregorian Calendar).[6][7] Korea was then under Japanese rule. He is one of thirteen children and the second son to Kyung-gye Kim, a homemaker, and Kyung-yoo Moon, a scholar. During his childhood, Moon was heavily affected by his elder brother Yong-Su Moon's deep faith. Moon and his family went into bankruptcy when his grandfather's elder brother, Rev. Yunguk Moon, gave most of the family money to an independence movement from Japan.[8]

In Moon's family, there was a tradition in the form of a superstitious belief that held that if the second son was to receive a Western-style education, he would die early. As a result of this, Moon received Confucian-style elementary and middle school education, not receiving his first Western-style education until he was 14 years old.[9] Previously, Moon's family followed traditional Confucianist beliefs; when he was around 10 years old, they converted to Christianity and joined the Presbyterian Church, where he taught Sunday school.[10] On April 17, 1935, when Moon was 15, he said that he had a vision of Jesus while praying atop a small mountain. He said that Jesus asked him to complete the unfinished task of establishing God's kingdom on Earth and bring peace to the world. Three years later, Moon criticized Japanese rule over Korea and Japanese education in his high school graduation ceremony speech, which made him a focus of police officers.[11]

Moon attended a boys' boarding school in Seoul for his high school years. Later, he briefly lived in Japan and studied electrical engineering at Waseda Advanced Engineering School. During this time, he studied the Bible and developed his own interpretation of it.


After the end of World War II Moon returned to Korea and began preaching his message.[10] In November 1943, Moon married Sun Kil Choi. Their son, Sung Jin Moon, was born in 1946. They divorced in 1953 soon after Moon's release from prison in North Korea. Choi and Sung Jin Moon are now both members of the Unification Church.[12] Sung Jin Moon married in 1973 and now has three children.[13]

The beginnings of the church's official teachings, the Divine Principle, first saw written form as Wolli Wonbon in 1946. (The second, expanded version, Wolli Hesol, or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was not published until 1957.) The book lays out the core of Unification theology, and is held to have the status of scripture by believers.[14]

Following the format of systematic theology, the Divine Principle discusses: [1] God's purpose in creating human beings, [2] the fall of man, and [3] redemption - the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.[15] The Divine Principle is based on the Jewish and Christian Bible, but calls for the unity of all religions.[16] It draws parallels between Jewish history, as recorded in the Bible, and later Christian history; controversially saying that Jesus should have been accepted as the Messiah during his lifetime.[17]

Moon was arrested in 1946 by North Korean officials. The church states that the charges stemmed from the jealousy and resentment of other church pastors after parishioners stopped tithing to their old churches upon joining Moon's congregation. Police beat him and nearly killed him, but a teenage disciple named Won Pil Kim nursed him back to health. Moon was arrested again and was given a five-year sentence in 1948 to the Hŭngnam labor camp, where prisoners were routinely worked to death on short rations. Moon credits his survival to God's protection over his life and his habit of saving half his meager water ration for washing the toxic chemicals off of his skin after long days of work, bagging and loading chemical fertilizer with his bare hands.[citation needed]


After serving 34 months of his sentence, Moon was released in 1950, during the Korean War when United Nations troops advanced on the camp and the guards fled. He traveled south and built his first church from mud and cardboard boxes as a refugee in Pusan.[18]

In the early 1940s Moon had cooperated with Communist Party members in the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan. However after the war and his imprisonment he became an outspoken anti-communist.[19] He was a supporter of the World League for Freedom and Democracy, an international anti-communist organization based in Taiwan.[20] Financial support for Moon's early anti-communist activities came from Ryoichi Sasakawa, a Japanese billionaire and former war criminal.[21][22]

In 1954, Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity in Seoul (more often called the Unification Church).[23] The Unification Church expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955 had 30 church centers throughout the nation. In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to the United States of America.

In the early years of the Unification Church in South Korea, opponents of the church made unproven claims that Moon led his congregation as a sex cult. The church has vehemently rejected the claims, and a former member, South Korean pastor Sa Hun Shim, was convicted of criminal libel for publishing the allegation, in 1989, when a Seoul court held that this persistent rumor was without basis.[24]

In 1955, Moon himself had been arrested and acquitted of charges that the church calls fabricated.[25] And in 1960, in what Moon calls the "climax of persecution,"[26] fourteen students and two professors were dismissed from Ewha Women's University in Seoul on the grounds that their participation in the faith was immoral.[25]

Rumors of polyamory made it into early U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency and FBI reports monitoring the church. The intelligence cables claimed Moon conducted sex rituals among six married female disciples. (the "Six Marys") to prepare the way for the virgin who would marry Moon and become the "True Mother." Conservative journalist Carlton Sherwood has argued that the claims were invented by Christian missionaries. An FBI field report alleged that Moon's rites involved "having a nude women in a darkened room with MUN[sic] while he recited a long prayer and caressed their bodies. . . . At these meetings, MUN prepared special food and drink, and gathered his nude congregation into a darkened room where they all prayed for twenty-four hours."[25]

In 1993, an early disciple of Moon, Chung Hwa Pak, in his book Tragedy of the Six Marys, released in Japan as "Roku Maria no Higeki", charged that Moon practiced during the church's early years sex rituals with, among others, six married female disciples ("the six Marys"). Pak subsequently rejoined the church and recanted, publishing a 1995 confession, The Apostate, in which he said he had lied about Moon out of jealousy.[27][28]

Moon was still legally married to Choi when he began a relationship with his second (common law) wife Myung Hee Kim, who gave birth to a son named Hee Jin Moon (who was killed in a train accident). His church does not regard this as infidelity, because Sun Kil Choi is said to have already left her husband by that time. Korean divorce law in the 1950s made legal divorce difficult and drawn out, so much so that when Myung Hee Kim became pregnant she was sent to Japan to avoid legal complications for Moon. There she was either raped or seduced by a Japanese man, and due to shame did not return to Moon.[29]


Moon married his wife, Hak Ja Han, on April 11, 1960, soon after she turned 17 years old, in a ceremony called the Holy Marriage. Han, called Mother or True Mother by followers, and her husband together are referred to as the True Parents by members of the Unification Church. Han gave birth to 14 children; her second daughter died in infancy. The family is known in the church as the True Family and the children as the True Children. Shortly after their marriage, they presided over a Blessing Ceremony for 36 couples, the first of many such ceremonies.[30]

In 1962 Moon and other church members founded the Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea, a children's dance troop which presents traditional Korean folk dances. He said that this was to project a positive image of South Korea to the world.[31]


In 1971, Moon moved to the United States, which he had first visited in 1965. He remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea and maintained a residence in South Korea.[32]

In 1972 Moon founded the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences, a series of scientific conferences.[23][33] The first conference had 20 participants; while the largest conference, in Seoul, South Korea in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[34][35]

In 1974 Moon supported President Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal.[3] Church members prayed and fasted in support of Nixon for three days in front of the United States Capitol, under the motto: "Forgive, Love and Unite." On February 1, 1974 Nixon publicly thanked them for their support and officially received Moon. This brought Moon and the Unification Church into widespread public and media attention in the United States.[36]

In the 1970s Moon, who had seldom spoken to the general public before, gave a series of public speeches to audiences in the United States, Japan, and South Korea. The largest were a rally in 1975 against North Korean aggression in Seoul and a speech at an event organized by the Unification Church in Washington D.C. that also featured fireworks and music. These talks were highly visible and brought Moon into greater public attention.[12][37] In 1975, Moon sent out missionaries to 120 countries around the world.[18]

In 1977 and 1978 the Fraser Committee, a subcommittee of the United States Congress led by Congressman Donald M. Fraser conducted an investigation of South Korea – United States relations and produced a report that included 81 pages about Moon and what the subcommittee termed "the Moon Organization."[38] The Fraser committee found that the KCIA decided to use the Unification Church as a political tool within the United States and that some Unification Church members worked as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which acted as a propaganda campaign for the Republic of Korea.[39] The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal.[40]

The committee also reported that the Tongil Group, a business group owned by the Unification Church and then South Korea's 35th largest industrial conglomerate,[41] was involved in weapons manufacture and was an important defense contractor in South Korea. The report said: "It is involved in the production of M16 rifles, antiaircraft guns, and other weapons." Tongil's other enterprises include: Pharmaceuticals, tourism, publishing, ginseng and related products, real estate and building materials. The Tongil Group funds the Tongil Foundation which supports Unification Church projects including schools and the Little Angels Children’s Folk Ballet of Korea.[42][43]


In 1980 Moon asked church members to found CAUSA International as an anti-communist educational organization, based in New York.[44] In the 1980s it was active in 21 countries. In the United States it sponsored educational conferences for evangelical and fundamentalist Christian leaders [45] as well as seminars and conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists.[46] In 1986 it produced the anti-communist documentary film Nicaragua Was Our Home.[47]

In 1982 Moon sponsored the movie Inchon about the Korean War. It cost over 50 million dollars and was a critical and financial failure.[48][49][50][51]

In 1982 in the case United States vs. Sun Myung Moon, Moon was convicted by the U.S. government for filing false federal income tax returns and conspiracy. His conviction was upheld on appeal in a split decision. He was given a prison sentence and spent 18 months in the Federal Correctional Institution in Danbury, Connecticut. Many individuals, organizations and religious figures protested the charges, saying that they were unjust and threatened freedom of religion and free speech. Based on this case, reporter Carlton Sherwood wrote the book Inquisition: The Persecution and Prosecution of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon.

On January 2, 1984 Moon and Han's second son, Heung Jin Moon died in a vehicle accident in New York State.[52][53] Three months later his parents conducted a spiritual wedding ceremony between Heung Jin Moon and Hoon Sook Pak, daughter of church leader, Bo Hi Pak. He is officially regarded by the Unification Church to be the "king of the spirits" in heaven (ranking higher than Jesus).[54] After Heung Jin Moon's death, some church members claimed that they were channelling messages from his spirit.[55] In a 1988 a church member from Zimbabwe, named Kundioni, claimed to be the incarnation of Heung Jin Moon. His acts of violence against church members were a source of controversy within the church.[52] Heung Jin Moon is now believed by church members to be leading workshops in the spiritual world in which spirits of deceased persons are taught Unification Church teachings.[56][57][54][58]

In Washington D.C., Moon found common ground with strongly anti-communist leaders of the 1980s, including United States President Ronald Reagan. His international media conglomerate News World Communications, founded with Unification Church funds in 1976,[59] founded The Washington Times in 1982. By 1991, Moon said he spent about $1 billion on the paper[60] (by 2002 roughly $1.7 billion),[61] which he called "the instrument in spreading the truth about God to the world".[62]

In August 1985 the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire." Moon suggested the topic. In August 1987 the Unification Church student association CARP led a reported 300 demonstrators in Berlin calling for communist leaders to bring down the Berlin Wall.[12][63][64]


In April 1990 Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations under way in the Soviet Union. At the same time the Unification Church was expanding into formerly communist nations.[65] Massimo Introvigne, who has studied the Unification Church and other new religious movements, has said that after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon has made anti-communism much less of a priority.[12]

In the 1990s Moon's ownership of major business enterprises, including The Washington Times, the United Press International, and Pyeonghwa Motors was noted in the media. A small sampling of include computers and religious icons in Japan, seafood in Alaska, weapons and ginseng in Korea, huge tracts of land in South America, a recording studio and travel agency in Manhattan, a horse farm in Texas and a golf course in California.[66] In a 1992 letter to The New York Times, author Richard Quebedeaux, who had taken part in several Unification Church projects, criticized Moon's financial judgment by saying, "Mr. Moon may well be a good religious leader with high ideals, but he has also shown himself to be a poor businessman."[67]

In the mid-1990s, former U.S. President George H. W. Bush accepted millions of dollars from Moon's Women’s Federation for World Peace to speak on Moon's behalf around the world.[18] In 1994 the New York Times, in a review of a PBS Frontline documentary on the Unification Church, said that, "outside investigators and onetime insiders … give a picture of a theocratic powerhouse that is pouring foreign fortunes into conservative causes in the United States."[68] In 1998 the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram criticized Moon's "ultra-right leanings" and suggested a personal relationship with conservative Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[69]

In 1997 gay rights advocates criticized Moon based on comments he made in a speech to church members, in which he said: "What is the meaning of lesbians and homosexuals? That is the place where all different kinds of dung collect. We have to end that behavior. When this kind of dirty relationship is taking place between human beings, God cannot be happy," and referred to gay people as "dung-eating dogs."[70][71] He also said in 2007 that "free sex and homosexuality both are the madness of the lowest of the human race," and that God detests such behavior, while Satan lauds it.[72]

In 1998 Nansook Hong, whom Moon married to his son Hyo Jin Moon when he was 19 years old and she 15, published her autobiography, In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Family, which the New Yorker Magazine called Moon's "most damaging scandal".[2] . Hong says that the Moon and his family live a "lavish" lifestyle and that he is treated like a god.[58] The "tell-all memoir"[2] openly challenges Moon and his wife's role in church teachings as "True Parents". She told TIME Magazine: "Rev. Moon has been proclaiming that he has established his ideal family, and fulfilled his mission, and when I pinpointed that his family is just as dysfunctional as any other family - or more than most - then I think his theology falls apart."[73] For some Unification Church members, this book was a revealing portrait of the way Sun Myung Moon and his wife had raised their children, and caused a great deal of soul-searching.[74]

On October 28, 1999, Moon's son Young Jin Moon fell to his death from the 17th floor of a hotel in downtown Reno, Nevada, in what the coroner reported as a suicide.[75] His sister, Yeon Jin Moon, states that he developed depression and anxiety.[76] A spokesman for the Moon family asserted their position that they thought the death was not a suicide.[77] Young Jin Moon had finished two years of classes studying East Asian civilizations at Columbia University, and had wanted to study hotel management. At the time he had been married for two years.[78]


In 2000 Moon was criticized by conservative Christians for his sponsorship of a United Nations conference which proposed the formation of "a religious assembly, or council of religious representatives, within the structure of the United Nations." Religious movements represented at the summit were Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Shinto, Bahai, and Native American religions.[79] In the same year, he joined with Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan in sponsoring the Million Family March in Washington D.C., a follow-up event to the Million Man March held in 1995.[80] In January 2001 Moon sponsored President George W. Bush's Inaugural Prayer Luncheon for Unity and Renewal.[81] Later that year he presided over the wedding of now-excommunicated Roman Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and Maria Sung, a Korean acupuncturist.[82][83] In 2003 Moon sponsored the first Peace Cup international club football tournament.[84][85][86] George H. W. Bush's youngest son Neil Bush accompanied Moon on a speaking tour of Asian countries in 2005.[87]

Between 2002 and 2006, Moon and his wife were banned from entry into Germany and the other 14 Schengen treaty countries. The Netherlands and a few other Schengen states let Moon and his wife enter their countries in 2005. The ban has since been lifted in Germany and other countries as of 2007.[88] Statements by Moon about the Holocaust, that its victims were paying indemnity for the crucifixion of Jesus, were reported in a number of sources, including in the official record of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.[89] In 2003, Unification Church spokesperson and webmaster Damian Anderson defended Moon's statements against critics saying: ""The fact is that the Jewish people committed a grievous sin in rejecting the Lord, and the world is today committing a grievous sin in rejecting the Lord. I will not water down what Father said to please liberal constituencies within his own church." [90] Some commentators, including David G. Bromley, a sociologist and expert on new religious movements, have suggested that Moon's statements are a reason for the Unification Church being "considered anti-Semitic".[91][92][93] The Unification Church has also been criticized for saying that the First World War, the Second World War, the Holocaust, and the Cold War served as indemnity conditions to prepare the world for the establishment of the Kingdom of God.[94]

In 2004, at a March 23 ceremony in the Dirksen Senate Office Building, in Washington D.C. Moon crowned himself with what was called the "Crown of Peace."[95][96] Law makers who attended included Senator Mark Dayton (D-Minn.), Representatives Roscoe Bartlett (R-Md.) and Elijah Cummings (D-Md.) , as well as former Representative Walter Fauntroy (D-D.C.) . Key organizers of the event included George Augustus Stallings, Jr., a controversial former Roman Catholic priest who had been married by Moon, and Michael Jenkins, the president of the Unification Church of the United States at that time.[95] On June 27, 2004 the New York Times editorial board criticized the ceremony and the participation of members of Congress.[96] The Associated Press reported that "Many of the congressional members in attendance have said they felt misled into making an appearance that later was used to promote Moon's Unification Church."[97] Some stated that they didn't expect a coronation but thought the awards dinner was only to honor activists from their home states as Ambassadors for Peace.[98]

On September 12, 2005, at the age of 85, Moon inaugurated the Universal Peace Federation with a 120-city world speaking tour.[99] At each city, Moon delivered his speech titled "God's Ideal Family - the Model for World Peace". In April 2008, Moon appointed his youngest son Hyung Jin Moon to be the new leader of the Unification Church and the worldwide Unification Movement, saying, "I hope everyone helps him so that he may fulfill his duty as the successor of the True Parents."[100]

On July 19, 2008, Moon, his wife, and 14 others were slightly injured when their Sikorsky S-92 helicopter crashed during an emergency landing and burst into flames in Gapyeong.[101][102] Moon and all 15 others had survived the incident with minor injuries, and were treated at the nearby church-affiliated Cheongshim Hospital.[103] Experts from the United States National Transportation Safety Board, the United States Federal Aviation Administration, Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, and General Electric assisted the South Korean government in its investigation of the crash.[104][105]

In 2009, the Yonhap News Agency reported that Moon had plans to establish a sacred sanctuary at his birthplace.[106] That same year, Moon's autobiography, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen (Korean: 평화를 사랑하는 세계인으로),[107] was published by Gimm-Young Publishers in South Korea. An English translation was published in the United States later that year.[108][109] In October, 2010 it was noted that the Korean edition had sold over one million copies and had become a topic of conversation in South Korea.[110]


In 2010 Moon declared that his main teachings are contained within eight textbooks. They are "The Sermons of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon", "Exposition of the Divine Principle", "Cheon Seong Gyeong", "The Family Pledge", "Pyeong Hwa Shin Gyeong [Messages of Peace]", "True Families—Gateway to Heaven", "Owner of Peace and Owner of Lineage" and "World Scripture".[111] At that time Moon and Han were spending most of their time in South Korea and had given much of the responsibility for the Unification Church's religious and business activities to their children, who were then in their 30s and 40s.[112]


  1. ^ AROUND THE NATION; Sun Myung Moon Paper Appears in Washington from The New York Times
  2. ^ a b c Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998. "Moon sees the essence of his own mission as completing the one given to Jesus--establishing a "true family" untouched by Satan while teaching all people to lead a God-centered life under his spiritual leadership."..."Although Moon often predicts in his sermons that a breakthrough is near, Moffitt realizes that Moon may not come to be seen as the messiah in his lifetime."
  3. ^ a b Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church, by George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. A paper presented at the CESNUR 2003 Conference, Vilnius, Lithuania.
  4. ^ Sun Myung Moon in Congressional Record (1976) from Wikisource
  5. ^ "Reverend Sun Myung Moon Speaks on The Necessity for the Day of Victory of Love". January 15, 1984. Retrieved 2006-08-09. 
  6. ^ From online New World Encyclopedia article.
  7. ^ Reverend Sun Myung Moon birthplace, Wikimapia
  8. ^ "The traditions and family environment of the Moon clan from Nampyeong". True Parents' Life Course, Volume 1. Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Historical Committee. Seonghwa Publications. 1999. pp. 29-45. (Publication in Korean): Nampyeong Mun ssi gamun-eui jeontong-gwa gajeong-hwan'gyeong. Chambumonim Saeng'ae-Nojeong 1-gweon. Segye Pyeonghwa Tongil Gajeong Yeonhap, Yeoksa Pyeonchan Uiwonhoe. Seonghwa Chulpansa. 1999. pp. 29-45. 남평문씨 가문의 전통과 가정환경 《참부모님 생애노정 1권》. 세계평화통일가정연합 역사편찬위원회. 성화출판사. 1999. pp. 29-45.
  9. ^ "The first education and entrance to the Christian faith". True Parents' Life Course, Volume 1. Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Historical Committee. Seonghwa Publications. 1999. pp. 29–45. (Publication in Korean): Chogi Hakseup-gwa Shinang Ip-mun. Chambumonim Saeng'ae-Nojeong 1-gweon. Segye Pyeonghwa Tongil Gajeong Yeonhap, Yeoksa Pyeonchan Uiwonhoe. Seonghwa Chulpansa. 1999. pp. 29-45. 초기학습과 신앙입문 《참부모님 생애노정 1권》. 세계평화통일가정연합 역사편찬위원회. 성화출판사. 1999.
  10. ^ a b Unification Church: Mass Moonie Marriage in the US, BBC News, Saturday, November 29, 1997.
  11. ^ "The first education and entrance to the Christian faith". True Parents' Life Course, Volume 1. Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, Historical Committee. Seonghwa Publications. 1999. pp. 29-45. (Publication in Korean): Chogi Hakseup-gwa Shinang Ip-mun. Chambumonim Saeng'ae-Nojeong 1-gweon. Segye Pyeonghwa Tongil Gajeong Yeonhap, Yeoksa Pyeonchan Uiwonhoe. Seonghwa Chulpansa. 1999. pp. 29-45. 초기학습과 신앙입문 《참부모님 생애노정 1권》. 세계평화통일가정연합 역사편찬위원회. 성화출판사. 1999.
  12. ^ a b c d The Unification Church: Studies in Contemporary Religion Massimo Introvigne, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  13. ^ Sung Jin Nim's Family Kathryn Coman, 2008
  14. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978
  15. ^ Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978, "The movement's official doctrinal statement, and a part of the revelation, is the Divine Principle. Both an oral tradition and a written one and published in several versions, Divine Principle is the Completed Testament. The Rev. Moon claims to have come not to destroy or abrogate the Old and New Testaments, but to fulfill them-to "complete" them. To his Moonist followers, the Rev. Moon is primarily "true father," probably the Messiah, and only secondarily a theologian. In an effort to systematize Moon's teachings, several members of the Unification Church in Korea have put together a developing theological system in Divine Principle which is impressive in its imaginativeness, coherence, and consistency, if not in its Christian orthodoxy. As the most complete expression of Moonist teachings to date, Divine Principle is the basic text of the Unification Church.4 The two major divisions of the system are the doctrines of Creation and Restoration. There are many subsets to these major divisions, but Creation and Restoration are the foci for the Moonist theological system."
  16. ^ The Moonie Family, Leo Sandon Jr., 1978, Worldview Magazine, published by the Carnegie Council
  17. ^ "Divine Principle", New World Encyclopedia
  18. ^ a b c Introvigne, 2000
  19. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (2009). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers. ISBN 0716602997. 
  20. ^ "Growth of Reagan's Contra Commitment excerpted from the book The Iran-Contra Connection Secret Teams and Covert Operations in the Reagan Era". Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  21. ^ The Resurrection Of Reverend Moon PBS, Frontline, January 21, 1992
  22. ^ Sun Myung Moon Changes Robes, New York Times, January 21, 1992
  23. ^ a b excerpt The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  24. ^ Seoul District Criminal Court, case 79 ko dan 3372
  25. ^ a b c Carlton Sherwood, Inquisition: The Persecution and Prosecution of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon (Regnery Press, 1991), 38, 41
  26. ^ "Victory of the Day of Love," Moon speech, 1977,
  27. ^ From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes by Massimo Introvigne, Center for Studies on New Religions (CESNUR). An expanded version of this paper is part of Massimo Introvigne’s book The Unification Church, published in the series "Studies in Contemporary Religion" by Signature Books. "The Hong book also revived earlier controversies associated with the late Chung Hwa Pak, one of Rev. Moon's first disciples, who had caused considerable controversy by confirming accusations of sexual immorality in the Rev. Moon’s early career in a text widely circulated by critics (and later published in Japanese) called The Tragedy of the Six Marys. Park, who had left the Unification Church, claimed that Rev. Moon practiced during the church's early years sex rituals with, among others, six married female disciples ("the six Marys") who were to have prepared the way for the virgin who would marry him and become the True Mother. The church vehemently denied the allegations, and was able to rely on earlier Korean court rulings where critics who made similar accusations had been found guilty of defamation and libel. Park eventually returned to the fold and, shortly before dying, recanted all the accusations in a second text he authored in 1995, called The Apostate."
  28. ^ A speech made by Pak titled "Retraction of The Tragedy of the Six Marys" can be found at
  29. ^ Hee Jin Moon and Myung Hee Kim, Unification Sermons and Talks, Dan Fefferman, December 25, 1998.
  30. ^ Cowan, Douglas E.; David G. Bromley (2007). Cults and New Religions: A Brief History (Blackwell Brief Histories of Religion). Blackwell Pub.. pp. 96, 103. ISBN 1405161272. 
  31. ^ Sewell, Rhonda B. (February 28, 2003). "Korean Culture Takes the Stage". The Blade: p. D11.,3951179&dq=korean-culture-takes-the-stage&hl=en. "The colors, sounds, and heritage of South Korea will come alive tonight as the Little Angels, an all-girls Korean folk ballet company, performs in the Ritz Theatre in Tiffin. ... The company was founded in 1962 by the Rev. Sun Myung Moon and his wife, Hak Ja Han, as a way to project a positive image of the country..." 
  32. ^ "Image of Moon's arrival" (JPG). Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  33. ^ Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 1976-08-10.
  34. ^ ICUS Statement of Purpose
  35. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image Washington Post. 1984-09-17 "An estimated 5,000 scholars, including more than two dozen Nobel laureates, have accepted expense-paid trips to academic conferences around the world held by the International Conference of the Unity of Sciences (ICUS) and the Professors World Peace Academy, two offshoots of the Moon-financed International Cultural Foundation (ICF), a New York-based umbrella organization for church academic programs. This year's 13th annual ICUS conference, with the theme 'Absolute Values and The New Cultural Revolution,' was held over the Labor Day weekend at the new J.W. Marriott Hotel in Washington and attracted 240 participants from 46 countries, including John Lombardi, dean of international programs at Indiana University; Claude A. Villee, a Harvard Medical School biochemist; Morton Kaplan, a University of Chicago political scientist, and Eugene P. Wigner, a Princeton University physicist and Nobel laureate who, at an ICUS conference two years ago, received a $200,000 "founder's award" from Moon."
  36. ^ Intovigne, 2000
  37. ^ "Moon Festival Draws 50,000 to Monument", Washington Post, September 19, 1976.
  38. ^ Investigation of Korean-American Relations; Report of the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, U.S. House of Representatives.
  39. ^ Spiritual warfare: the politics of the Christian right, Sara Diamond, 1989, Pluto Press, Page 58
  40. ^ Ex-aide of Moon Faces Citation for Contempt, Associated Press, Eugene Register-Guard, August 5, 1977
  41. ^ Reverend Moon's Group Wants to Talk Investment : Seoul Nods At Church's Foray North, International Herald Tribune, 1998-05-02
  42. ^ Kirk, Donald (May 2, 2010). "Sons rise in a Moon’s shadow". Forbes. 
  43. ^ Kim, Hyung-eun (April 12, 2010). "Business engine of a global faith". Joong Ang Daily. 
  44. ^ "Moon's 'Cause' Takes Aim At Communism in Americas." The Washington Post. August 28, 1983
  45. ^ Sun Myung Moon's Followers Recruit Christians to Assist in Battle Against Communism Christianity Today June 15, 1985
  46. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image, Washington Post, 1984-09-17. "Another church political arm, Causa International, which preaches a philosophy it calls "God-ism," has been spending millions of dollars on expense-paid seminars and conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists. It also has contributed $500,000 to finance an anticommunist lobbying campaign headed by John T. (Terry) Dolan, chairman of the National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC)."
  47. ^ Public TV Tilts Toward Conservatives, Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting "While conservatives dismiss Bill Moyers' world-class documentaries on our constitutional checks and balances as "propaganda," they never mention PBS's airing of unabashed right-wing agitprop films such as Nicaragua Was Our Home (the pro-contra film produced by Rev. Sun Myung Moon's CAUSA, which funded the contras after Congress' ban)..."
  48. ^ Kempley, Rita (September 17, 1982). "Mooning Over MacArthur". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company): p. Weekend At The Movies; Pg. 13. 
  49. ^ Variety staff (2009). "Inchon". Variety ( 
  50. ^ Niemi, Robert (2006). History in the Media: Film and Television. ABC-CLIO. p. 151. ISBN 978-1576079522. 
  51. ^ TV Guide staff. "Inchon review". TV Guide ( Retrieved 2009-10-21. 
  52. ^ a b "Theological Uproar in Unification Church: Rev. Moon Recognizes Zimbabwean as His Reincarnated Son" by Michael Isikoff, Washington Post, March 30, 1988.
  53. ^ Moon's Son, 17, Dies After a Car Accident. AP story, January 3, 1984. Accessed Saturday, August 19, 2006 from the New York Times Archives.
  54. ^ a b James A. Beverley (2004), "Spirit Revelation and the Unification Church" in Controversial New Religions, James R. Lewis & Jesper Aagaard Petersen, ed. Oxford University Press USA, p. 47-48. ISBN 0195156838
  55. ^ Inside info on Cleophas by church historian Michael Breen
  56. ^ "From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes" by Massimo Introvigne, a condensed version of material in The Unification Church, in the series "Studies in Contemporary Religion", Signature Books.
  57. ^ Eileen Barker, in America's Alternative Religions, edited by Timothy Miller, SUNY Press, 1995, ISBN 0-7914-2397-2, page 225
  58. ^ a b Hong, Nansook (1998). In the Shadow of the Moons. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316348163. 
  59. ^ "Who Owns What: News World Communications". The Columbia Journalism Review. 2003-11-24. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  60. ^ "Literally nine hundred million to one billion dollars has been spent to activate and run the Washington Times" -Sun Myung Moon, "True Family and True Universe centering on True Love", Founder's Address, 15th Anniversary of The Washington Times, June 16, 1997, Washington, DC.
  61. ^ "As of this year, Moon and his businesses have plowed about $1.7 billion into subsidizing the Times, say current and former employees." "Moon Speech Raises Old Ghosts as the Times Turns 20", by Frank Ahrens, Washington Post, May 23, 2002.
  62. ^ Chinni, Dante (2002). "The Other Paper: The Washington Times's role". Columbia Journalism Review. Archived from the original on 2006-04-19. Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  63. ^ "Protest Groups Clash Near Wall", The Associated Press, August 8, 1987.
  64. ^ YouTube: Protesting the Berlin Wall - The History of CARP
  65. ^ EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; New Flock for Moon Church: The Changing Soviet Student from The New York Times
  66. ^ A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash, by Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, Washington Post Staff Writers, Sunday, November 23, 1997.
  67. ^ Richard Quebedeaux Moon Church a Stranger to Academic Freedom; A Temporary Bailout?, The New York Times, 1992-06-13
  68. ^ GOODMAN, WALTER. "Review/Television; Sun Myung Moon Changes Robes". New York Times. January 21, 1992. 
  69. ^ The same old game, Al-Ahram, November 12–18, 1998, "The Washington Times is a mouthpiece for the ultra conservative Republican right, unquestioning supporters of Israel's Likud government. The newspaper is owned by Sun Myung Moon, originally a native of North Korea and head of the Unification Church, whose ultra-right leanings make him a ready ally for Netanyahu. Whether or not Netanyahu is personally acquainted with Moon is unclear, though there is no doubt that he has established close friendships with several staff members on The Washington Times, whose editorial policy is rabidly anti-Arab, anti-Muslim and pro-Israel."
  70. ^ Media Watch from Windy City Times 2004-07-07
  72. ^ The Value and Significance of the Family Pledge from, 2007-06-13
  73. ^ Life with the Moons: A conversation with Nansook Hong, former daughter-in-law of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon, TIME Magazine, October 13, 1998.
  74. ^ In a review of the book, Marcia Rudin writes that due to Nansook Hong's position within the Moon family, her story cannot simply be dismissed by cult apologists as an atrocity tale. Rudin went on to state that: "The compelling credibility of this book demands that Nansook's story be paid attention to. Many Unification Church members are paying it attention, for, according to Nansook and others, the first-hand testimony delivered through this book has already caused many Unification Church members to leave the group." Book Review, Marcia Rudin, Cultic Studies Journal, Volume 16, Number 1, 1999.
  75. ^ "Remains of religious leader's son to be moved to Korea" LasVegas Sun, November 10, 1999.
  76. ^ In Memory of My Brother (Young Jin) by Yeon Jin Moon
  77. ^ Oliver, Ryan (April 12, 2001). "Controversial Message: Moon speaks at church". Las Vegas Review-Journal. 
  78. ^ Schoenmann, Joe (November 4, 1999). "Moon's son dies in fall from hotel". Las Vegas Review-Journal. 
  79. ^ International religious summit at U.N. receives criticism, Baptist Press, August 28, 2000.
  80. ^ Million Family March reaches out to all
  81. ^ Why Are Pastors Flying to Moon?Christianity Today August 1, 2001
  82. ^ Let’s marry, rebel bishop tells priests, The Standard (Nairobi, Kenya), June 26, 2009
  83. ^ A Marriage Made in Heaven?, Washington Post, March 11, 2007
  84. ^ "Peace Cup (South Korea)". RSSSF. Retrieved 2008-06-14. 
  85. ^ Korean influence: PSV's Hiddink hoping to win Peace CupSports Illustrated July 21, 2003
  86. ^ South Korea to host global peace cup in JulySports Illustrated May 6, 2003
  87. ^ :: Welcome to Manila Bulletin Online ::
  88. ^ Report released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, U.S. State Dept.
  89. ^ Reports include:
    • Jewish currents, Volume 30, 1976, p5
    • Parliamentary debates: Official report, Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons, 23 February 1977, vol 926 p1593 THE UNIFICATION CHURCH (Hansard, 23 February 1977)
    • Religious education, Volume 73, 1978, p356
    • Cults in America: programmed for paradise‎, Willa Appel, 1983, p171
    • Anti-cult movements in cross-cultural perspective, Anson D. Shupe, David G. Bromley, 1994, p42
    • Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: constructing the boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, p. 36.
    • Heartbreak and Rage: Ten Years Under Sun Myung Moon, Gordon Neufeld, 2002, p173
    • Sun Myung Moon forms new political party to merge divided Koreas, Church & State, May 01, 2003
    • Bad Moon on the rise, John Gorenfeld, Salon Magazine, Sep 24, 2003
    • False dawn, Lee Penn, 2004, p121
  90. ^ John Gorenfeld. "Bad Moon on the rise", Salon Magazine, September 24, 2003.
  91. ^ Anti-cult movements in cross-cultural perspective, Anson D. Shupe, David G. Bromley, 1994, p42; Feher, Shoshanah. Passing over Easter: constructing the boundaries of Messianic Judaism, Rowman Altamira, 1998, p. 36.
  92. ^ "Stephen, for example, burned with indignation over the ignorance and disbelief of the Jewish leaders, and he condemned their actions, calling them murderers and rebels (Acts 7:51-53). Christians since then have commonly shared the same feelings as the disciples of Jesus' day. If Jesus' death had been the foreordained outcome for the fulfillment of God's Will, then it might have been natural for the disciples to grieve over his death, but they would not have been so bitterly resentful over it, nor so angry at those Jewish leaders who caused it." Exposition of the Divine Principle, HSA-UWC, 1996 (ISBN 0-910621-80-2).
  93. ^ Moon said: "By killing one man, Jesus, the Jewish people had to suffer for 2000 years. Countless numbers of people have been slaughtered. During the Second World War, 6 million people were slaughtered to cleanse all the sins of the Jewish people from the time of Jesus." MASTER SPEAKS (no official translation was done), 2/14/74
  94. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Christian Century May 11, 1977 "Thus, while the two world wars may appear from a human point of view to have been evil, from the point of view of God's plan for restoration they were good and necessary. The defeat of the "satanic side" in each case cleared the path for a more nearly complete foundation for the Kingdom of God. These two cataclysmic conflagrations of our century, which broke the back of the liberal Protestant faith in progress, do not appear to trouble the adherents of Divine Principle, by and large members of a generation conveniently undistressed by stark memories of those 'triumphs" for the heavenly side. This sanguine schematization of the Holocaust has not, understandably, reassured Jewish critics of the movement. There remains, of course, one final conflict, the resolution of which will provide the worldwide unity upon which the last four-position foundation can be perfected. This is the struggle between "Abeltype" democracy and "Cain-type" communism. Divine Principle is indecisive at this point. It may not be necessary for democracy to destroy communism (the sole bearer, in its view, of a "materialistic" philosophy) by force. It may be accomplished in a battle of ideology. The Unification Church seeks to forge the necessary ideology while at the same time supporting a militarily supreme West, just in case. This final conflict is imminent, for the Lord of the Second Advent has appeared in Sun Myung Moon, and the atheistic communist system is the "Antichrist" of the final days."
  95. ^ a b Babington, Charles; Alan Cooperman (June 23 2004). "The Rev. Moon Honored at Hill Reception - Lawmakers Say They Were Misled". Washington Post: A01. 
  96. ^ a b "Lawmakers Scurry From the Light". New York Times. 2004-06-27. 
  97. ^ Bartlett defends role in Moon coronation 07/03/2004, MD PA WV Herald-Mail.
  98. ^ John Gorenfeld, "Moon Over Washington: Why are some of the capital’s most influential power players hanging out with a bizarre Korean billionaire who claims to be the Messiah?", The Gadflyer, June 9, 2004
  99. ^ "Family Federation for World Peace and Unification of U.S.A". Retrieved 2006-04-29. 
  100. ^ Son of Moonies founder takes over as church leader The Guardian, 2008-04-28
  101. ^, Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon released from hospital after helicopter crash
  102. ^ Account of crash by the Moons' youngest son
  103. ^ Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon, 15 others injured in helicopter crash Herald Tribune, July 19, 2008
  104. ^, Unification Church founder released from hospital
  105. ^ NTSB Sends Team To Investigate Korean S-92A Downing Aero-News Network, July 21, 2008
  106. ^ Pyeonghwa Motors upbeat about N. Korea's market potential, Yonhap News Agency, July 22, 2009
  107. ^ "네이버 책 :: 네이버는 책을 사랑합니다". Retrieved 14 October 2009. 
  108. ^ "Rev. Moon shares his life in words" by Jennifer Harper, The Washington Times, October 1, 2009. (Published on the web October 2, 2009.)
  109. ^ "WTimes, Bushes Hail Rev. Moon" by Robert Parry, Consortium News, ‎Oct 2, 2009‎.
  110. ^ "문선명 총재와 피스컵, 피스퀸컵". 7 October 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  111. ^ July 8th 2010 Proclamation Scroll down to or search page for "My Final Words for Humankind"
  112. ^ Sons Rise in a Moon Shadow,Forbes, April 12, 2010

Further reading

  • Sontag, Frederick. 1977. Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Nashville, Tenn: Abingdon Press. ISBN 978-0-687-40622-7
  • Bryant, M. Darrol, and Herbert W. Richardson. 1978. A Time for consideration: a scholarly appraisal of the Unification Church. New York: E. Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-88946-954-9
  • Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and its Principles, Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press ISBN 0-682-49264-7
  • Durst, Mose. 1984. To bigotry, no sanction: Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Chicago: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-0-89526-609-5
  • Fichter, Joseph Henry. 1985. The holy family of father Moon. Kansas City, Mo: Leaven Press. ISBN 978-0-934134-13-2
  • Gullery, Jonathan. 1986. The Path of a pioneer: the early days of Reverend Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. New York: HSA Publications. ISBN 978-0-910621-50-2
  • Sherwood, Carlton. 1991. Inquisition : The Persecution and Prosecution of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Gateway. ISBN 978-0-89526-532-6
  • Chryssides, George D., The Advent of Sun Myung Moon: The Origins, Beliefs and Practices of the Unification Church (1991) London, Macmillan Professional and Academic Ltd. The author is professor of religious studies at the University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom.
  • Yamamoto, J. Isamu, 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6
  • Hong, Nansook, 1998, In the Shadow of the Moons, Boston, Little, Brown and Company ISBN 0316348163
  • Introvigne, M., 2000, The Unification Church, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  • Ward, Thomas J. 2006. March to Moscow: the role of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon in the collapse of communism. St. Paul, Minn: Paragon House. ISBN 978-1-885118-16-5
  • Moon, Sun Myung, 2009, As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers ISBN 071660299

External links

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