- Javanese beliefs
Javanese beliefs ("Kebatinan" or "Kejawen") have principles embodying a "search for inner self" but at the core is the concept of Peace Of Mind.
Although "Kejawen" is not a religious category, it addresses ethical and spiritual values as inspired by
Javanese tradition. It is not a religion in usual sense of the word, like Islam, Judaism, or Christianity. There are no scriptures such as the Bibleor the Qur'an, nor are there prophets. There is no emphasis on eschatology(ie. life after death, heaven or hell, devils or angels).
"Kebatinan" is a metaphysical search for harmony within one's inner self, connection with the universe, and with an Almighty God. Javanese beliefs are a combination of occultism, metaphysics, mysticism and other esoteric doctrines, exemplifying a Javanese tendency for synthesis. The Javanese system is so flexible that syncresis in all manifestations is attainable, even that which is in conflict. Javanese ideals combine human wisdom ("wicaksana"), psyche ("waskita") and perfection ("sempurna"). The follower must control his/her passions, eschewing earthly riches and comforts, so that he/she may one day reach enlightened harmony and union with the spirit of the universe.
Generally speaking, the Kebatinan follower believes in the existence of a super-consciousness in the cosmic world which is beyond humankind's comprehension, yet controls and guides humans' affairs and destiny. This Superconciousness is believed to be contacted via meditation. There are several meditation techniques ("tapas"):
tapa kalong(meditation by hanging from a tree), Tapa Geni(avoiding fire or light for a day or days), Tapa Senen(fasting on Monday), Tapa Mutih(abstention from eating anything that is salted) and Tapa Ngablek(isolating oneself in dark rooms). Fasting is a common practice employed by Javanese spiritualists in order to attain discipline of mind and body to get rid of material and emotional desires. Many Kebatinan followers meditate in their own way to seek spiritual and emotional relief. These practices are not performed in churches or mosques, but at home or in caves or on mountain perches. Meditation in Javanese culture is a search for inner self wisdom and to gain physical strength. This tradition is passed down from generation to generation.
Javanese spiritualism entails a never ending search for wonder and surprise. It has some foreign influences.
The Javanese mind is essentially a flexible and pragmatic one as far as a person's spiritual life is concerned. The complexity is perhaps the result of Java's complicated cultural background and its myriad cultural influences. But basically, Javanese spiritualism is individualistic in approach, something typically Javanese. The approach is person-to-person or person-to-guru. One on one.
SumarahSchool:" according to this school, man and his physical and spiritual world are divided into three parts: The physical body and brain, an invisible world, and a more elusive and sublime world.
In the Brain the faculty of thinking has two functions - one to record memories, the other to serve as a means of communion with God. One section, "
Sukusma," governs the passions, while the other, "The Jiwa," provides the driving forces governing thought and reason. The invisible world, which is situated within the chest, is the Jiwa, the ineffable soul. It is here that the deeper feeling (Rasa) is located. The most elusive and sublime world is hidden somewhere near the anatomical heart.
Sumarah theology maintains that humankind's soul is like the holy spirit, a spark from the Divine Essence, which means that we are in essence similar to God. In other word "One can find God within oneself," a belief similar to the "I=God" theory found in Hindu-Javanese literature.
Sapta DharmaSchool was the product of the Indonesian Revolution. It was God's wish to provide the Indonesians with a new spiritual approach in their search for Peace Of Mind and Happiness at a Time when they were undergoing a mental and spiritual crisis.
"God is within you. God is everywhere. But do not think you are God."
Kebatinan and kejawen practices are extensively written about in texts that are held in the
Sanabudaya library, in Yogyakarta, and the main Kraton Librariesof Solo and Yogyakarta. Many of the texts are deliberately elliptical so that those who do not work with either initiates or teachers are unable to ascertain or understand the esoteric doctrines and practices. In quite a few cases codified texts with secret systems to "unlock" the meanings are employed.
Some Javanese texts relate stories about
Syekh Siti Jenarwho had conflicts with Wali Sanga, the nine Islamic scholars in Java, and the Sultanate of Demak. Although Syekh Siti Jenarwas a sufiwhose teaching were similar with Al-Hallaj, most of his followers (i.e Ki Kebo Kenanga) come from Kebatinan. Some historians have doubted the existence of Syekh Siti Jenar (also known as Syekh Lemah Abang), suggesting the stories represent conflicts between Kebatinan and Islam in the past.
* Geels, Antoon "Subud and the Javanese mystical tradition" Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press, 1997 (about Sumohadiwidjojo, Muhammad-Subuh, 1901-1987) ISBN 0700706232
* Mulder, Niels "Mysticism & everyday life in contemporary Java: cultural persistence and change" Singapore: Singapore University Press, c1978
* Stange, Paul "The Sumarah movement in Javanese mysticism" Published on demand by University Microfilms International. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1980
Javanese sacred places
* [http://www.sahasraadhipura.org/ A center for Javanese Metaphysics and Kundalini Yoga]
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