size = 120px
caption = The Scientology Symbol is composed of the letter S that stands for Scientology and the ARC and KRC triangles, two important concepts in Scientology
name = Scientology
type = Religious / Commercial
status = Non-profit
headquarters = Church of Scientology International,
Los Angeles, California, USA
Chairmanof Religious Technology Center
website = [http://www.scientology.org/ www.scientology.org]
Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices initially created by American
science fictionauthor L. Ron Hubbard. ["Encyclopedia Britannica" refers to "science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard (1911–86)" in its coverage of Scientology issues. Available at: [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/274475/L-Ron-Hubbard#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=L.%20Ron%20Hubbard%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia Britannica Online Encyclopedia] .] ["The World Encyclopedia" (2005) refers to "Hubbard, L. Ron ( Lafayette Ronald) (1911–86) US science fiction writer and the guiding spirit of the Church of scientology." (World Encyclopedia 2005, originally published by Oxford University Press 2005.) [ "The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English" ( 2008) states that Scientology "was founded by science-fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard (1911–86) in 1955." Hubbard developed Scientology teachings in 1952 as a successor to his earlier self-helpsystem, Dianetics. Hubbard later characterized Scientology as an "applied religious philosophy" and the basis for a new religionwith the first Church of Scientology being established in December 1953.cite book | last = Atack | first = Jon | authorlink = Jon Atack | year = 1990 | url = http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/atack/index.html | title = A Piece of Blue Sky | publisher = Carol Publishing Group | location = New York, NY|pages = 128|id = ISBN 0-8184-0499-X]
The major organization promoting is the
Church of Scientology, a hierarchical organization founded by Hubbard, [cite web | first = Stephen | last = Koff | title = Dozens of groups operate under auspices of Church of Scientology | url = http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/sptimes/access/51440809.html?dids=51440809:51440809&FMT=FT&FMTS=ABS:FT | work = St. Petersburg Times| date = 1988-12-22| accessdate = 2008-09-30 ] while independent groups using Hubbard's materials are collectively referred to as the Free Zone. Whereas the Church of Scientology promotes Scientology's spiritual rehabilitation philosophy and techniques,cite web | url = http://www.cesnur.org/2004/waco_davis.htm | title = The Church of Scientology: In Pursuit of Legal Recognition | first = Derek H. | last = Davis | date = 2004-06-20| work = CESNUR 2004 conference | publisher = CESNUR] other Scientology organizations promote Scientology morals, ethics, detoxification, education and management. Strict control of these organizations is maintained by Religious Technology Center, the organization that owns the trademarks and service marks of Scientology and licenses the use of these trademarks and service marks to compliant organizations. [ [http://www.scientology.org/feature/legal/trademark.html Web Page: www.scientology.org Trademark notice] ]
Scientology and the organizations that promote it have remained highly controversial since their inception. Former members, journalists, courts and the governing bodies of several countries have described the Church of Scientology as a
cultand an unscrupulous commercial enterprise, accusing it of harassing its critics and abusing the trust of its members. Scientologists have successfully litigated most legal actions against their Church, ensuring their right to practice, but still face opposition in many countries.
Prime among the Scientology tenets is the belief that man is an immortal spiritual being (termed a
thetan) that has lived many lifetimes and has unlimited capabilities; and that these capabilities can be realized.cite news |title = Remember Venus? |url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,889564,00.html |publisher = Time |date = 1952-12-22|accessdate = 2007-03-28] [cite web | title = Is Scientology a Religion? | url = http://www.humanrights-germany.org/experts/eng/black01.pdf | first = Alan W. | last = Black | date = 1996-01-24| publisher = Church of Scientology] Scientology argues that no one in Scientology is asked to accept anything as belief or on faith; and that an individual discovers for himself if Scientology works by personal observation and experience.cite web | url = http://www.scientology.org/home.html | title = Welcome to Scientology | publisher = Church of Scientology] Most controversial among the Scientology beliefs contained in the Scientology higher levels unknown to Scientologists in lowers levels is that the thetanis currently trapped on planet Earth in a body and that before its arrival on Earth, the thetan lived among extraterrestrial cultures. It is believed in Scientology that while the thetan was in contact with these extraterrestrial cultures he was subjected to a series of mental implants to make him more manageable and keep him trapped in a "meat body".
Origin and definition
Hubbard established Scientology's doctrines during a period from 1952 until his death in January 1986, establishing the basic principles in the 1950s and 1960s. It was originally secular, Hubbard stating in 1952 that "Scientology would be a study of knowledge." ["Scientology: Milestone One" an audio lecture in Wichita, Kansas on 3 March 1952 with transcript, 1952 Published by Golden Era Productions, Hollywood CA] The following year he began to characterize Scientology's beliefs and practices as a
religion, and by 1960 he was defining Scientology as "a religion by its basic tenets, practice, historical background and by the definition of the word 'religion' itself." [HCOB 18 April 67 (HCOB of 21 June 1960 Revised) "Religious Philosophy and Religious Practice"] In 1969 he wrote that "It is fundamentally an applied religious philosophy." [LRH ED 4 Int, 22 February 69 "Attachment (letter to doctor)"] Hubbard recorded his doctrine in archived writings, audio tapes and films. [cite web | first = Robert W. | last = Welkos | coauthors = Sappell, Joel | title = Church Scriptures Get High-Tech Protection | url = http://www.latimes.com/news/local/la-scientologysided062490,0,7493097.story | work = | publisher = Los Angeles Times| date = 1990-06-24| accessdate = 2007-11-27 ] cite web |url = http://www.writersofthefuture.com/lrh.htm |title = L. Ron Hubbard: Master Storyteller |accessdate = 2008-01-22 |publisher = Author Services, Inc.] ['Church of American Science' ( [http://lisatrust.freewinds.cx/scientology/amscience1.htm incorporation papers] ); 'Church of Scientology' ( [http://www.lisamcpherson.org/scans/church_of_scientology_incorp_1953.pdf incorporation papers] ); 'Church of Spiritual Engineering,' ( [http://www.lisamcpherson.org/scans/church_of_spiritual_engineering_incorp_1953.pdf incorporation papers] ); 18 December 1953.]
The Church of Scientology defines scientology as "the study of truth." [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg006.html Church of Scientology] (website accessed 4/12/06)] The word itself is a pairing of the
Latinword "scientia" ("knowledge," "skill"), which comes from the verb "scire" ("to know"), and the Greek λογος "lógos" ("reason" or "inward thought" or "logic" or "an account of").
Although today associated almost exclusively with Hubbard, the word "scientology" predates his usage by several decades. An early use of the word was as a
neologismin an 1871 book by the American anarchist Stephen Pearl Andrewspresenting "the newly discovered Science of the Universe". [cite book
title=The Primary Synopsis of Universology and Alwato: The New Scientific Universal Language
url=http://books.google.com/books?id=WpwsVIfv5CcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22The+Primary+Synopsis+of+Universology+and+Alwato%22&lr=&as_brr=0 At p. xiii, "Scientology" is defined as "the Science of the Scientismus, or of that Secondary Department of Being, or Stage of Evolution, in which Scientism, the Spirit or Principle of Science (or of that which is analogous with Science) preponderates". ( [http://books.google.com/books?id=WpwsVIfv5CcC&pg=PR13&vq=scientology&dq=%22The+Primary+Synopsis+of+Universology+and+Alwato%22&lr=&as_brr=0 Google Books link] )M & S Press 1971 edition, ISBN-10: 0877300070 ] Philologist
Allen Upwardused the word "scientology" in his 1901 book "The New Word" as a synonym for " pseudoscience," [Allen Upward: The New Word, pp 139, 149 & 156] and this is sometimes cited as the first coining of the word. In 1934, the Argentine-German writer Anastasius Nordenholz published a book using the word positively: "Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens" ("Scientologie, Science of the Constitution and Usefulness of Knowledge"). [Dr. A. Nordenholz. [http://www.scientologie.de/scientologie/index.htm Welcome to the Scientologie Home Page] ] Nordenholz's book is a study of consciousness, and its usage of the word is not greatly different from Hubbard's definition, "knowing how to know" [ [http://www.ronthephilosopher.org/page43.htm 'Hubbard, 'Scientology Fundamentals"] 1956 (website accessed 04/13/06)] (from " epistemology"). Whether Hubbard was aware of these earlier uses is unknown.
The term "Scientology" and related terms are
trademarks held by the Religious Technology Center which grants the mother church of the Scientology religion, the Church of Scientology International (CSI), the right to use the trademarks and to license their use to all other Scientology churches and entities. Other organizations that promote the use of related techniques, developed by or based on the works of L. Ron Hubbard, are the World Institute of Scientology Enterprisesand the Association for Better Living and Education. [ [http://www.rtc.org/ Guarantor of Scientology's Future] , Religious Technology Center, accessed 2008-01-08] [cite web |url = http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/05/index.htm |title = Organizations of the Scientology Religion |accessdate = 2007-11-27 |publisher = Church of Scientology]
Hubbard often acknowledges his philosophical forerunners and influences. In "", the seminal "Book One" of Dianetics and Scientology, he states that:
"There are just so many pieces in any puzzle."Hubbard credits
Francis Baconand Herbert Spencer, along with "a very few more" for having put together parts of the answer. Hubbard also recalls a meeting with Cmdr. Joseph Cressman Thompson, [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/l-ron-hubbard/founder/pg004.html LRH early studies] ] a U.S. Navy officer who studied with Sigmund Freud. [Hubbard, Scientology classic lecture: The Story of Dianetics and Scientology] ] Hubbard claims that he was introduced to Freudian analysis at the age of 12 by Thompson during a trip from Seattle to Washington D.C. via the Panama Canal. However, in Hubbard's diaries from this time, nothing of the sort is mentioned, absent of references to Freudian theories or mention of anyone tutoring him in this field. [cite book | first=Jon | last=Atack | coauthors= | title= [http://www.clambake.org/archive/books/apobs/contents.htm A Piece of Blue Sky] | publisher=Lyle Stuart | location= | year=1990 | editor= | id=ISBN 0-8184-0499-X | pages=448 | chapter=Chapter Four—The Clearwater Hearings | chapterurl=http://www.clambake.org/archive/books/apobs/bs6-4.htm ]
Hubbard later gave his opinion on Sigmund Freud: “I think that was Freud’s great contribution that something could be done about the mind... He was the first man that ever stood up and said: 'there is hope for it'... Now there was a great humanitarian." However, there are discrepancies between Scientology as a religion and
Psychoanalysis. [L. Ron Hubbard "A Critique of Psychoanalysis", PAB 92, 10 July 1956: "It was in Scientology and the anatomy of life that one departed entirely from the tenets and teachings and fundamentals of psychoanalysis and sprang forward into the actual causes of things, for Scientology, unlike Dianetics, is not a psychotherapy."] Hubbard acknowledged the influence of Alfred Korzybski's General Semantics. [Hubbard, " [http://www.dianetics.org/en_US/l-ron-hubbard/articles/terra/ Terra Incognita: The Mind] ," "The Explorers Journal", winter 1949 / spring 1950 (on the bridge between cybernetics and general semantics)] Scientology also reflects the influence of the Hinduconcept of karmaand dharmaas well as the psychological theories of Sigmund Freud, Carl Jungand William Sargant[ William Sargant"Battle for the Mind: a physiology of conversion and brainwashing", pp. 81-191, Malor Books, 1997 ISBN-10: 1883536065] but according to its founder, it is neither psychology nor psychiatry . During The Phoenix Lectures Hubbard stated that Scientology depended on his having known something of the Vedas [Lecture: Scientology: Its General Background part 1, track 7 by L. Ron Hubbard "For to say...that a Westerner such as myself should suddenly develop all you need to know...is an incredible and an unbelievable and an untrue statement, had the information of the Veda not been available to me"] and has called the Vedas Scientology’s earliest ancestor: "And we find Scientology’s earliest, certainly known ancestor in the Veda." [Hubbard, Lecture: Scientology: Its General Background part 1, track 7] Hubbard also gave recognition to the Tao Te Ching, the Dharma and Gautama Buddhaas forerunners to Scientology. [Hubbard, Lecture: Scientology: Its General Background part 1, 2 and 3] The late Bryan R. WilsonReader Emeritus in Sociologyat the University of Oxfordand President of the International Society for the Sociology of Religion, wrote of Scientology: "it is clear to me that Scientology is a bona fide religion and should be considered as such.". [cite web | url=http://www.neuereligion.de/ENG/collection/Scientology/point70.htm | author=Bryan R. Wilson |title=Scientology An Analysis and Comparison of its Religious Systems and Doctrines | publisher=Church of Scientology] David G. Bromleyof Virginia Commonwealth Universitycharacterizes Scientology as "a 'quasi-religious therapy' that resembles Freudian 'depth psychology' while also drawing upon Buddhism, Hinduismand the ancient, heretical offshoot of Christianityknown as Gnosticism." [William W. Zellner and Marc Petrowsky, Editors, "Sects, Cults and Spiritual Communities: A Sociological Analysis", pp. 141-156, Praeger Paperbacks, 1998 ISBN-10: 0275963357; chapter 8: "Th Church of Scientology: A Quasi-Religion" by David G. Bromley and Mitchell L. Bracey, Jr. ] Dr. Frank K. Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington Universityin St. Louiswrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life." [cite web | url=http://www.neuereligion.de/ENG/Flinn/index.htm | author=Frank K. Flinn Ph.D | title=Scientology: The Marks of Religion | publisher=Church of Scientology]
Bergson's " elan vital" becomes life energy represented by the Greek letter 'theta'(θ) existing independent of Matter Energy Space Time (MEST). Hubbard writes: "Theta, we could say, comes from the universe of theta, which is different from the MEST universe". [L. Ron Hubbard "Science of Survival", pp. 4-5, Bridge Publications Inc., 2007 ISBN 978-1-4031-4485-0; 1st ed. 1951] According to Gnostic doctrine, "life" is by nature "alien" to this world. Hans Jonaswrites: "The concept of the alien Life is one of the great impressive word-symbols which we encounter in gnostic speech, and it is new in the history of human speech in general". [Hans Jonas "The Gnostic Religion", p. 49, Beacon Press, 1963 ISBN 0-8070-5799-1; 1st ed. 1958 ] Hubbard writes: "...Scientology is a gnostic faith in that it knows it knows". [L. Ron Hubbard "The Scientologist: A Manual on the Dissemination of Material", Ability: The Magazine of Dianetics and Scientology, Pnoenix, Arizona (ca mid-March 1955)]
Scientology's beliefs and related techniques comprise 18 basic books, [ [http://bpi.goldenageofknowledge.net/packages/basicsbooks.html?locale=en_US Bridge Publications: The Basics] ] and 3,000 recorded lectures. There is no single Scientology book that is the equivalent of the
Bibleor the Qur'an, but the study of Scientology is achieved through the chronological study of its basic books and lectures. [ [http://bpi.goldenageofknowledge.net/index.html Bridge Publications: The Basics: Introduction] ]
Scientology describes itself as "the study and handling of the spirit in relationship to itself, others and all of life," [cite web | url=http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg006.html | title=Introduction to Scientology | accessdate=2006-05-04] and "encompasses all aspects of life from the point of view of the spirit" — including "auditing" [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/Chp05/index.html The practice of Scientology] ] and training in
morals, ethics, detoxification, education and management. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/foreword/pagex-a.html web site: What is Scientology: foreword] ]
Prime among Scientology's beliefs is "that man is a spiritual being whose existence spans more than one life and who is endowed with abilities well beyond those which he normally considers he possesses." [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/02/index.htm Doctrine of the Scientology Religion] ] Scientology believes man to be basically good, that his experiences have led him into evil, that he errs because he seeks to solve his problems by considering only his own point of view, and that man can improve to the degree he preserves his spiritual integrity and remains honest and decent. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part01/Chp01/pg0003.html Scientology: Its background and origins] ] According to the Church, the ultimate goal is: "a civilization without insanity, without criminals and without war, where the able can prosper and honest beings can have rights, and where man is free to rise to greater heights." [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/page02.htm Introduction to the Scientology Religion p. 2] ]
The Church of Scientology declares that the goal of Scientology is to achieve "certainty of one’s spiritual existence and [of] one’s relationship to the Supreme Being," [ [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/02/page01.htm Doctrine of the Scientology Religion p. 2] ] and says that Scientology's tenets are not a matter of faith but of testable practice: "That which is true for you is what you have observed to be true." [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/index.html Introduction to Scientology] ]
The exact nature of all of existence is said to be stated in Hubbard's Scientology and Dianetics Axioms.
Other beliefs of Scientology are: [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org Online Book: What is Scientology?] ]
* A person is an immortal
spiritual being(termed a "thetan") who possesses a mind and a body.
* The thetan has lived through many past lives and will continue to live beyond the death of the body.
* Through the Scientology process of "auditing," people can free themselves of traumatic incidents, ethical transgressions and bad decisions which are said to collectively restrict the person from reaching the state of "Clear" and "
Operating Thetan." Each state is said to represent the recovery of native spiritual abilities and to confer mental and physical benefits.
* A person is basically good, but becomes "aberrated" by moments of pain and unconsciousness.
* Psychiatry and psychology are destructive and abusive practices. ["psychiatrists and psychologists . . . can cure nothing and cannot change anyone for better or worse and, as a result, have to kill 'difficult patients.' . . . Anyone who disagrees with their planned totalitarian rule is pronounced 'insane.' He is seized quietly, conveyed to a prison, tortured and usually permanently injured or killed." [http://freedom.lronhubbard.org/page078.htm Hubbard, "How To Win An Argument" (1969)] . Retrieved 9 May 2006]
Members study Scientology and receive auditing sessions to advance from a status of preclear to Operating Thetan. [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0038-0210(198022)41%3A2%3C128%3ASTBPC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-4] Study, 1980] [ [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Fishman/forbes-behar.html] Forbes Magazine 1986]
The Bridge to Total Freedom
Scientology practices (called "Technology" or "Tech" in Scientology jargon) are structured in sequential levels, reflecting Hubbard's belief that rehabilitation takes place on a "gradient", that is, easier steps are taken first and only then greater complexities are handled; for example, the negative effects of drugs must be addressed before other issues can be successfully tackled. Scientologists follow a sequence of courses that culminate in esoteric, advanced strata. This is described as a passage along "the Bridge to Total Freedom," or simply "the Bridge," in which each step promises a little more personal freedom in some particular area of life. Hubbard first developed the basic axioms then he went into experimentation and finally, he developed the therapy and proof of application by means of a self described "spiritual Technology". As he says, ..."One might here use an analogy of bridge engineering". [Hubbard, L. Ron "Dianetics: the Modern Science of Mental Health", p. 495, Bridge Publications Inc., 2000 -50th anniversary edition- ISBN 0-88404-416-5] The Bridge is the Classification Gradation and Awareness Chart. [Hubbard, L. Ron "Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary", p. 72, Publications Organization, 1975 ISBN 0-88404-037-2]
Scientologists believe that man is composed of three distinguishable parts: mind, body and spirit. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0151.html The Parts of Man] ] quote|The thetan (spirit) is described in Scientology as having no mass, no wavelength, no energy and no time or location in space except by consideration or postulate. The spirit, then, is not a "thing". It is the "creator" of things|1956|"Professional Auditor's Bulletin 85" [Professional Auditor's Bulletin 85, 22 May 1956, The Parts of Man] ] The spirit, represented with the Greek letter 'theta' (θ), [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg008.html The Parts of Man] ] is the true form of man and can exist exterior to and/or independent from a body. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0152.html The thetan] ] The mind in Scientology is described as a bank of mental image pictures [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/presentation/pg003.html How the mind works.] ] that give the spirit experience and knowledge and that store the spirit’s "postulates." Scientologists subdivide the mind [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0146.html The Parts of the mind] ] into the analytical or conscious mind, which is "totally accessible to the spirit," [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/Html/Part14/Chp50/pg1018.html#analytical Glossary of Scientology and Dianetics Terms] ] and the reactive or subconscious mind, which "unknowingly affects the spirit" and is said to operate "on an irrational, stimulus-response basis." [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp04/pg0147.html The Reactive Mind] ] Scientology describes the physical body as "a carbon-oxygen machine" of which the spirit is the engineer. Illnesses and injuries to the body are said to be relieved through the use of "assists."
Dianetics is a sub study of Scientology that deals with the
reactive mind, the "bank" of traumatic experiences known as engrams which are said to inhibit success and happiness. [cite web | url=http://www.dianetics.org/en_US/what-is-dianetics/index.html | title = What is Dianetics? | accessdate=2006-05-03]
ARC and KRC triangles
The Scientology symbol contains two triangles which Hubbard called the "ARC triangle" and the "KRC triangle", respectively. [http://www.bonafidescientology.org/Chapter/04/page16.htm Scientology Symbol] ] The points of the lower triangle are said to represent Affinity (emotional responses), Reality (an agreement on what is real) and Communication. Scientologists believe that improving one aspect of the triangle increases the level of the other two. The points of the upper triangle represent Knowledge, Responsibility and Control. Many auditing processes and training routines aim at increasing an individual's ability to gain knowledge of, take responsibility for and exert control over external and internal elements. The objective environment is there as an agreement; everyone who is sane enough agrees it is there. The subjective environment is the sole responsibility of the individual himself as he is the only one who is aware that it is there. These two environments may not actually agree. [Hubbard, L. Ron "Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary", p. 144, Publications Organization, 1975 ISBN 0-88404-037-2] Therefore, a
therapywhich asks man to adapt to the environment rather than adapt the environment to man is a slave philosophy and is unworkable simply because it is not true. [Hubbard, L. Ron "Handbook for Preclears", p. 10, Bridge Publications Inc., 1989 ISBN 0-88404-420-3]
The tone scale characterizes human mood and behavior by various positions on a scale from −40 ("Total Failure") to +40 ("Serenity of Being"). Positions on the tone scale are usually designated by an emotion, but Hubbard said the tone scale could also indicate health, mating behavior, survival potential or ability to deal with truth. According to Scientology, lower positions on the tone scale indicate more intricate problems and greater difficulties in solving them for lack of communication. According to Hubbard, communication is the universal solvent and a person will climb from the bottom to the top by improving his ability to communicate. The higher the person’s tone is the better the person’s communication is; the lower the tone is the worse the communication is. A hi-tone person would be serene and a low tone would be a failure. ["Dianetics and Scientology Technical Dictionary", tone scale]
Scientology and Dianetics state that the basic principle of existence is to survive [cite book
first =J. Gordon
authorlink =J. Gordon Melton
title =The Church of Scientology
publisher =Signature Press
location =Salt Lake City
isbn =1-56085-139-2 ] and that man survives across the eight dynamics of Self, Family and Sex, Group, Humanity, Life, the Universe, Spirituality and the Supreme Being or Infinity. [cite book
first =J. Gordon
authorlink =J. Gordon Melton
title =The Church of Scientology
publisher =Signature Press
location =Salt Lake City
isbn =1-56085-139-2 ] Actions are considered "good" if they promote survival across all eight dynamics or realms of action. [cite book
first =J. Gordon
authorlink =J. Gordon Melton
title =The Church of Scientology
publisher =Signature Press
location =Salt Lake City
isbn =1-56085-139-2 ]
Morals and Ethics
The Way to Happiness, which defines morals as "a code of good conduct laid down out of the experience of the race to serve as a uniform yardstick for the conduct of individuals and groups" [Introduction to Scientology Ethics, 2007 ed., p. 25] but warns that "over time, morals can become outmoded, burdensome, and so invite revolt." [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/scientology-ethics.htm ScientologyEthics.org] ]
Scientology states that there is no absolute right or wrong but that right and wrong are actually a gradient from right to wrong. An action must contain construction which outweighs the destruction it contains in order to be considered good. "Good is any action which brings the greatest construction to the greatest number of dynamics while bringing the least destruction. "An 'absolute wrongness' would be the extinction of the universe and all energy and the source of energy. . . . An 'absolute "rightness"' would be the immortality of the individual himself, his children, his group, mankind and the universe."Hubbard, Introduction to Scientology Ethics, 2007 ed,; Gradient Scale of Right and Wrong, 15-21]
Scientology defines ethics as "the actions an individual takes on himself to ensure his continued survival across the dynamics. It is a personal thing that an ethical person does by his own choice." [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/scientology-ethics.htm Scientology ethics and judicial matters] ] "Ethics actually consists of rationality toward the highest level of survival for the individual, the future race, the group, Mankind and the other dynamics taken up collectively. Ethics are reason. Man's greatest weapon is his reason." According to Scientology, various ethical states or "conditions" represent one's degree of success and delineate a sequence of steps to improve that condition of existence. [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/page02.htm ScientologyEthics.org, The Conditions of Existence] ] From best to worst, these "conditions" are Power, Affluence, Normal, Emergency, Danger, Non-Existence, Liability, Doubt, Enemy, Treason and Confusion. Scientologists are expected to use statistical measurement to assess "measurement of survival potential," [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/page06.htm The antisocial personality] ] where a downward trend could identify an 'emergency condition' and an upward trend could identify a 'affluence condition'. [Hubbard, Introduction to Scientology Ethics, 2007 ed., Statistics Trends and Stats Interpretation, p. 85] According to "The Scientology Handbook", the Scientology method of statistics can and should be applied to individuals, groups and organizations inside and outside of Scientology. [ [http://www.scientologyethics.org/page05.htm ScientologyEthics.org] Statistics: The Measurement of Survival] Prof.
Stephen A. Kentquotes Hubbard as pronouncing that "the purpose of ethics is to remove counter-intentions from the environment. Having accomplished that, the purpose becomes to remove other intentionedness from the environment." Kent interprets this as "a peculiar brand of morality that uniquely benefited [the Church of Scientology] . . . . In plain English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then eliminate people's interests in things other than Scientology."cite journal | author = Stephen A. Kent | authorlink = Stephen A. Kent | year = 2003 | month = September | title = Scientology and the European Human Rights Debate: A Reply to Leisa Goodman, J. Gordon Melton, and the European Rehabilitation Project Force Study | journal = Marburg Journal of Religion | volume = 8 | issue = 1 | url = http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/kent3.html | accessdate = 2006-05-21]
For example, in Scientology it is considered a high crime to accept for processing: people who are
terminally ill, people who have an extensive history of psychiatric treatment, people who have been denied processing on the grounds that it might affect the safetyand securityof the organization and people who are members or ex-members, or in families of members or ex-members of media, police spyorganizations and governmentspy organizations or any other federal agencyin any country. ["High Crime Policy Letter", Hubbard Communications Office Policy Letter (HCOPL), 6 Dec 1976RB, revised 8 April 1988]
In 1952, Hubbard reported he was able to stand as a unit of life independently of the physical body. This singular event marks the beginning of Scientology as a religion. ["What is Scientology?", p. 476, Bridge Publications Inc., 1998 ISBN 1-57318-122-6] In the fall of 1952, he added Creative Processing to "Self-Analysis", a book that had been published the previous year. He writes, "...In reviewing these lists, many people, imagining various things, will suddenly get a complete reality on being 'outside' their bodies. This is not imaginary. And it is not bad. It is actually desirable". [L. Ron Hubbard "Self-Analysis in Scientology", Exercise IX, 1953, U.S.A.] In 1960, the Creative Processing version was replaced in broad distribution by "Self Analysis", as it was originally published and continues to be published to this day. [L. Ron Hubbard "Create and Confront", Hubbard Communications Office, HCOB 11 Feb 60]
Exteriorization as it is known in Scientology is to "be three feet back of your head". [L. Ron Hubbard "The Creation of Human Ability", p. 57, Bridge Publications Inc., 2007 ISBN 978-1-4031-4421-8] Hubbard is very emphatic about the fact that it should not be mixed up with the projection of the astral body; [
Sylvan Muldoon& Hereward Carrington "The Projection of the Astral Body", Weiser Books, 1973 ISBN 0-87728-069-X] if it is, a great deal of difficulty would ensue. [L. Ron Hubbard "Scientology 8-8008", p. 205, Bridge Publications Inc., 2007 ISBN 978-1-4031-4416-4]
Past lives, "Secret" Levels and Extraterrestrial beings
In Dianetics, Hubbard proposed that the cause of "aberrations" in a human mind was an accumulation of pain and unconscious memories of traumatic incidents, some of which predated the life of the human. He extended this view further in Scientology, declaring that "thetans" have existed for tens of trillions of years (several
orders of magnitudegreater than what mainstream science generally estimates the age of the universeto be). During that time, Hubbard says, they have been exposed to a vast number of traumatic incidents, and have made a great many decisions that influence their present state. Hubbard's 1958 book " Have You Lived Before This Life" contains descriptions of past lives given by individual Scientologists during auditing sessions. According to an early lecture of Hubbard's, it is, as a practical matter, both impossible and undesirable to recall each and every such event from such vast stretches of time. [20th ACC, 7 August 1958, Lecture #19 "The most basic rock of all"] As a result, Hubbard's three-decade development of Scientology focused on addressing only "key factors."
According to Hubbard, some past traumas may have been deliberately inflicted in the form of "implants" used by extraterrestrial dictatorships such as
Helatrobusto brainwash and control the population. Hubbard's lectures and writings include a wide variety of accounts of complex extraterrestrial civilizations and alien interventions in earthly events, collectively described by Hubbard as "space opera." There is a huge Church of Spiritual Technologysymbol carved into the ground at Scientology's Trementina Basethat is visible from the air. [Coordinates of Trementina Base coord|35.511549|-104.579887|type:landmark|name=Trementina Base] Washington Post reporter Richard Leiby wrote, "Former Scientologists familiar with Hubbard’s teachings on reincarnation say the symbol marks a 'return point' so loyal staff members know where they can find the founder’s works when they travel here in the future from other places in the universe." [Leiby, Richard [http://www.freenewmexican.com/news/35633.html Scientology church’s mark inscribed in N.M. desert scrub] , published 29 November 2005 in the "Free New Mexican" (website accessed 04/15/06)]
Scientologists who have achieved the State of Clear may continue onto the Upper or OT (Operating Thetan) Levels. These levels are available by invitation only after a review of the candidate's character, ethics and contribution to the aims of Scientology.cite news | first = Janet | last = Reitman | title = Inside Scientology: Unlocking the complex code of America's most mysterious religion | url = http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/9363363/inside_scientology/4 | work =
Rolling Stone| page = 4 | date = 2006-02-23| accessdate = 2007-07-22] Individuals who have read these materials may not disclose what they contain without jeopardizing their standing in the Church. Presently, there are eight such levels, OT I to VIII.cite web |url = http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part02/chp06/pg0181_1.html |title = Scientology Large Classification Gradation and Awareness Chart |accessdate = 2007-07-22 |publisher = Church of Scientology |format = image] Church management has promised to release a ninth OT level once certain expansion goals are met. [cite web |url= http://www.xenu.net/archive/ot/|title= OT Levels|accessdate=2007-05-28 |format= HTML|work= Xenu.net|publisher= Operation Clambake] The OT VIII designation is only granted at sea, on the Scientology ship, the " Freewinds", which was established to provide a "safe, aesthetic, distraction-free environment" for this purpose. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/groups/pg011.html Description of purpose of the freewinds] ]
The organization says that it enforces confidentiality. Excerpts and descriptions of these materials were published online by a former member in 1995 and then circulated in mainstream media. This occurred after the teachings were submitted as evidence in court cases involving Scientology, thus becoming a matter of public record.cite web | first = Tony| last = Ortega| title = Double Crossed| url = http://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/1999-12-23/news/double-crossed/full| work =
Phoenix New Times| publisher = Village Voice Media| date = 1999-12-23| accessdate = 2007-09-16] cite web | first = Matt| last = Hines| title = Scientology loss keeps hyperlinks legal| url = http://news.com.com/2100-1028_3-5072581.html | publisher = CNET| date = 2003-09-08| accessdate = 2007-09-16] In the previously confidential OT levels, Hubbard explains how to reverse the effects of past-life trauma patterns that supposedly extend millions of years into the past.
Among these advanced teachings, one episode revealed to those who reach OT level III is the story of
Xenu(sometimes Xemu), introduced as an alien ruler of the " Galactic Confederacy." According to this story, 75 million years ago Xenu brought billions of people to Earth in spacecraft resembling Douglas DC-8airliners, stacked them around volcanoes and blew them up with hydrogen bombs. Their souls then clustered together, stuck to the bodies of the living and continue to do this today. Hubbard called these clustered spirits " Body Thetans," and advanced-level Scientologists place considerable emphasis on isolating these alien souls and neutralizing their ill effects. [cite journal | last = Sappell | first = Joel | coauthors = Robert W. Welkos | title = The Scientology Story | journal = Los Angeles Times|pages = page A36:1|date = 24 June 1990 | url = http://www.latimes.com/news/local/inland/la-scientology-sg,1,7389843.storygallery?coll=la-editions-inland-news | accessdate = 2006-08-09 Another link: [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Library/Shelf/la90/la90.html Carnegie-Mellon University] ]
The central practice of Scientology is "auditing," a one-on-one session with a Scientology counselor or "auditor." Most auditing requires an
E-meter, a device that measures minute changes in electrical resistancethrough the body when a person holds electrodes (metal "cans"), and a small current is passed through them; Scientology states that it helps locate an area of concern. [US Patent and Trademark Office [http://patimg2.uspto.gov/.piw?Docid=03290589&idkey=NONE Device for Measuring and Indicating Changes in the Resistance of a Human Body] ; Inventor: Lafayette R. Hubbard; expired patent issued 6 December 1966]
In the auditing process, the recipient (referred to as a "preclear" or PC) discloses specific traumatic incidents, prior ethical transgressions and bad decisions, which, in Scientology theory, collectively restrict the preclear from achieving his or her goals and lead to the development of a "reactive mind." In one form of auditing, the auditor asks the preclear to respond to a list of questions in strict order. The preclear is "a willing and interested participant who understands the questions" and what is going on.cite web | title = The Auditors' Code, Rule 19 | work = What is Scientology Auditing? | publisher = Church of Scientology International | url = http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/auditing/pg004a.html | accessdate = 2007-02-26 ] Auditors are not to suggest, interpret, degrade or invalidate the answers. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/auditing/pg009.html Scientology Auditing and Earlier Practices] ] Scientologists state that benefits from auditing include improved IQ, improved ability to communicate and enhanced memory. [ [http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part05/chp19/index.html Scientology "Success Stories"] ]
During the auditing process, the auditor may collect personal information from the person being audited. Auditing records are referred to within Scientology as "PC (preclear) folders" and are stored securely when not being added to during auditing sessions. [cite paper | title = Agreement Regarding Confidential Religious Files | publisher = Church of Scientology / Flag Service Organization | url = http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Scientology/ReleaseForms/Introspection.html#Files | accessdate = 2006-07-11] Auditors promise never to use secrets divulged in a session for punishment or personal gain, however reports suggest this is the purpose of maintaining these files. [cite news |first = Richard |last = Behar |author = Richard Behar|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,972865,00.html |title = The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power |work = Time Magazine |page = C1 |date =
Training is the supervised process of learning and applying Scientology and auditing, is considered as important as auditing, [http://training.scientology.org/wis5_11.htm A description of Scientology training] ] and follows a checklist that indicates which of Hubbard's writings and lectures are to be studied. The student must demonstrate mastery of each topic in turn to get a pass in the checklist item. Getting well trained depends exclusively on an implicit obedience to L. Ron Hubbard Ethics, Technology and Administration; otherwise, the person undergoing training will get into a lot of unnecessary hassle. [L. Ron Hubbard "Keeping Scientology Working", Series 1, Hubbard Communications Office, HCOPL 7 Feb 65]
Scientology training consists of Academy Levels 0-IV and New Era Dianetics, also termed Academy Level V. The first five levels take two weeks each on a 40-hours-per-week schedule. [ [http://training.scientology.org/14-acad.htm Academy Auditors Training] ] Level VI, the Saint Hill Special Briefing Course, is done at special advanced organizations and comprises 16 individual checklists, each requiring an average of three to four weeks of study, and covering in total 12,000 pages of materials and 450 lectures. [ [http://training.scientology.org/14-shsbc.htm The Saint Hill Special Briefing Course] ]
ilent birth and infant care
Stemming from his belief that birth is a trauma that may induce engrams, Hubbard stated that the delivery room should be as silent as possible cite web | last = Church of Scientology | year = 2006 | url = http://www.scientology.org/html/en_US/news-media/index.html | title = Scientology Newsroom | accessdate = 2006-08-07 ] and that words should be avoided because any words used during birth might be reassociated by adults with their earlier traumatic birth experience.
Hubbard also wrote that the mother should use "as little anesthetic as possible." [Hubbard, "Dianetics", quoted in [http://www.silentbirth.org/experts.php SilentBirth.org] . Accessed 2007-06-15] In the 1960s Hubbard gave certain dietary recommendations, [
University of Miami: [http://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/ebm/record/17428115/full_citation/Infantile_Scurvy:_An_Old_Diagnosis_Revisited_with_a_Modern_Dietary_Twist statement on Hubbard's infant diet] ] writing that breastfeedingshould be avoided if the mother is smoking, drinking or is lacking good nutrition herself. ["The Auditor", No. 6, 1965, article "Healthy Babies"] Hubbard described common replacement formulas as "mixed milk powder, glucose and water, total carbohydrate" and offered as an alternative to commercial products what he called the "Barley Formula" made from barleywater, homogenized milk and corn syrup. [Hubbard, "Barley Formula For Babies," HCO Bulletin, 28 April 1991R Issue I] Hubbard said that he "picked it up in Roman days,"Hubbard, "Processing a New Mother", HCO Bulletin, 20 December 1958] referring to the use of barley. [The Auditor Nr. 6, 1965, "Healthy Babies". Quote: "Roman troops marched on barley. Barley is the highest protein content cereal"] Hubbard crafted the barley formula to, in his words, provide "a heavy percentage of protein" and called it "the nearest approach to human milk that can be assembled easily."cite book |editor='LRH Book Compilations staff of the Church of Scientology International,' based on the works of Hubbard |title=The Scientology Handbook |edition=1994 |publisher= Bridge Publications|location=Los Angeles, California |isbn=0-88404-899-3] Although the formula is still popular with many Scientologists, health practitioners advise that it is an inappropriate replacement due to the absence of important nutrients like Vitamin C, [ [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=17428115 Pub Med] ] the lack of which causes scurvy.
The Church of Scientology provides Sunday services and social ceremonies for marriage, birth and death that are performed by an ordained Scientology minister. [http://www.cesnur.org/2005/pa_dericquebourg.htm Paper, Are the Ceremonies of the Church of Scientology really important?, By Professor Regis Dericquebourg, Group of sociology of religion and laïcité, France] ] [http://theology.scientology.org/eng/pdf/scientology-04-religious-practice.pdf Scientology: Religious practice] ] Most, if not all, of the actual ceremonies used were written by L. Ron Hubbard and are collected in the book, "Ceremonies of the Church of Scientology". [ [http://theology.scientology.org/eng/pdf/scientology-15-true-religion.pdf Scientology: True religion] ] At a funeral service, the minister speaks directly to the departing spirit and grants forgiveness for anything the deceased has done so he can begin life anew. quote|We do not contest your right to go away. Your debts are paid. This chapter of thy life is shut. Go now, dear [deceased] , and live once more in happier time and place.
The Church has an official membership system, the
International Association of Scientologists, but IAS membership is not what the Church means by 'member.' Estimates of Scientology adherents worldwide vary considerably. [http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html Breakdown of Worldwide Religions By Adherents] ] In 2005 Scientology stated its worldwide membership at 8 million people, and that number included people who took only the introductory course and didn't continue on.cite web | first = Frank K. | last = Flinn | title = Scientology | url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2005/06/30/DI2005063001394.html | work = Live discussion | publisher = Washington Post| date = 2005-07-05| accessdate = 2008-02-04 ] In 2007 the Church claimed 3.5 million members in the United States, [ [http://www.rickross.com/reference/scientology/history/history120.html Kansas City Star 17 March 2007; article reprinted at rickross.com] ] but according to a 2001 survey published by the City University of New York, 55,000 people in the United Stateswould, if asked to identify their religion, have stated Scientology [Kosmin, Barry A. et al [http://www.gc.cuny.edu/faculty/research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm American Religious Identification Survey] ] Scientologists tend to disparage such surveys on the grounds that many members maintaining cultural and social ties to other religious groups will, when asked their religion, answer with their traditional and more socially acceptable affiliation. Religious scholar J. Gordon Meltonhas said that the church's estimates of its membership numbers are exaggerated. [cite web |url = http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,595091823,00.html |title = Scientology: Church now claims more than 8 million members |accessdate = 2007-08-01 |last = Jarvik |first = Elaine |date = 2004-09-18|work = Deseret News|quote= If the church indeed had 4 million members in the United States, he says, "they would be like the Lutherans and would show up on a national survey" such as the Harris poll]
Scientology is composed of a complex network of corporations, churches and organizations all geared towards promoting the use and dissemination of Scientology and related techniques.
The Church of Spiritual Technology is a non-profit organization that owns the copyrights to Scientology books. The Religious Technology Center (RTC) holds trademarks over the words Dianetics and Scientology. [ [http://www.rtc.org/ Religious Technology Center Web Site] ] Scientology organizations must license the right to use Scientology and related techniques from this organization. Its stated purpose is to maintain Scientology pure per the writings of L. Ron Hubbard. [cite web | url = http://www.whatisscientology.org/html/part06/chp23/index.html | title = The Guarantor of Scientology's Future: Religious Technology Center | publisher = Church of Scientology] The RTC's Chairman is
David Miscavige, who, while not the titular head of the Church of Scientology, is believed to be the most powerful person in the Scientology movement. [cite web | first = Thomas C. | last = Tobin | title = The Man Behind Scientology | url = http://www.sptimes.com/TampaBay/102598/scientologypart1.html | work = St. Petersburg Times| date = 1998-10-25| accessdate = 2008-10-11 ] The Church of Scientology Internationalis the mother church of Scientology and manages all affiliated Scientology organizations worldwide. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/management/pg003.html Official Scientology web site: The Church of Scientology International] ]
The first Church of Scientology was incorporated in
Camden, New Jerseyas a non-profit organizationin 1953. The Scientology missions directory reports over 300 missions, [http://www.smi.org/address/index.htm List of Scientology Missions] ] delivering basic Dianetics and Scientology services in 50 countries worldwide. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/groups/pg002.html Scientology Missions] ] A Scientology Mission is considered a church when it has reached the size required to administer all courses and auditing required for delivering the state of "clear." [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/groups// Churches, Missions and Groups] ] Overall there are 142 churches in 28 countries established worldwide. [http://www.churchofscientology.com/ Directory of Church of Scientology] ] Scientology's "Advanced Organizations" are churches specialized in the delivering of higher training levels. [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/religion/groups/pg007.html Advanced Organizations] ] Those organizations are located in Los Angeles; Clearwater, Florida; [ [http://www.sptimes.com/2004/07/18/Tampabay/Scientology_s_town.shtml Scientology's town, St Petersburg Times, 18 July 2004] ] Great Britain; Sydney, Australia; Copenhagen; and the cruise ship Freewinds. [ [http://www.freewinds.org/ Church of Scientology Flag Ship Service Organization] ]
World Institute of Scientology Enterprises(WISE) licenses Hubbard's management techniques for use in businesses.
Association for Better Living and Education(ABLE), a non-profit organization with the stated purpose of reversing social decay, has four subdivisions: [ [http://www.able.org/ Able Web Site] ]
Narcononmanages a number of drug treatment centers worldwide and was founded by William Benitez in 1966. [ [http://www.narconon.org/about_benitez.htm Origins of the Narconon Program] ] Benitez was an inmate who found a book by Hubbard in the Arizona State Prison library and got himself and other inmates off drugs. [ [http://www.narconon.org/about_narconon.htm Description of the Narconon program] ]
Criminonmanages drug rehabilitation programs for inmates.
*The Way to Happiness foundation promotes a
secularmoral code written by Hubbard.
Applied Scholasticspromotes the use of Hubbard's educational methods.
Scientologists take part in a number of social reform and charitable activities:
* Activities to reform the field of mental health according to the theories of Hubbard (
Citizens Commission on Human Rights);
political action committee( Citizens for Social Reform), to promote social programs with U.S. legislators;
* A campaign directed to implement the group's interpretation of the 1948 United Nations document "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights" (with particular emphasis on religious freedom). [ [http://www.youthforhumanrights.org/about/index.html Youth for Human Rights] ]
*Started in 1993, the Drug-Free Marshals is a youth drug-education and prevention program. Providing free literature and information about drugs, they claim to have "sworn in" 3.1 million people as "Marshals" who pledge to remain drug-free and to encourage their peers to do the same. [cite web |url = http://www.drugfreemarshals.org/ |title = Drug-Free Marshals |accessdate = 2007-07-30 |publisher = Church of Scientology]
* Another Scientology anti-drug campaign is the "No to Drugs - Yes to Life" campaign, geared toward the public at large. [cite web |url = http://www.drugfreeworld.org/ |title = Foundation for a Drug-Free World |accessdate = 2007-07-30 |publisher = Church of Scientology]
Freedom Magazine, Scientology’s journal that is mailed to politicians and public figures, addresses issues that concern the Church of Scientology.
Scientology Volunteer Ministersdedicate their time to help in disaster relief efforts and other charitable causes. Over the weekend, Scientology churches set up tents in towns and cities in their area and Volunteer Ministers provide one-on-one attention to people who visit.
cientology splinter groups
Although "Scientology" is most often used as shorthand for the
Church of Scientology, a number of groups practice Scientology and Dianetics outside of the official Church. Some groups are breakaways from the original Church while others have started up independently. The largest such group -- an informal "network" rather than an organization -- is known as the Free Zone, founded in 1982 by former Sea OrgCapt. Bill Robertson (1935 - 1991). [http://www.freezone.org/news/intro.htm Introduction ] ]
The Church labels these groups as "squirrels" in Scientology jargon, and often subjects them to considerable legal and social pressure.
Two organizations that are sometimes confused with Scientology (due to a similarity in names) are
Christian Scienceand Religious Science/ Science of Mind. While Christian Science and Religious Science share some common roots (see New Thought) to each other, Scientology has no connection to them. [cite book | last =Riess | first =Jana | title =Spiritual Traveler: A Guide to Sacred Sites and Peaceful Places | publisher =Hidden Spring | year =2002 | location = Boston, Massachusetts| pages =15 | isbn = 1587680084] [ + cite web | last = Cunningham | first = Bill | authorlink = Bill Cunningham | title = The power of prayer, in good times and bad | publisher = The Orange County Register | date = 2008-02-22| url = http://www.ocregister.com/life/christian-science-healing-1985864-prayer-church# | accessdate = 2008-04-25 ] The only thing these churches or religious organizations have in common, at variance with psychiatry in particular and the schools of psychology in general, is the practice of spiritual mental healing. [ Ernest Holmes"The Science of Mind", p. 167, G. P. Putnam's Sons ISBN 0-399-15007-2 ] According to Freud himself who was a self-proclaimed atheist, "...Religion would thus be the universal obsessional neurosis of humanity". The American psychologist William Jameswrites: "...'The science of religions' can only suggest, not proclaim, a religious creed". [William James "The Varieties of Religious Experience", p. 370, New American Library Mentor Book, 1958 ASIN: B000NPXD4C]
Scientologists believe they are obliged to work towards making the benefits of Scientology available to all people without haranguing(1988). "Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought", p.5, 17, and 110. ISBN 0-88404-341-X.] anyone, with the first and second pledges of "The Code of a Scientologist" being, respectively:
#"To keep Scientologists, the public and the press accurately informed concerning Scientology, the world of mental health and society."
#"To use the best I know of Scientology to the best of my ability to help my family, friends, groups and the world."They believe that this is done with, "no effort...to be authoritarian," but critics argue that Scientology insists it be approached in only one way:
*"To study Scientology one should scan quickly through the basics...One should continue to do this until he [sic] feels some friendliness to the subject...and "only" when one has achieved this, he should then study all the basic principles".
Scientology has attracted several artists and entertainers, particularly
Hollywoodcelebrities. Hubbard saw to the formation of a special church which would cater to artists, politicians, leaders of industry, sports figures and anyone with the power and vision "to create a better world." [ [http://www.scientology.cc/en_US/about/index.html CC International in Hollywood] ] There are eight so-called Celebrity Centres, although Hollywood is the largest. Entertainers — including John Travolta, Kirstie Alley, Lisa Marie Presley, Jason Lee, Isaac Hayes, Tom Cruise, and Katie Holmes— have generated considerable publicity for Scientology. Former Scientologists say that celebrity practitioners get more attention than non-celebrity practitioners. For example, former Scientologist Maureen Bolstad noted that a couple of dozen Scientologists including herself were put to work on a rainy night through dawn planting grass in order "to help Tom impress Nicole (Kidman)." ["We were told that we needed to plant a field and that it was to help Tom impress Nicole … but for some mysterious reason it wasn't considered acceptable by Mr. Miscavige. So the project was rejected and they redid it."cite news |author = Hoffman, Claire |coauthors = Christensen, Kim |url = http://www.latimes.com/business/la-fi-scientology18dec18,0,7000009,full.story?coll=la-home-headlines |title = Tom Cruise and Scientology |work = Los Angeles Times |date = 2005-12-18|accessdate = 2006-11-14] Andre Tabayoyon, a former Scientologist and Sea Orgstaffer, testified in a 1994 affidavit that money from non-profit Scientology organizations and labor from those organizations (including the Rehabilitation Project Force) had gone to provide special facilities for Scientology celebrities, which were not available to other Scientologists. [ [http://www.whyaretheydead.net/krasel/aff_at.html Affidavit of Andre Tabayoyon] , 5 March 1994, in "Church of Scientology International vs. Steven Fishman and Uwe Geertz"] "A Sea Org staffer was taken along to do personal cooking for Tom Cruise and Miscavige at the expense of Scientology non-profit religious organizations. This left only 3 cooks at Gold Baseto cook for 800 people three times a day. . . . Apartment cottages were built for the use of John Travolta, Kirstie Alley, Edgar Winter, Priscilla Presleyand other Scientology celebrities who are carefully prevented from finding out the real truth about the Scientology organization. . . . Miscavige decided to redo the meadow in beautiful flowers; tens of thousands of dollars were spent on the project so that Cruise and Kidman could romp there. However, Miscavige inspected the project and didn't like it. So the whole meadow was plowed up, destroyed, replowed and sown with plain grass." [ [http://www.whyaretheydead.net/krasel/aff_at.html Affidavit of Andre Tabayoyon] , 5 March 1994, in "Church of Scientology International vs. Steven Fishman and Uwe Geertz", contradicted in [http://www.freewebtown.com/luana/11apr94-mudslide.pdf sworn declaration of staffer James Hall] , 11 April 1994] Diana Canova, who experienced Scientology both before and during her period of TV stardom, expressed it in a September 1993 interview: "When I started, I wasn't in television yet. I was a nobody—I'd done some TV, but I was not one of the elite, not by a long shot—until I did "Soap". Then it became…I mean, you really are treated like royalty." [John H. Richardson. [http://rickross.org/reference/scientology/Scien12.html Catch a Rising Star] . Premiere Magazine/September 1993]
Of the many
new religious movements to appear during the 20th century, the Church of Scientologyhas, from its inception, been one of the most controversial, coming into conflict with the governments and police forces of several countries (including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada [cite news |first = Lucy |last = Morgan |title = Abroad: Critics public and private keep pressure on Scientology |url = http://www.sptimes.com/News/32999/Worldandnation/Abroad__Critics_publi.html |publisher = St. Petersburg Times|date = 1999-03-29|accessdate = 2007-09-07|quote=Canada's highest court in 1997 upheld the criminal conviction of the Church of Scientology of Toronto and one of its officers for a breach of trust stemming from covert operations in Canadian government offices during the 1970s and 1980s.] and Germany) numerous times over the years.cite news |first = Richard |last = Leiby |author = Richard Leiby|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/06/AR2005070601351.html |title = Scientology Fiction: The Church's War Against Its Critics — and Truth |work = The Washington Post|page = C1 |date = 1994-12-25| accessdate=2006-06-21] cite web | last=Goodin | first=Dan | year=1999-06-03 | url = http://news.com.com/2100-1023-226676.html | title=Scientology subpoenas Worldnet | publisher=CNET News.com | accessdate=2006-05-04] cite news |title = Remember Venus? |url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,889564,00.html |publisher = Time Magazine |date = 1952-12-22|accessdate = 2007-07-20] cite news |first = Richard |last = Behar |author = Richard Behar|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,972865,00.html |title = The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power |work = Time Magazine |page = C1 |date = 1991-05-06| accessdate=2007-07-16] cite web |url = http://www.scientology.org/en_US/news-media/faq/pg043.html |title = Why do some people oppose Scientology? |accessdate = 2007-11-27 |work = Frequently Asked Questions |publisher = Church of Scientology] [cite web |url = http://www.scientology.org/en_US/news-media/faq/pg047.html |title = What was the Guardian’s Office and does it still exist? |accessdate = 2007-11-27 |work = Frequently Asked Questions |publisher = Church of Scientology] [cite web |url = http://www.scientology.org/en_US/news-media/faq/pg046.html |title = Why has the German government tried to portray Scientology as controversial? |accessdate = 2007-11-27 |work = Frequently Asked Questions |publisher = Church of Scientology] [cite web |url = http://www.freedommag.org/english/vol27i5/page07.htm |title = The story behind the controversy |accessdate = 2007-11-27 |work = Freedom Magazine |publisher = Church of Scientology] [ [http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/pdf/2001/schoen2001.pdf Marburg Journal of Religion: Framing Effects in the Coverage of Scientology versus Germany: Some Thoughts on the Role of Press and Scholars] ] [cite web
url = http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35456.htm
title = International Religious Freedom Report 2007
accessdate = 2007-11-14
author = Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
authorlink = United States Department of State
date = 2007-09-14
work = Germany
publisher = U.S. Department of State
quote = The Basic Law (Constitution) provides for religious freedom, and the Government generally respected this right in practice with some exceptions.] [cite web
url = http://www.germany.info/relaunch/info/archives/background/scientology.html
title = Understanding the German view of Scientology
accessdate = 2008-01-21
author = German Embassy, Washington D.C.
date = 2008-01-21
publisher = German Embassy, Washington D.C.
quote = ...it is simply outrageous to compare the current German leadership to the Nazi-era leadership...]
Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its members.cite news |first = Richard |last = Leiby |author = Richard Leiby|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/06/AR2005070601351.html |title = Scientology Fiction: The Church's War Against Its Critics — and Truth |work =
The Washington Post|page = C1 |date = 1994-12-25| accessdate=2006-06-21] Some critics of Scientology have recanted under duress. [Corydon, Bent, "L. Ron Hubbard: Messiah or Madman?" (Barricade Books, 1992), p. 423.] In some cases of US litigation against the Church, former Scientologists appearing as expert witnesses have since stated that they submitted false and inflammatory declarations intended to incite prejudice against Scientology, [ [http://home.snafu.de/tilman/mgarde/spurlock.txt LDS vs FBI] ] and harassed key Scientology executives, by advancing unfounded opinions to get a case dropped or to obtain a settlement. [http://www.whyaretheydead.net/lisa_mcpherson/bob/affi_stacy2_04_29.htm Stacy Brooks affidavit recanting earlier affidavits] ]
The German government takes the view that Scientology is a commercial, rather than religious organization, and has even gone so far as to consider a ban on Scientology. [cite news
title = Germany moves to ban Scientology
url = http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/12/07/germany.scientology.ap/index.html
accessdate = 2007-12-07
language = English]
Belgium, France, Ireland, Luxembourgand the United Kingdomhave not recognized Scientology as a religion. [" [http://www.germany.info/relaunch/info/archives/background/scientology.html Understanding the German View of Scientology] " German Embassy, Washington, D.C.] Scientology has also not been recognized as a religion in Israelor Mexico. The Belgian State Prosecution Service has recommended that various individuals and organizations associated with Scientology should be prosecuted. [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,295693,00.html FOXNews.com - Church of Scientology Faces Criminal Charges in Belgium - International News] ] cite web | first = Roland | last = Planchar | title = La Scientologie plus près de son procès | url = http://www.lalibre.be/article.phtml?id=10&subid=90&art_id=368037 | publisher = La Libre Belgique | date = 2007-09-04 | accessdate = 2008-05-13 fr icon] An administrative court is to decide if charges will be pressed.
The controversies involving the Church and its critics, some of them ongoing, include:
disconnectionpolicy, in which members are encouraged to cut off all contact with friends or family members considered "antagonistic." [ [http://faq.scientology.org/discon.htm Scientology web site: What is "disconnection"?] ] cite news |author = Robert Farley |url = http://www.sptimes.com/2006/06/24/Tampabay/The_unperson.shtml |title = The unperson |publisher = St. Petersburg Times|date = 2006-06-24|pages = 1A, 14A|accessdate = 2007-06-24]
* The death of a Scientologist
Lisa McPhersonwhile in the care of the Church. (Robert Minton sponsored the multi-million dollar law suit against Scientology for the death of Lisa Mcpherson. On May 2004, the estate of Lisa McPherson and the Church of Scientology reached a settlement that to this day has remained confidential). [ [http://www.sptimes.com/2004/05/29/Tampabay/Scientologists_settle.shtml Lisa McPherson lawsuit settlement] ]
* Criminal activities committed on behalf of the Church or directed by Church officials (
Operation Snow White, Operation Freakout)
* Conflicting statements about L. Ron Hubbard's life, in particular accounts of Hubbard discussing his intent to start a religion for profit, and of his service in the military.Behar, Richard [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Fishman/time-behar.html Scientology: The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power, Ruined lives. Lost fortunes. Federal crimes. Scientology poses as a religion but really is a ruthless global scam—and aiming for the mainstream] Time Magazine, 6 May 1991 courtesy link, (accessed 04/20/06)]
* Scientology's harassment and litigious actions against its critics encouraged by its Fair Game policy.
* Attempts to legally force search engines such as Google and Yahoo to omit any webpages critical of Scientology from their search engines (and in Google's case,
AdSense), or at least the first few search pages. [cite news
author = Matt Loney
coauthors = Evan Hansen
title = Google pulls anti-Scientology links
url = http://news.com.com/2100-1023-865936.html
CNet| date = 2002-03-21
accessdate = 2007-05-10]
Due to these allegations, a considerable amount of investigation has been aimed at the Church, by groups ranging from the media to governmental agencies.cite news |first = Richard |last = Leiby |author = Richard Leiby|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/07/06/AR2005070601351.html |title = Scientology Fiction: The Church's War Against Its Critics — and Truth |work =
The Washington Post|page = C1 |date = 1994-12-25| accessdate=2006-06-21]
Although Scientologists are usually free to practice their beliefs, the organized church has often encountered opposition due to their strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization. While a number of governments now view the Church as a religious organization entitled to protections and tax relief, others view it as a
pseudoreligionor a cult. [ [http://www.humanrights-germany.org/issues/eng/relapa96/bonafide.htm Scientology is a Bona Fide Religion Serving Exclusively Religious and Charitable Purposes] ] [ Cite paper
title=The Religious Status of Scientology: Is Scientology a Religion?
publisher=University of Calgary
date=1978, rev. 1997
url = http://www.ucalgary.ca/~nurelweb/papers/irving/scient.html
accessdate=2006-06-13] The differences between these classifications has become a major problem when discussing religions in general and Scientology specifically.
While acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, sociologist
Stephen A. Kentwrote: "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only "one" ["sic"] element of which is religious." [Cite paper | author=Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin | title=Scientology: Religion or racket? | publisher=Marburg Journal of Religion |date=September 2003 | format=PDF | url=http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/pdf/2003/breit2003.pdf | accessdate=2006-06-14] Cite paper | author= Kent, Stephen | title= Scientology—Is this a Religion? | publisher=Marburg Journal of Religion | date=July 1999 | url=http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/kent.html | accessdate=2006-08-26]
Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewise drawn both support and criticism. [cite news | first = Luke | last = Gianni | title = Scientology does detox—David E. Root, M.D | url = http://www.newsreview.com/sacramento/Content?oid=283982 | work = local stories > 15 minutes | publisher =
Sacramento News & Review| date = 2007-02-22| accessdate = 2007-05-06] [cite web | first = David | last = Seifman | title = Local Pols Cruised in Free to Tom Gala | url = http://www.nypost.com/seven/04212007/news/regionalnews/local_pols_cruised_in_free_to_tom_gala_regionalnews_david_seifman__city_hall_bureau_chief.htm | work = | publisher = New York Post| date = 2007-04-21| accessdate = 2007-11-27 ] [cite web | title = Monserrate Defends Detox Program | url = http://www.observer.com/2007/monserrate-defends-detox-program | work = The Politicker | publisher = New York Observer| date = 2007-04-20| accessdate = 2007-11-27 ] [cite web | first = Lauren | last = Etter | title = Program for prisoners draws fire over Scientology | url = http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07019/755193-28.stm | work = Wall Street Journal| publisher = Pittsburgh Post-Gazette| date = 2007-01-19| accessdate = 2007-11-27 ]
In some instances, former members have claimed the Church used information obtained in auditing sessions against them. [cite book | first=Jon | last=Atack | coauthors= | title= [http://www.clambake.org/archive/books/apobs/contents.htm A Piece of Blue Sky] | publisher=Lyle Stuart | location= | year=1990 | editor= | id=ISBN 0-8184-0499-X | pages=448 | chapter=Chapter Four—The Clearwater Hearings | chapterurl=http://www.clambake.org/archive/books/apobs/bs6-4.htm ] [cite journal | author=Steven Girardi | authorlink= | title=Witnesses Tell of Break-ins, Conspiracy | journal= Clearwater Sun | date= 9 May 1982 | volume= | pages=p. 1A | url=http://www.xenu-directory.net/news/clearwatersun19820509.html ] [cite web | author=Prince, Jesse| year=1999| title=Affidavit of Jesse Prince | format= | work=Estate of Lisa McPherson v. Church of Scientology Flag Service Organization, Inc., case no. 97-01235 | url=http://www.xenu-directory.net/documents/prince19990820.html#23 | accessdate=2006-06-13] The Church maintains that its auditing records are kept confidential. On 16 December 1969 a Guardian's Office order by Mary Sue Hubbard authorized the use of auditing records for purposes of "internal security." [PDFlink| [http://www.gerryarmstrong.org/50grand/legal/a1/breckenridge-decision.pdf Memorandum of Intended Decision in "Church of Scientology of California vs. Gerald Armstrong"] |3.05 MiB format)]
Supporters of Scientology assert that no actual violation based solely upon use or revelation of auditing records has been documented [http://www.gerryarmstrong.org/50grand/legal/decl-hoden-1985-07-29.html Gerry Armstrong-Declaration of Ken Hoden 07-29-1985 ] ] and such a violation of their Auditing Code is a high crime per Scientology justice codes. [Hubbard, Introduction to Scientology Ethics] "The Court refers to GO 121669 for justification for abolishing the clergyman-penitent privilege. Yet nowhere does the program call for a) external dissemination of the preclear folder or b) use of information against anyone. To cause preclear folders or preclear folder information to be released from the care and control of authorized Church ministers is to cause the destruction of its parishioners' religious freedom and would be a severe violation of Church ecclesiastical policies." ("Declaration of Reverend Ken Hoden")
However, a California court ruling recorded that "The practice of culling supposedly confidential [counseling folders or files] to obtain information for purposes of intimidation and/or harassment is repugnant and outrageous." The court found that former members of the church knew that their confidential data might be used by "the Church or its minions" for "intimidation or other physical or psychological abuse" and noted: "The record is replete with evidence of such abuse." [ [http://www.gerryarmstrong.org/50grand/legal/a1/breckenridge-decision.pdf PDF document of court findings] , pp. 7-8]
Supporters of Scientology responded by stating: "Guardian's Office policy letter written by Mary Sue Hubbard had allegedly authorized the practice of culling information from counseling folders. Any such directive is not part of the Scientology scriptures and was long ago canceled. The Guardian's Office was disbanded by current Church management when it was found to have veered wildly off Church policies as laid down by Mr. Hubbard." [ [http://www.gerryarmstrong.org/50grand/cult/fls-rpt-corr-breckenridge.html Scientology statement about the court ruling] ]
cientology as a religion
Scientology states that it is fully compatible with all existing major world religions and that it does not conflict with those religions or their religious practices. However, due to major differences in the beliefs and practices between Scientology and especially the major
monotheisticreligions a simultaneous membership in Scientology is seen as not compatible with the major world religions. For its part, Scientology only allows a passive formal membership in a second religion. Parishioners are not allowed to engage in other religious activities or ceremonies. Steve Bruce: "Cathedrals to cults: the evolving forms of the religious life". In: Paul Heelas (Hrsg.): "Religion, Modernity, and Postmodernity", Blackwell, Oxford 1998, pp. 19-35, 23] Additionally, the highest level yet-revealed Scientology scriptures portray religious figures such as Jesus as fictitious implants. Hubbard also writes: "...People get to such a level of identification with Christthat they will run the Crucifixioncomplete with somatics and, indeed, there are several instances in history where on the holiday of the Crucifixion, persons spontaneously bleed from the 'thorns'." [L. Ron Hubbard " Overt Acts", PAB 18, Hubbard Communications Office, January 1954] "Scientology can demonstrate that it can attain the goals set for man by Christ, which are: wisdom, good health and immortality," [L. Ron Hubbard "The Scientologist: A Manual on the Dissemination of Material", Ability: the Magazine of Dianetics and Scientology, Phoenix, Arizona (ca mid-March 1955)]
The Church pursues an extensive
public relationscampaign for the recognition of Scientology as a "bona fide" religion. [cite web |url = http://www.bonafidescientology.org/bonafide-scientology.htm |title = The Bonafides of the Scientology Religion |accessdate = 2007-07-21 |publisher = Church of Scientology] This conflicts with the founder's own statements in "The Creation of Human Ability: A Handbook for Scientologists": "Scientology has opened the gates to a better World. It is not a psycho-therapy nor a religion. It is a body of knowledge which, when properly used, gives freedom and truth to the individual." Scientology does have "beliefs in something transcendental or ultimate, practices (rites and codes of behavior) that re-inforce those beliefs and, a community that is sustained by both the beliefs and practices" which are elements that a religion must contain. Scientology is considered a legitimate religion in such countries as Australia, Italy,cite conference
first =Derek H.
title =The Church of Scientology: In Pursuit of Legal Recognition
booktitle =Zeitdiagnosen: Religion and Conformity
publisher =Lit Verlag
location =Münster, Germany
accessdate =2008-05-10 |format=PDF]
Kyrgyzstan, [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51562.htm U.S. State Department – 2005 Report on International Religious Freedom: Kyrgyzstan] ] New Zealand, [cite web |url = http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/1/story.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=3048935 |title = Scientology gets tax-exempt status |accessdate = 2007-08-01 |date = 2002-12-27|work = New Zealand Herald|quote = the IRD said the church was a charitable organisation dedicated to the advancement of religion] Portugal, [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2007/100579.htm 2007 U.S. State Department – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal] ] South Africa,cite web |url = http://www.cesnur.org/testi/scient_SouthA.htm |title = Scientology Marriage Officers Approved in South Africa |date = 2000-04-11|accessdate = 2007-07-21 |publisher = CESNUR] Spain, [ [http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h-V0Ui506lPl-r8ImubpdUjFbuYA Spanish court rules Scientology can be listed as a religion] ] [ [http://www.elheraldo.com.ar/ver_noticias.php?id_nota=8175 Cienciología entre las «entidades religiosas»] ] Sweden, [cite web |url = http://www.cesnur.org/testi/scient_sweden2000.htm |title = Decision of 13 March 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden |date = 2000-03-13|accessdate = 2007-07-21 |publisher = CESNUR] Taiwan, [cite web |url = http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/22Religion.htm |title = Taiwan Yearbook 2006 |year = 2006 |accessdate = 2007-08-31 |publisher = Taiwan Government Information Office] and thus enjoys and regularly cites the legal protections afforded in these nations to religious practice. Other countries, mostly in Europe, have regarded Scientology as a potentially dangerous cult, or at least have not considered local branches to meet the legal criteria for being considered religion-supporting organizations. In Germany, the Verfassungsschutzwas ordered in 1997 to monitor the activities of Scientology allegedly on the grounds that they are directed against freedom and democracy. As of 12 February 2008 the German government in a new ruling continues the same policy. [ [http://www.germany.info/relaunch/info/archives/background/scientology.html Scientology and Germany] . Understanding the German View of Scientology]
Although its religious status is often controversial, the Church of Scientology itself, on the other hand, holds that many of these issues were laid to rest by the recognition in 1993 by the
United States Internal Revenue Serviceof being "operated exclusively for religious and charitable purposes." ["Recognition was based upon voluminous information provided by the Church regarding its financial and other operations to the Internal Revenue Service." IRS press release Dec. 31, 1997 [http://www.unclefed.com/Tax-News/1997/Nr97-50.html Church of Scientology & IRS Confidentiality] . Retrieved Aug 13th 2007] [cite web | first = David | last = Dahl | coauthors = Vick, Karl | title = IRS examined Scientology dollars, not dogma | url = http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/sptimes/access/51783695.html?dids=51783695:51783695&FMT=FT&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Oct+24%2C+1993&author=DAVID+DAHL&pub=St.+Petersburg+Times&edition=&startpage=1.A&desc=IRS+examined+Scientology+dollars%2C+not+dogma | publisher = St. Petersburg Times| date = 1993-10-24| accessdate = 2007-08-31]
cientology as a cult and hypnosis
Allegations of Scientology's cult status may be attributed to its unconventional creation by a single authoritative and charismatic leader. [Cite paper | author=Douglas E. Cowan, University of Missouri-Kansas City | title=Researching Scientology: Academic Premises, Promises, and Problematic | publisher=CESNUR 2004 International Conference | date=July 2004 | url = http://www.cesnur.org/2004/waco_cowan.htm | accessdate=2006-06-23 ] According to the psychologist William James, "...Religion, in short, is a monumental chapter in the history of human egotism... Religious thought is carried on in terms of personality, this being, in the world of religion, the one fundamental fact." ["The Varieties of Religious Experience", ibid. p. 371] Referring to the fact that a group did not develop the technology of Scientology but that it is his own personal contribution, L. Ron Hubbard writes: "...This point will, of course, be attacked as "unpopular", "egotistical" and "undemocratic". It very well may be. But it is also a survival point." ["Keeping Scientology Working Series 1", ibid. p. 3]
Milton H. Erickson, M. D., founder of the American Society of Clinical hypnosisand widely recognized as the world's foremost medical hypnotist who went on to influence the development of NLP, L. Ron Hubbard demonstrated his professional expertise in hypnosisby going on to discover the Dianetic engram. He writes: "...Hypnotism is a laboratory tool...Finding out the basic reason hypnotism was a variable helped to discover the source of insanity." [L. Ron Hubbard "Dianetics", p. 70, Bridge Publications Inc., 2007 ISBN 978-1-4031-4484-3 ]
Allegations of Hypnosis
Anderson Report, an inquiry conducted in 1965 for the state of Victoria, Australia, found that the auditing process involved "command" hypnosis, in which the hypnotist assumes "positive authoritative control" over the patient. "It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetics techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous. . . . The scientific evidence which the Board heard from several expert witnesses of the highest repute … which was virtually unchallenged—leads to the inescapable conclusion that it is only in name that there is any difference between authoritative hypnosis and most of the techniques of scientology. Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names." [" [http://www.holysmoke.org/cos/books/the-anderson-report.pdf Report of the Board of Enquiry into Scientology] " ( Forrest Ackerman(Hubbard's literary agent) and A. E. van Vogt(an important early supporter of Dianetics) witnessed repeated demonstrations of his hypnotic skills. cite book|author=Miller, Russell|title= Bare-faced Messiah, The True Story of L. Ron Hubbard | publisher=Henry Holt & Co | location=New York | edition=First American Edition | year=1987 | id=ISBN 0-8050-0654-0 pages = 140–142 | url = http://www.clambake.org/archive/books/bfm/bfmconte.htm ] . Licensed psychotherapists alleged that auditing sessions amount to mental health treatment without a license. The Church disputes these statements and said that its practice leads to spiritual relief. According to the Church, the psychotherapist treats mental health and the Church treats the spiritual being. Using the synonym of alternative religions, Barrett (1998:237) and Hunt (2003:195) place Scientology in the sociological grouping of personal developmentmovements together with the Neurolinguistic Programming, Emin, and Insight.
tatus by Country
In France, the Church of Scientology was categorized as a sect (or cult) in the report of the
National Assembly of Francein 1995. [ [http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/rap-enq/r2468.asp National Assembly of France report No. 2468] ] A more recent government report in 2000 categorized the church as an "absolute sect" and recommended that all its activities be prohibited. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/635793.stm France recommends dissolving Scientologists] BBC News, 8 February 2000] The United States has no such classification in its legal system. In 2008, it was reported that the Church was facing court action for "organised fraud". In a case dating back to 1998, a woman who said she was approached by Scientologists in a Paris street and offered a free personality test, claims that she handed over more than €20,000 for courses, books, illegally prescribed drugs and an E-meter. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7604311.stm Scientology 'faces French trial'] BBC News, 9 September 2008] There is a possibility that the organization could face expulsion from France [ [http://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=5829728&page=1 ABC News] Scientology Facing Murky Future in France. "The Church of Scientology (...)could be banned in France if it loses".] .
The federal government of Germany, as well as its states, have to a greater or lesser degree and for varying periods since 1997 placed Scientology and Scientologists under surveillance by its intelligence agency based on Scientology's anti-democratic tendencies. [ [http://www.verfassungsschutz.de/de/publikationen/verfassungsschutzbericht Report] of the German federal "
Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz" intelligence agency] No criminal or civil charges have been brought as a result of this surveillance. On a Federal level, Scientology lost a complaint against continued surveillance by the federal "Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz" because the court gave its opinion that there are indications that Scientology is pursuing anti-constitutional activities. As of April 2007 the case was pending in appeal. [ [http://www.justiz.nrw.de Administrative court of Cologne] , finding on 11 November 2004, file number: 20 K 1882/03] [Upper administrative court of Saarland, finding on 29. March 2001, file number: 6 K 149/00 (overruled in revision by same court in 2005)] In Berlin, the court prohibited the use of paid undercover agents. [Administrative court of Berlin, finding on 13. December 2001, file number: 27 A 260.98] In Saarland, surveillance was stopped by the court as inappropriate because there is no local branch of Scientology and few members. [Upper administrative court of Saarland, finding on 27. April 2005, file number: 2 R 14/03] As of 6 May 2008, the Church of Scientology in Germany dropped the legal battle to prevent surveillance of its activities by the Verfassungsschutz after the North Rhine-Westphalia Higher Administrative Court in Munster refused to hear an appeal on a ruling OK'ing the intelligence services for monitoring the activities of the Church of Scientology. The Scientology organization has now added a declaration on human rights and democracy to its bylaws. [ [http://www.religionnewsblog.com/21370/german-scientology AP via IHT] ]
Cult Awareness Network
Cult Awareness Networkreceived more complaints concerning Scientology than any other group. They therefore listed the Church of Scientology at the top of their cult list, until they went into bankruptcy from suits initiated by Scientology (1996). Ultimately, they were bought in Bankruptcy Court by the Church of Scientology (1997), which now operates the new Cult Awareness Network as a promotional arm of the church. [cite news | last = Keller | first = Rod | coauthors = | title = CAN | work = alt.religion.scientology, Week In Review | pages = Volume 3, Issue 17 | language = | publisher = Operation Clambake| date = 2 August 1998 | url = http://www.xenu.net/archive/WIR/wir3-17.html | accessdate = 2007-10-28 ] [cite web | last =Ross | first =Rick | authorlink =Rick Ross (consultant) | coauthors = | title =Cult Awareness Network | work =Rick A. Ross Institute | publisher = | date = | url =http://rickross.com/groups/newcan.html | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-10-28"The so-called "reformed Cult Awareness Network" is "operated by the Foundation for Religious Freedom." According to the IRS/Scientology agreement this foundation is a "Scientology-related" entity"] [cite news | last =Staff | first = | coauthors = | title =From the Editor | work = New CAN: Cult Awareness Network | pages = Volume I, Issue 2| language = | publisher = | year =2001 | url = http://www.cultawarenessnetwork.org/update/001.002.html | accessdate = 2007-10-28] [cite news | last =Goodman | first =Leisa, Human Rights Director, Church of Scientology International | coauthors = | title =A Letter from the Church of Scientology | work =Marburg Journal of Religion: Responses From Religions | pages =Volume 6, No. 2, 4 pages | language = | publisher = | year =2001 | url =http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/goodman.html | accessdate = 2007-10-28 ] cite news | last = Knapp | first = Dan | coauthors = | title = Group that once criticized Scientologists now owned by one | work = CNN| pages = | language = | publisher = Time Warner| date = 19 December 1996 | url = http://www.cnn.com/US/9612/19/scientology/index.html | accessdate = 2007-10-29 ]
Treatment of Critics
On 12 May 2007 Journalist John Sweeney of BBC Panorama made highly critical comments regarding Scientology and its teachings, and further reported that since beginning an extensive investigation he had been harassed, surveilled, and investigated by strangers. Sweeney wrote, "I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a "bigot" by star Scientologists and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers. Back in Britain strangers have called on my neighbors, my mother-in-law's house and someone spied on my wedding and fled the moment he was challenged." In another passage, "He [Scientology representative Tommy Davis] harangued me for talking to […] heretics. I told him that Scientology had been spying on the BBC and that was creepy." And in another passage, "In LA, the moment our hire car left the airport we realized we were being followed by two cars. In our hotel a weird stranger spent every breakfast listening to us." [John Sweeney. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6650545.stm Row over Scientology video] . BBC News. 14 May 2007] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_4120000/newsid_4124500/4124514.stm?bw=bb&mp=wm BBC Panorama] ]
The Church of Scientology called John Sweeney's documentary (first aired 14 May 2007) into question and produced its own documentary in which it claimed to have documented 154 violations in the BBC's and OfCom's guidelines. [ [http://www.bbcpanorama-exposed.org BBC Panorama Exposed] (Church-owned site)]
The Church documentary also claimed that the BBC had organized a demonstration outside a Church building in London in order to film it, following which e-mailed anonymous death threats had been made against the Church. The BBC described these allegations as "clearly laughable and utter nonsense" whilst representatives of the picket group stated that the BBC had simply turned up to a scheduled picket date that was part of an ongoing protest since 1996. [ [http://www.newsfrombree.co.uk/stolgy_31.htm BBC Panorama - "Scientology and me"] ] Sandy Smith, the BBC program's producer, commented that the Church of Scientology has "no way of dealing with any kind of criticism at all." [ [http://media.guardian.co.uk/site/story/0,,2079185,00.html Panorama backs Sweeney episode] 14 May 2007]
cientology as a commercial venture
The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars, as well as a large amount of other funds from the practice of auditing. Hubbard was accused in his lifetime of adopting a religious façade for Scientology to allow the organization to maintain tax-exempt status and to avoid prosecution for false medical claims. [cite journal | last = Beit-Hallahmi | first = Benjamin | title = Scientology: Religion or racket? | journal = Marburg Journal of Religion | volume = 8 | issue = 1 | publisher = Philipps-Universität Marburg |month=September | year=2003|url = http://web.uni-marburg.de/religionswissenschaft/journal/mjr/beit.html|accessdate = 2006-06-30] There have been numerous accounts from Hubbard's fellow science-fiction authors and researchers, notably
Harlan Ellison, Neison Himmel, Sam Merwin, Sam Moskowitz, Theodore Sturgeon, Lloyd Arthur Eshbach, and Lyle Stuart, of Hubbard stating on various occasions that the way to get rich was to start a religion. [ [http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/scientology/start.a.religion.html The way to make a million dollars is to start a religion] 14 January 1999] This is referenced, among other places, in a May 1980 " Reader's Digest" article, which quotes Hubbard, "If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion." [ [http://www.skeptictank.org/readdig.htm Reader's Digest, May, 1980] ]
The Church says that "One individual once claimed L. Ron Hubbard made such a comment during a lecture in 1948. The only two people who could be found who attended that very lecture in 1948 denied that Mr. Hubbard ever made this statement" and that therefore it is an "unfounded rumor." The Church's statement does not address any of the other individuals who have stated that they personally heard Hubbard make such a statement, some saying that he said it on multiple occasions. The Church also suggests that the origin of the "rumor" was a quote by
George Orwellwhich had been "misattributed" to Hubbard. However, Robert Vaughn Young, who left the Church in 1989 after twenty years, said that he had discovered the Orwell quote, and suggested that reports of Hubbard making such a statement could be explained as a misattribution of Orwell, despite having encountered three of Hubbard's associates from his science fiction days who remembered Hubbard making statements of that sort in person.
Scientology pays members commissions on new recruits they bring in, encouraging Scientology members to "sell" Scientology to others.Behar, Richard [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Fishman/time-behar.html Scientology: The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power, Ruined lives. Lost fortunes. Federal crimes. Scientology poses as a religion but really is a ruthless global scam—and aiming for the mainstream] Time Magazine, 6 May 1991 courtesy link, (accessed 04/20/06)] In addition, Scientology franchises, or missions, pay the church roughly 10% of their gross income.cite news | first=Joel | last=Sappell | coauthors= Welkos, Robert W. | url = http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/la-scientologysideb062490,1,7772622.story|title = The Man In Control|work=
Los Angeles Times| page=A41:4 | date=1990-06-24 | accessdate=2006-06-06 ] On that basis, it is often likened to a pyramid selling scheme. [cite web | last = West | first = L. J., M.D. | title = Psychiatry and Scientology | month = July | year = 1990 | url = http://www.solitarytrees.net/pubs/psyscn.htm | accessdate = 2007-05-16 ] Charges for auditing and other Church-related courses run to tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars. [Cooper, Paulette [http://www.clambake.org/archive/books/tsos/sos-19.html Scandal of Scientology, Chapter 19] , Tower Publications, NYC, 1971] [Cite paper | author= | title=ASHO Foundation Services Price Sheet | publisher= | year=2006 | version= | url=http://www.xenu.net/archive/prices.html | accessdate=2006-06-21 ] Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. It claims copyrightand trademarkover its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites. Because of this, it is very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own, without any affiliation or connection to the Church of Scientology. Scientology has sued a number of individuals who attempted to set up their own "auditing" practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down.
In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recognized as a religion in Germany, around 1996 the German state
Baden-Württembergconducted a thorough investigation regarding the group's activities within Germany. [ [http://www.im.nrw.de/inn/doks/vs/blagsc.pdf Zur Frage der Beobachtung der Scientology-Organisation durch die Verfassungsschutzbehörden] (in German) (PDF format)] The results of this investigation indicated that, at the time of publication, Scientology's main sources of revenue ("Haupteinnahmequellen der SO") were from course offerings and sales of their various publications. Course offerings—e.g. "The Ups and Downs of Life", "Hubbard's Key to Life", "Intensive Auditing", etc.—ranged from (German Marks) DM 182.50 to about DM 30,000—the equivalent today of approximately $119 to $19,560 US dollars. Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions.
In June 2006, it was announced at the Book Expo America a dianetics Racing Team joined
NASCAR. The Number 27 FordTaurus driven by Kenton Graydisplays a large dianetics logo. [cite journal | author=Jeff Elder | title=Scientology is newest NASCAR sponsor|journal=The Charlotte Observer|date=7 June 2006 | pages= | url=http://www.charlotte.com/mld/charlotte/sports/motorsports/14761999.htm ] [ [http://www.scientology.org/en_US/news-media/briefing/2006/dianetics/060525.html DIANETICS RACING TEAM TO JOIN NASCAR CIRCUIT, Bridge Publications, 2006] ]
cientology and psychiatry
The Church of Scientology is one of a number of groups involved in the
anti-psychiatrymovement, and one of the few organizations that publicly oppose the study and application of psychologyin addition to psychiatry, claiming that psychiatry was responsible for World War I, [" [http://freedom.lronhubbard.org/page104a.htm Criminals & psychiatry] ". 29 July 1980] the rise of Hitler and Stalin, [Book review of [http://www.freedommag.org/english/vol30I1/page40.htm Psychiatrists: The Men Behind Hitler] ] the decline in education standards in the United States, [ [http://www.cchr.org/index/5276/5329/6478/ Publications and Information] ] the wars in Bosnia and Kosovo, [ [http://www.cchr.org/index.cfm/8130 An Anatomy of Today's Terrorism; PsychAssault.com CCHR's Latest Website] ] and the September 11 attacks. [Thomas G. Whittle and Linda Amato. [http://www.freedommag.org/English/vol34i1/page02.htm The continuing search for answers: Behind the Terror - A proble into masterminds of death and violence] ] The Church's point of view on these issues is documented mainly by Church groups and magazines such as those published by the Citizens Commission on Human Rightsand "Freedom Magazine".
cientology and the Internet
In the 1990s Scientology representatives began extensive operations to deal with growing allegations against Scientology on the Internet. The organization states that it is taking actions to prevent distribution of
copyrighted Scientology documents and publications online by people whom it has called "copyright terrorists." [cite book | last = Grossman | first = Wendy | title = Net.Wars | origyear = 1997 | origmonth = October | url = http://www.nyupress.org/netwars/ | accessdate = 2006-06-11 | publisher = New York University Press | location = New York | id = ISBN 0-8147-3103-1 | pages = 77–78 | chapter = Copyright Terrorists | chapterurl = http://www.nyupress.org/netwars/textonly/pages/chapter06/ch06_.html] Critics say that the organization’s true motive is to attempt to suppress the free speech of its critics.In January 1995, Church lawyer Helena Kobrinattempted to shut down the newsgroup" alt.religion.scientology" by sending a control message instructing Usenetservers to delete the group on the grounds that:
In practice, this
rmgroup messagehad little effect, since most Usenet servers are configured to disregard such messages when applied to groups that receive substantial traffic, and newgroup messages were quickly issued to recreate the group on those servers that did not do so. However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates.
The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the
World Wide Web, and pressed for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general. The Church supported the controversial Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act. The even more controversial Digital Millennium Copyright Actwas also strongly promoted by the Church and some of its provisions (notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providersover copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers.
Beginning in the middle of 1996 and for several years after, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed "
sporgery" by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group. Although the Church neither confirmed nor denied its involvement with the spam, some investigators said that some spam had been traced to Church members. Former Scientologist Tory Christman, after she left the Church, confessed to having been part of the sporgery project, taking money supplied by the Office of Special Affairsto open up Internet accounts at various ISPs under false names, accounts from which she later saw forged and garbled communications going out. [ [http://www.lermanet.com/cos/toryonosa.htm#Part6 "The Secret Project to Spam the Internet"] ]
In early 2008, another protest against the Church of Scientology was organised by the Internet-based group Anonymous, which originally consisted of users of the English speaking
imageboards 4chanand 711chan.org, the associated partyvan.info wiki, and several Internet Relay Chatchannels.
On 14 January 2008, a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to
YouTube. cite news | author=John Cook | title=Scientology - Cult Friction | url=http://radaronline.com/from-the-magazine/2008/03/scientology_anonymous_protests_tom_cruise_01.php | work= [http://radaronline.com/ Radar Online] | publisher=Radar Magazine | date=17 March 2008 | accessdate=2008-03-18 ] cite news | last =Warne | first =Dan | title =Anonymous threatens to "dismantle" Church of Scientology via internet | work = APC Magazine| publisher = National Nine News| date =24 January 2008 | url =http://www.apcmag.com/7905/anonymous_threatens_to_dismantle_church_of_scientology_via_internet | accessdate =2008-01-25 ] cite news | author=KNBC Staff | title =Hacker Group Declares War On Scientology: Group Upset Over Church's Handling Of Tom Cruise Video | work = KNBC| publisher = | date =24 January 2008 | url =http://www.knbc.com/news/15132759/detail.html | accessdate = 2008-01-25 ] The Church of Scientology issued a copyright violation claim against YouTube requesting the removal of the video.cite news | last =Vamosi | first =Robert | coauthors = | title =Anonymous hackers take on the Church of Scientology | work = CNET News| pages = | language = | publisher =CNET Networks, Inc. | date =24 January 2008 | url =http://www.news.com/8301-10789_3-9857666-57.html | accessdate = 2008-01-25 ] In response to this, Anonymous formulated Project Chanology.cite news | last =George-Cosh | first =David | coauthors = | title =Online group declares war on Scientology | work = National Post| pages = | language = | publisher =Canwest Publishing Inc. | date =25 January 2008 | url =http://www.nationalpost.com/news/canada/story.html?id=261308 | accessdate = 2008-01-25 ] cite news | last =Singel | first =Ryan | coauthors = | title =War Breaks Out Between Hackers and Scientology -- There Can Be Only One | work =Wired | pages = | language = | publisher =CondéNet, Inc. | date =23 January 2008 | url =http://blog.wired.com/27bstroke6/2008/01/anonymous-attac.html | accessdate = 2008-01-25 ] cite news | last =Feran | first =Tom | coauthors = | title =Where to find the Tom Cruise Scientology videos online, if they're still posted | work =The Plain Dealer | pages = | language = | publisher =Newhouse Newspapers | date =24 January 2008 | url =http://www.cleveland.com/entertainment/plaindealer/index.ssf?/base/entertainment-0/120116724530070.xml&coll=2 | accessdate = 2008-01-25 ] cite news | last =Chan Enterprises | first = | coauthors = | title =Internet Group Declares "War on Scientology": Anonymous are fighting the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center | work =Press Release | pages = | language = | publisher =PRLog.Org | date =21 January 2008 | url =http://www.prlog.org/10046797-internet-group-anonymous-declares-war-on-scientology.pdf | accessdate =2008-01-25 |format=PDF] Calling the action by the Church of Scientology a form of Internet censorship, members of Project Chanology organized a series of denial-of-service attacks against Scientology websites, prank calls, and black faxes to Scientology centers. [cite news |author=Matthew A. Schroettnig, Stefanie Herrington, Lauren E. Trent |title=Anonymous Versus Scientology: Cyber Criminals or Vigilante Justice? |date= 2008-02-06|url=http://www.thelegality.com/archives/22 | work =The Legality |accessdate = 2008-01-25] On 21 January 2008, Anonymous announced its goals and intentions via a video posted to YouTube entitled "Message to Scientology", and a press releasedeclaring a "War on Scientology" against both the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center.cite news | last =Thomas | first =Nicki | coauthors = | title =Scientology and the internet: Internet hackers attack the church | work = Edmonton Sun| pages = | language = | publisher =Sun Media | date =25 January 2008 | url =http://www.edmontonsun.com/News/Edmonton/2008/01/25/4794425.html | accessdate = 2008-01-25 ] cite news | last =Dodd | first =Gareth (Editor) | coauthors =Agencies | title =Anonymous hackers vow to "dismantle" Scientology | work = Xinhua News Agency| pages = | language = | publisher = | date =25 January 2008 | url =http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/25/content_7495986.htm | accessdate = 2008-01-25 ] In the press release, the group states that the attacks against the Church of Scientology will continue in order to protect the right to freedom of speech, and end what they believe to be the financial exploitation of church members.cite news|last=Brandon| first =Mikhail | coauthors =| title =Scientology in the Crosshairs| work = The Emory Wheel| pages = | language = | publisher = Emory University| date =28 January 2008 | url =http://www.emorywheel.com/detail.php?n=24945 | accessdate =2008-01-31 ] A new video "Call to Action" appeared on YouTube on 28 January 2008, calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on 10 February 2008.cite news | last =Feran | first =Tom | coauthors = | title =The group Anonymous calls for protests outside Scientology centers - New on the Net | work =The Plain Dealer | pages = | language = | publisher =Newhouse Newspapers | date =31 January 2008 | url =http://www.cleveland.com/entertainment/plaindealer/index.ssf?/base/entertainment-0/1201771820310820.xml&coll=2 | accessdate = 2008-02-04 ] cite news | last =Vamosi | first =Robert | coauthors = | title =Anonymous names 10 February as its day of action against Scientology | work = CNET News| pages = | language = | publisher =CNET Networks, Inc. | date =28 January 2008 | url =http://www.news.com/8301-10789_3-9859513-57.html | accessdate = 2008-01-28 ]
On 2 February 2008, 150 people gathered outside of a Church of Scientology center in
Orlando, Floridato protest the organization's practices.cite news | last =Braiker | first =Brian | coauthors = | title =The Passion of ‘Anonymous’: A shadowy, loose-knit consortium of activists and hackers called 'Anonymous' is just the latest thorn in Scientology's side | work = Newsweek| pages =Technology: Newsweek Web Exclusive | language = | publisher =Newsweek, Inc. | date =8 February 2008 | url =http://www.newsweek.com/id/109410 | accessdate =2008-02-09 ] cite news | last = Barkham | first = Patrick | coauthors = | title = Hackers declare war on Scientologists amid claims of heavy-handed Cruise control | work = The Guardian| pages = | language = | publisher = Guardian News and Media Limited | date = 4 February 2008 | url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2008/feb/04/news | accessdate = 2008-02-03] cite news | last =Staff | first = | coauthors = | title =Group Lines Road To Protest Church Of Scientology | work = WKMG-TV| pages = | language = | publisher =Internet Broadcasting Systems and Local6.com | date =3 February 2008 | url =http://www.local6.com/news/15205679/detail.html | accessdate =2008-02-03 ] cite news | last =Eckinger | first =Helen | coauthors =Gabrielle Finley, Katherine Norris | title =Anti-Scientology group has protest rally | work = Orlando Sentinel| pages = | language = | publisher = | date = 3 February 2008 | url =http://www.orlandosentinel.com/news/local/orange/orl-cfbriefs03_508feb03,0,1439702.story | accessdate = 2008-02-03 ] Small protests were also held in Santa Barbara, California,cite news | last = Standifer | first = Tom | title = Masked Demonstrators Protest Against Church of Scientology | work = Daily Nexus| pages = Issue 69, Volume 88 | publisher = University of California, Santa Barbara| date = 4 February 2008 | url = http://www.dailynexus.com/article.php?a=15686 | accessdate = 2008-02-04 ] and Manchester, England. [cite news | last = Eber | first = Hailey | title = Anti-Scientologists Warm Up for 10 February | work = Radar Online | publisher = Radar Magazine | date = 4 February 2008 | url = http://www.radaronline.com/exclusives/2008/02/antiscientologists-warming-up-for-february-10.php | accessdate = 2008-02-04 ] On 10 February 2008, about 7,000 people protested in more than 93 cities worldwide.cite news |author=Carlos Moncada |title=Organizers Tout Scientology Protest, Plan Another |url=http://suncoastpinellas.tbo.com/content/2008/feb/12/organizers-tout-scientology-protest-plan-another/ |work= |publisher=TBO.com |date=2008-02-12 |accessdate=2008-02-13 ] cite news | author=Andrew Ramadge | title=Scientology protest surge crashes websites | url=http://www.news.com.au/technology/story/0,25642,23212002-5014239,00.html | work= News.com.au| publisher= News Limited| date=2008-02-14 | accessdate=2008-02-14 ] Many protesters wore masks based on the character V from " V for Vendetta" (who in turn was influenced by Guy Fawkes), or otherwise disguised their identities, in part to protect themselves from reprisals from the Church of Scientology.cite news | last =Harrison | first =James (" The State News") | coauthors = | title =Scientology protestors take action around world | pages = | language = | date =12 February 2008 | url =http://www.statenews.com/index.php/blog/entertainment/2008/02/internet_group_ | accessdate = 2008-02-14 ] cite news|url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2008/02/11/dozens_of_masked_protesters_blast_scientology_church/|title=Dozens of masked protesters blast Scientology church|first=John|last=Forrester|date= 2008-02-11|accessdate=2008-02-15|publisher=" The Boston Globe"] Anonymous held a second wave of protests on 15 March 2008 in cities all over the world, including New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, London, Paris, Vancouver, Toronto, Berlin, and Dublin. The global turnout was estimated to be between 7000 and 8000. cite news | author=Andrew Ramadge | title=Second round of Anonymous v Scientology | url=http://www.news.com.au/technology/story/0,25642,23389091-5014239,00.html | work= News.com.au| publisher= News Limited| date=2008-03-17 | accessdate=2008-03-17 ] Anonymous held its third protest against Scientology on 12 April 2008.cite news | last =Davies | first =Shaun | title =Scientology strikes back in information war | work = National Nine News| publisher ninemsn | date =20 March 2008 | url =http://news.ninemsn.com.au/article.aspx?id=409940 | accessdate = 2008-03-20 ] cite news | author=Andrew Ramadge | title=Scientology site gets a facelift after protests | url=http://www.news.com.au/technology/story/0,25642,23407107-5014239,00.html | work= News.com.au| publisher= News Limited| date=2008-03-20 | accessdate=2008-03-20 ] Named "Operation Reconnect", it aimed to increase awareness of the Church of Scientology's disconnection policy.
A 1971 ruling of the United States District Court, District of Columbia (333 F. Supp. 357), specifically stated, "the
E-meterhas no proven usefulness in the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease, nor is it medically or scientifically capable of improving any bodily function." [cite paper | title = United States of America, Libelant, v. An Article or Device "Hubbard Electrometer" or "Hubbard E-Meter", etc., Founding Church of Scientology et al., Claimants|version = No. D.C. 1–63|date = 30 July 1971 | url = http://www.lermanet.com/case2.htm | accessdate = 2006-08-10] The following disclaimer or similar statements have appeared in Scientology publications in reference to the E-Meter: "By itself, the E-meter does nothing. It is an electronic instrument that measures mental state and change of state in individuals and assists the precision and speed of auditing. The E-Meter is not intended or effective for the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of any disease" [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20060525014538/http://www.scientology.org/html/opencms/cos/scientology/en_US/news-media/faq/pg010.html What is the E-Meter and how does it work?] ] and that it is used specifically for spiritual purposes. Therefore: "...Ownership or use of the E-Meter is strictly limited to duly ordained ministers of the Church of Scientology and ministers in training and is otherwise absolutely prohibited." [L. Ron Hubbard "Introducing the E-Meter", p. copyright notice, Bridge Publications Inc., 1988 ISBN 0-88404-309-6]
Richard Dawkins, author of The God Delusion, has described Scientology as "gullibiligy" and its statements as "purely made-up." [cite web | first = Peter | last = Millar | title = The gullible age | url = http://entertainment.timesonline.co.uk/tol/arts_and_entertainment/books/article2198063.ece | work = | publisher = The Sunday Times| date = 2007-08-05| accessdate = 2008-01-27 ] Since Scientology, in contrast to other religions except Buddhism, does not deal directly with the existence of a Supreme Beingand "The God Delusion" advocates atheism, this is what Dawkins has to say, "...One religion that was intelligently designed, almost in its entirety, is Scientology, but I suspect that it is exceptional." [Richard Dawkins "The God Delusion", p.234, Mariner Books, 2008 ISBN 10: 0618918248 ]
List of Scientology organizations
Scientology and Werner Erhard
Scientologie, Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens
Symbols of Scientology
Scientology in popular culture
Scientology In Australia
Space opera in Scientology doctrine
* [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~dst/Fishman/time-behar.html Scientology: Cult of Greed and power] —Time Magazine article on Scientology
*cite book | last =Hunt | first =Stephen J. | title =Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction | publisher =Ashgate Publishing | year =2003 | isbn = 0-7546-3410-8
first =J. Gordon
authorlink =J. Gordon Melton
title =The Church of Scientology
publisher =Signature Press
location =Salt Lake City
*cite book | author=Garrison, Omar V. |title=The Hidden Story of Scientology |isbn= 0806504404 | publisher=Citadel Press| year= 1974
* [http://www.xenu.net/ Operation Clambake] An archive of articles and other materials about Scientology, mostly critical
* [http://www.scientology-lies.com/ Scientology Lies] A comprehensive collection of articles, activist resources, summaries of court cases, and links to other sites, mostly critical
* [http://www.xenutv.com XENU TV] An archive of Scientology-related video or audio programs
* [http://www.lermanet.com Lermanet.com] Over 10 years of original news and articles on Scientology by critic Arnie Lerma
* [http://www.rickross.com/groups/scientology.html/ Articles dating back over 30 years on Scientology]
* [http://www.scientology-victims-testimonies.com/ Scientology Victims Testimonies] Video testimonies of people who were victimized by Scientology organization
;Official Church of Scientology sites
* [http://www.scientology.org Church of Scientology home page]
* [http://www.whatisscientology.org "What is Scientology?"] A description of Scientology with FAQ (by the Church of Scientology)
* [http://www.scientologyhandbook.org Scientology Handbook (Training Manual for Scientology Volunteer Ministers)]
* [http://www.bonafidescientology.org Church of Scientology theology page]
* [http://internationalfreezone.net International Freezone Association]
* [http://www.abc.net.au/rn/religionreport/stories/2008/2218519.htm Scientology, Hollywood and the path to Washington] - The Religion Report ABC
Radio Nationaldiscussion (transcript and audio) examines how the cult uses Hollywood celebrities to get what it wants in Washington with sociologist of religious cults, Professor Stephen A. Kentof the University of Albertain Canada.
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