Homogenization (or homogenisation) is a term used in many fields such as
chemistry, agricultural science, food technology, sociologyand cell biology. Homogenization is a term connoting a process that makes a mixture the same throughout the entire substance.
*Homogeneous — a mixture that is the same(uniform) throughout.
*Heterogeneous — a mixture consisting of dissimilar elements or parts.
One of the oldest applications of homogenization is in
milkprocessing, to prevent or delay natural separation of creamfrom the rest of the emulsion. The fat in milk normally separates from the water and collects at the top. Homogenization breaks the fat into smaller sizes so it no longer separates, allowing the sale of non-separating 1%, 2%, and whole milk. This is accomplished by forcing the milk at high pressure through small orifices.
Another method of homogenization uses
extruders, hammermills, or colloid mills to mill (grind) solids.
Sociology and history
In sociology and history, the term "homogenization" has largely negative meanings, indicating a drive towards uniformity, militarism, obedience and conformism. This is often superimposed forcibly by the state, but can also be the result of global economic forces (Conversi 2007). The term "homogenization" has a close relationship to
Homogenization is a process that involves breaking apart cells — releasing organelles and
cytoplasm. When the purpose is to extract organelles, it is frequently done in two steps; first using a blender to break the tissue up, and then with an ultrasonic or mechanical tissue disruptor. The organelles are then generally separated using differential centrifugation. Depending upon the subcellular fraction wanted, different processes are used to separate them. When the aim is to extract nucleic acids, the tissue is often ground in a mortar and pestleunder liquid nitrogen.
Sometimes, however, a much milder procedure is followed, where the aim is to collect whole, intact cells. Homogenized cells must be kept at low temperatures to prevent
autolysisand kept in an isotonic solutionto prevent osmotic damage.
Conversi, Daniele 2007 'Homogenisation, nationalism and war: Should we still read Ernest Gellner?’, [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-8129.2007.00292.x Nations and Nationalism] , Vol. 13, no 3, 2007, pp. 1–24
* [http://www.niro-soavi.com/SOAVI/CMSDoc.nsf/WebDoc/ndkw73egqz Homogenization Concept] The Dynamic High Pressure
* [http://www.niroinc.com/html/soavi/stechnolgy.html homogenization equipment] with detailed description
* [http://www.foodsci.uoguelph.ca/dairyedu/homogenization.html explanation of the technology] along with theories on how the homogenization mechanism actually works.
* [http://www.proscientific.com/Homogenizing.shtml Homogenizing with Blades, Rotors and Pressure homogenizers.]
* [http://www.howstuffworks.com/question147.htm How Stuff Works - Homogenization and Pasteurization]
* [http://www.omni-inc.com/images/ALN_Jahn_Reprint.pdf High Throughput Homogenization]
* [http://www.omni-inc.com/index.php?main_page=page_4 Eliminating Cross Contamination During Homogenization]
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