The term Rosicrucian (symbol: the
Rose Cross) describes a secret society of mystics, allegedly formed in late mediaeval Germany, holding a doctrine "built on esoteric truths of the ancient past", which, "concealed from the average man, provide insight into nature, the physical universe and the spiritual realm. " [Lindgren, Carl Edwin (Prof.), " [http://users.panola.com/lindgren/rosecross.html The way of the Rose Cross; A Historical Perception, 1614-1620] ". Journal of Religion and Psychical Research, Volume18, Number 3:141-48. 1995.]
Between 1607 and 1616, two anonymous manifestos were published, first in Germany and later throughout EuropeFact|date=September 2008. These were Fama Fraternitatis RC (The Fame of the Brotherhood of RC) and
Confessio Fraternitatis(The Confession of the Brotherhood of RC). The influence of these documents, presenting a "most laudable Order" of mystic-philosopher-doctors and promoting a "Universal Reformation of Mankind", gave rise to an enthusiasm called by its historian Dame Frances Yatesthe "Rosicrucian Enlightenment". [Yates, Frances A. (1972), "The Rosicrucian Enlightnment", London]
In later centuries many esoteric societies have claimed to derive their doctrines, in whole or in part, from the original Rosicrucians. Several modern societies, which date the beginning of the Order to earlier centuries, have been formed for the study of Rosicrucianism and allied subjects. However, many researchersWho|date=September 2008 on the history of Rosicrucianism argue that modern Rosicrucianists are in no sense directly linked to any real society of the early 17th century.
Fama Fraternitatis" presented the legend of a German doctor and mystic philosopher referred to as "Frater C.R.C." (later identified in a third manifesto as Christian Rosenkreuz, or "Roses-cross"). The year 1378 is presented as being the birth year of "our Christian Father," and it is stated that he lived 106 years. Having studied in the Middle Eastunder various masters, he had failed to interest the powerful people of his time in the knowledge he had acquired and so instead had gathered a small circle of friends/disciples who founded the Order of RC (this can be similarly deduced to have occurred in 1407).
During Rosenkreuz's lifetime, the Order was said to consist of no more than eight members, each a doctor and a sworn bachelor who undertook to heal the sick without payment, to maintain a secret fellowship and to find a replacement for himself before he died. Three such generations had supposedly passed between c.1500 and c.1600 and scientific, philosophical and religious freedom had now grown so that the public might benefit from their knowledge, so that they were now seeking good men. [Gorceix, Bernard (1970), "La Bible des Rose-Croix", Paris: a work of reference, containing translations of the three
Rosicrucian Manifestos, recommended in "Accès de l'Ésoterisme Occidental" (1986, 1996) by Antoine Faivre(École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne)]
The manifestos were and are not taken literally by many but rather regarded either as a hoax or as allegorical statements. The manifestos directly state: "We speak unto you by parables, but would willingly bring you to the right, simple, easy, and ingenuous exposition, understanding, declaration, and knowledge of all secrets". Others believe Rosenkreuz to be a pseudonym for a more famous historical figure, usually Francis Bacon.
It is evident that the first Rosicrucian manifesto was influenced by the work of the respected hermetic philosopher
Heinrich Khunrath, of Hamburg, author of the "Amphitheatrum Sapientiae Aeternae" (1609), who was in turn influenced by John Dee, author of the " Monas Hieroglyphica" (1564). The invitation to the royal wedding in the "Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz" opens with Dee's philosophical key, the Monas Heiroglyphica symbol. The writer also claimed the brotherhood possessed a book that resembled the works of Paracelsus.
Martin Luther's seal.] Some say the writers were moral and religious reformers and utilized the techniques of chemistry ( alchemy) and the sciences generally as media through which to publicize their opinions and beliefs. The authors of the Rosicrucian works generally favoured the Reformation and distanced themselves from the Roman church and Islam. The symbol of Martin Lutheris a cross inside an open rose.
In his autobiography,
Johann Valentin Andreae(1586–1654) claimed the anonymously published "Chymische Hochzeit" ("Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz") as one of his works, although he subsequently described it as a Ludibrium. However, in his later works, alchemy is the object of ridicule and is placed with music, art, theatre and astrology in the category of less serious sciences. His role in the origin of the Rosicrucian legend is controversial. [Cf. Yates, Frances A. (1972), "The Rosicrucian Enlightnment", London & Edighoffer, Roland (I-1982, II-1987), "Rose-Croix et Société Idéale selon Johann Valentin Andreae", Paris]
The Rosicrucian Enlightenment
The manifestos caused immense excitement throughout Europe: they declared the existence of a secret brotherhood of alchemists and sages who were preparing to transform the arts, sciences, religion, and political and intellectual landscape of Europe while wars of politics and religion ravaged the continent. The works were re-issued several times and followed by numerous pamphlets, favourable and otherwise. Between 1614 and 1620, about 400 manuscripts and books were published which discussed the Rosicrucian documents.
The peak of the so-called "Rosicrucianism furor" was reached when two mysterious posters appeared in the walls of Paris in 1622 within a few days of each other. The first one started with the saying "We, the Deputies of the Higher College of the Rose-Croix, do make our stay, visibly and invisibly, in this city (...)" and the second one ended with the words "The thoughts attached to the real desire of the seeker will lead us to him and him to us". [Cited by Sédir in "Les Rose-Croix", Paris (1972), p.65-66]
The legend inspired a variety of works, among them the works of
Michael Maier(1568–1622) of Germany, Robert Fludd(1574–1637) and Elias Ashmole(1617–1692) of England, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, Gotthardus Arthusius, Julius Sperber, Henricus Madathanus, Gabriel Naudé, Thomas Vaughan, and others. [Sédir (1972), "Les Rose-Croix", Paris, p. 59 to 68] In Elias Ashmole's "Theatrum Chimicum britannicum" (1650) he defends the Rosicrucians. Some later works with an impact on Rosicrucianism were the "Opus magocabalisticum et theosophicum" by George von Welling(1719), of alchemicaland paracelsianinspiration, and the "Aureum Vellus oder Goldenes Vliess" by Hermann Fictuld in 1749.
Michael Maier was ennobled with the title "Pfalzgraf" (Count Palatine) by
Rudolph II, Emperor and King of Hungaryand King of Bohemia. He also was one of the most prominent defenders of the Rosicrucians, clearly transmitting details about the "Brothers of the Rose Cross" in his writings. Maier made the firm statement that the Brothers of R.C. exist to advance inspired arts and sciences, including Alchemy. Researchers of Maier's writings point out that he never claimed to have produced gold, nor did Heinrich Khunrath nor any of the other Rosicrucianists. Their writings point toward a symbolic and spiritual Alchemy, rather than an operative one. In both direct and veiled styles, these writings conveyed the nine stages of the involutive-evolutive transmutation of the "threefold body" of the human being, the "threefold soul" and the "threefold spirit", among other esoteric knowledgerelated to the "Path of Initiation".
In his 1618 pamphlet, "Pia et Utilissima Admonitio de Fratribus Rosae Crucis", Henrichus Neuhusius writes that the Rosicrucians left for the East due to the instability in Europe caused by the start of the
Thirty Years' War, an idea afterwards echoed in 1710 by Samuel Ritcher, founder of the secret societyof the Golden and Rosy Cross. More recently René Guénon, a researcher of the occult, presented this same idea in some of his works. [Guénon, René, "Simboles de la Science Sacrée", Paris 1962, p.95ff] However, another eminent author on the Rosicrucians, Arthur Edward Waite, presents arguments that contradict this idea. [Waite, Arthur E. (1887), "The Real History of the Rosicrucians - Founded on their own Manifestos, and on facts and Documents collected from the writings of Initiated Brethren", London, p.408] It was in this fertile field of discourse that many "Rosicrucian" societies arose. They were based on the occult tradition and inspired by the mystery of this "College of Invisibles".
The literary works of the 16th and 17th centuries are full of enigmatic passages containing references to the
Rose Cross, as in these lines (somewhat modernised): Cquote | For what we do presage is riot in grosse,
For we are brethren of the Rosie Crosse;
We have the Mason Word and second sight,
Things for to come we can foretell aright.|20px|20px|
Henry Adamson|"The Muses' Threnodie" (Perth, 1638).
The idea of such an order, exemplified by the network of astronomers, professors, mathematicians, and natural philosophers in 16th century Europe and promoted by men such as
Johannes Kepler, Georg Joachim Rheticus, John Dee and Tycho Brahe, gave rise to the Invisible College, a precursor to the Royal Societyformed during the 17th century. It was constituted by group of scientists who began to hold regular meetings in an attempt to share and develop knowledge acquired by experimental investigation. Among these were Robert Boyle, who wrote: "the cornerstones of the Invisible (or as they term themselves the Philosophical) College, do now and then honour me with their company..."; [Cited by R Lomas (2002) in "The Invisible College", London] and John Wallis, who described those meetings in the following terms: "About the year 1645, while I lived in London (at a time when, by our civil wars, academical studies were much interrupted in both our Universities), ... I had the opportunity of being acquainted with divers worthy persons, inquisitive natural philosophy, and other parts of human learning; and particularly of what hath been called the New Philosophy or Experimental Philosophy. We did by agreements, divers of us, meet weekly in London on a certain day and hour, under a certain penalty, and a weekly contribution for the charge of experiments, with certain rules agreed amongst us, to treat and discourse of such affairs..." [Cited by H Lyons (1944) in "The Royal Society 1660-1940", Cambridge]
Rose-Cross Degrees in Freemasonry
According to Jean-Pierre Bayard, [Jean-Pierre Bayard, Les Rose-Croix, M. A. Éditions, Paris, 1986] two Rosicrucian-inspired Masonic rites emerged towards the end of 18th century, the
Rectified Scottish Rite, widespread in Central Europe where there was a strong presence of the "Golden and Rosy Cross", and the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, first practiced in France, in which the 18th degree is called "Knight of the Rose Croix".
The change from "operative" to "speculative" Masonry occurred between the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 18th century. Two of the earliest speculative Masons for which a record of their initiation exists were Sir
Robert Morayand Elias Ashmole. Robert Vanloo states that earlier 17th century Rosicrucianism had a considerable influence on Anglo-Saxon Masonry. Hans Schick sees in the works of Comenius (1592–1670) the ideal of the newly born English Masonry before the foundation of the Grand Lodgein 1717. Comenius was in England during 1641.
Gold und Rosenkreuzer(Golden and Rosy Cross) was founded by the alchemist Samuel Richterwho in 1710 published "Die warhhaffte und vollkommene Bereitung des Philosophischen Steins der Brüderschaft aus dem Orden des Gülden-und Rosen-Creutzes" in Breslau under the pseudonym Sincerus Renatus. [Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, The Occult Roots of Nazism, p. 59] in Praguein the early 18th century as a hierarchical secret societycomposed of internal circles, recognition signs and alchemy treatises. Under the leadership of Hermann Fictuldthe group reformed itself extensively in 1767 and again in 1777 because of political pressure. Its members claimed that the leaders of the Rosicrucian Order had invented Freemasonry and only they knew the secret meaning of Masonic symbols. The Rosicrucian Order had been founded by Egyptian “ Ormusse” or “ Licht-Weise” who had emigrated to Scotland with the name “Builders from the East”. Then the original Order disappeared and was supposed to have been resurrected by Oliver Cromwellas “Freemasonry”. In 1785 and 1788 the Golden and Rosy Cross group published the "Geheime Figuren" or “The Secret Symbols of the 16th and 17th century Rosicrucians”.
Led by Johann Christoph von Wöllner and General Johann Rudolf von Bischoffwerder, the Masonic lodge (later: "Grand Lodge") "Zu den drei Weltkugeln" was infiltrated and came under the influence of the Golden and Rosy Cross. Many Freemasons became Rosicrucianists and Rosicrucianism was established in many lodges. In 1782 at the Convent of Wilhelmsbad the "Alte schottische Loge Friedrich zum goldenen Löwen" in Berlin strongly requested
Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburgand all other Freemasons to submit to the Golden and Rosy Cross, without success.
After 1782, this highly secretive society added Egyptian, Greek and Druidic mysteries to its alchemy system. [Bayard, Jean-Pierre, "Les Rose-Croix", M.A.Édition, Paris 1986] A comparative study of what is known about the Gold and Rosenkreuzer, appears to reveal, on one hand, that it has influenced the creation of some modern Initiatic groups and, on the other hand, that the Nazis ("see
The Occult Roots of Nazism") may have been inspired by this German group.
According to the writings of the Masonic historian E.J. Marconis de Negre [de Negre, E.J. Marconis (1849), "Brief History of Masonry"] , who together with his father Gabriel M. Marconis is held to be the founder of the "
Rite of Memphis-Misraim" of Freemasonry, based on earlier conjectures (1784) by a Rosicrucian scholar Baron de Westerode [Nesta Webster's, " [http://ellhn.e-e-e.gr/books/assets/secret_societies.pdf Secret Societies and Subversive Movements] ", London, 1924, p. 87 and note 37] and also promulgated by the 18th century secret society called the "Golden and Rosy Cross", the Rosicrucian Order was created in the year 46 when an Alexandrian Gnostic sage named Ormusand his six followers were converted by one of Jesus' disciples, Mark; their symbol was said to be a red cross surmounted by a rose, thus the designation of Rosy Cross. From this conversion, Rosicrucianism was supposedly born, by purifying Egyptian mysteries with the new higher teachings of early Christianity. [Further research in " [http://www.book-of-thoth.com/article1662.html Legend and Mythology: Ormus] " by Sol, The Book of THoTH, 2004]
According to Maurice Magre (1877–1941) in his book "Magicians, Seers, and Mystics", Rosenkreutz was the last descendant of the Germelshausen, a German family from the 13th century. Their castle stood in the
Thuringian Foreston the border of Hesse, and they embraced Albigensiandoctrines. The whole family was put to death by Landgrave Conrad of Thuringia, except for the youngest son, then five years old. He was carried away secretly by a monk, an Albigensian adept from Languedocand placed in a monastery under the influence of the Albigenses, where he was educated and met the four Brothers later to be associated with him in the founding of the Rosicrucian Brotherhood. Magre's account supposedly derives from oral tradition.
Around 1530, more than eighty years before the publication of the first manifesto, the association of cross and rose already existed in Portugal in the
Convent of the Order of Christ, home of the Knights Templar, later renamed Order of Christ. Three "bocetes" were, and still are, on the "abóboda" (vault) of the initiation room. The rose can clearly be seen at the center of the cross. [ [http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant%C3%B3nio_de_Macedo Macedo, António de] (2000), "Instruções Iniciáticas - Ensaios Espirituais", 2nd edition, Hughin Editores, Lisbon, ISBN 972-8534-00-0, p.55] [Gandra, J. Manuel (1998), "Portugal Misterioso" ("Os Templários"), Lisbon, p.348-349] At the same time, a minor writing by Paracelsuscalled "Prognosticatio Eximii Doctoris Paracelsi" (1530), containing 32 prophecies with allegorical pictures surrounded by enigmatic texts, makes reference to an image of a double cross over an open rose; this is one of the examples used to prove the "Fraternity of the Rose Cross" existed far earlier than 1614. [ Stanislas de Guaita(1886), "Au seuil du Mystère"]
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, various groups styled themselves Rosicrucian. The diverse groups who link themselves to a "Rosicrucian Tradition" can be divided into three categories: Esoteric Christian Rosicrucian groups, which profess
Christ, MasonicRosicrucian groups such as Societas Rosicruciana, and initiatory groups such as the Golden Dawn. Esoteric ChristianRosicrucian schools provide esotericknowledge related to the inner teachings of Christianity. [Skogstrom, Jan (2001), [http://www.spiritunited.com/articles/exotericesoteric.htm Some Comparisons Between Exoteric & Esoteric Christianity] , a table comparing exotericand esotericChristian beliefs]
The Rosicrucian Fellowship, 1909/11. Teachings present the "mysteries", in the form of esoteric knowledge, of which Christ spoke in Matthew 13:11 and Luke 8:10. The Fellowship seeks to prepare the individual through harmonious development of mind and heart in a spirit of unselfish service to mankind and an all-embracing altruism. According to it the Rosicrucian Order was founded in the year 1313 [ [http://www.rosicrucian.com/zineen/pamen010.htm The Rosicrucian Interpretation of Christianity] by The Rosicrucian Fellowship] and is composed of twelve exalted Beings gathered around a thirteenth, Christian Rosenkreuz. These great Adepts have already advanced far beyond the cycle of rebirth; their mission is to prepare the "whole wide world" for a new phase in religion—which includes awareness of the inner worlds and the subtle bodies, and to provide safe guidance in the gradual awakening of man's latent spiritual faculties during the next six centuries toward the coming Age of Aquarius. [" [http://www.rosicrucian.com/rms/rmseng01.htm The Rosicrucian Mysteries] by Max Heindel. Accessed 29 March 2006]
According to masonic writers the Order of the
Rose Crossis expounded in a major Christian literary work that molded the subsequent spiritual views of the western civilization; " The Divine Comedy" (ca. 1308–1321) by Dante Alighieri. [ Albert Pike, " Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, [http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/morals_and_dogma/table_of_contents.htm XXX: Knight Kadosh] ", p. 822, 1872] [ René Guénon, " [http://www.thule-italia.net/Sitospagnolo/Guenon/Guenon,%20Rene%20-%20El%20esoterismo%20de%20Dante.pdf El Esoterismo de Dante] ", p. 5-6, 14, 15-16, 18-23, 1925] [ Manly Palmer Hall, " [http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/secret_teachings_of_all_ages/table_of_contents.htm The Secret Teachings of All Ages] : The Fraternity of The Rose Cross", p. 139, 1928]
Other Christian-Rosicrucian oriented bodies include;
Anthroposophical Society, 1912
Lectorium Rosicrucianum, 1935
Archeosophical Society, 1968
Freemasonic Rosicrucian bodies providing preparation either through direct study and/or through the practice of symbolic-initiatic journey.
Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, 1801
Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia, 1866, in Scotia (SRIS; Scotland), in Civitatibus Foederatis (MSRICF/SRICF; United States) etc. This Masonic esoteric society reprinted the Rosicrucian manifestos in 1923. A well-known member was A.E.Waite
These groups generally speak of a lineal descent from earlier branches of the ancient Rosicrucian Order in England, France, Egypt, or other countries. The inner structure of these groups is based upon grades, initiations and titles.
Fraternitas Rosae Crucis, 1861
Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, 1888
Order of the Temple of the Rosy Cross, 1912
Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis, (AMORC), 1915
Rosicrucian Order Crotona Fellowship, 1924
*Rose Cross Order / Orden Rosacruz, 1988
*Swedish Misraim Alliance (Svenska Misraimförbundet), 1988
Ancient Order of the Rosicrucians, 1989
*Confraternity of the Rose Cross, 1996
*The Sophia Guild, 2000
*Sodalitas Rosae Crucis (S.R.C.) et Solis Alati (S.S.A.), 2002/3
* [http://www.rosecrossohgrc.com/ Order of the Hermetic Gold and Rose+Cross] , 2002
* [http://www.knightsofthemce.com/ Knights of the Militia Crucifera Evangelica] , 2002
Oriental Rosicrucian Order, 2002
The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz
The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception
Brethren of Purity
Western Mystery Tradition
Alchemy, Philosopher's stone
Esotericism, Esoteric Christianity
Mysticism, Christian mysticism
References and further reading
*Among the treasures of the
Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermeticain Amsterdam are books on the Gnosis and the Corpus Hermeticum as published in Florence in 1471.
University of Wisconsin-MadisonDigital Collections Center has a [http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/HistSciTech/HistSciTech-idx?id=HistSciTech.GeheimeFiguren digital edition] of the "Geheime Figuren der Rosenkreuzer, aus dem 16ten und 17ten Jahrhundert (1785–1788)".
*António de Macedo, "Instruções Iniciáticas - Ensaios Espirituais", Hughin Editores, 2nd ed., Lisbon, 2000 [http://paginasesotericas.tripod.com/instrucoesiniciaticas.htm www]
Arthur Edward Waite, "The Real History of the Rosicrucians", 1887 [http://www.sacred-texts.com/sro/rhr/index.htm www]
Arthur Edward Waite, "Rosicrucian Rites and Ceremonies of the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross", 1916-1918, Ishtar Publishing, [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0978388348 www]
Arthur Edward Waite, "Complete Rosicrucian Initiations of the Fellowship of the Rosy Cross", 1916-1918, Ishtar Publishing, [http://www.ishtarpublishing.com/new-age-book/complete_rosicrucian_initiations_of_the_fellowship_of_the_rosy_cross.html www]
*Bernard Gorceix, "La Bible des Rose-Croix", Paris, 1970
*Carl Edwin Lindgren & Neophyte, "Spiritual Alchemists", Ars Latomorum Publ.; 1st ed
January 1 1996. ISBN 1-885591-18-7
*Carl Edwin Lindgren, "The Rose Cross Order: A Historical and Philosophical View" [http://users.panola.com/lindgren/rosecross.html www]
Christian Bernard, "Rosicrucian Questions and Answers," 2001 [http://astore.amazon.com/wwwrosicrucia-20/detail/1893971023/102-4660170-3936963 www]
*Christian Rebisse, "Rosicrucian History and Mysteries", 2003 [http://astore.amazon.com/wwwrosicrucia-20/detail/1893971058/102-4660170-3936963 www]
*Christopher McIntosh, "The Rose Cross and the Age of Reason", Brill Academic Pub, 1997
Frances Yates, "The Rosicrucian Enlightenment", ISBN 0-415-26769-2, London; New York: Routledge, 1972.
*Frietsch, Wolfram, "Die Geheimnisse der Rosenkreuzer", ISBN 3-499-60495-7
Hargrave Jennings, "The Rosicrucians: Their Rites and Mysteries", 1870
Herbert Silberer, "Probleme der mystik und ihrer symbolik" ('Problems of Mysticism and its Symbolism'), 1914
*Jean Palou, "A Franco-Maçonaria Simbólica e Iniciática", Pensamento, 9th ed., 1998
*Jean-Pierre Bayard, "Les Rose-Croix", M. A. Éditions, Paris, 1986
John Matthews, "The Rosicrucian Enlightenment Revisited," 1999. ISBN 0940262843
Manly Palmer Hall, "Rosicrucian and Masonic Origins", 1929 [http://the_mystic_light.tripod.com/rosicrucian_and_masonic.htm www]
*Manly Palmer Hall, "The Secret Teachings of All Ages", 1928 [http://www.sacred-texts.com/eso/sta/index.htm www]
*Mary P. Merrifield, "The Art of Fresco Painting in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance". Dover Publications, 2004
Max Heindel, "Christian Rosenkreuz and the Order of Rosicrucians", 1909 [http://www.rosicrucian.com/rcc/rcceng19.htm www]
*Roland Edighoffer, "Rose-Croix et Société Idéale selon Johann Valentin Andreae", Paris I-1982, II-1987.
Rudolf Steiner, "Esoteric Christianity and the Mission of Christian Rosenkreutz", 1912 [http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/EsoChristian/19121218p02.html www]
*Rudolf Steiner, "Rosicrucianism and Modern Initiation-Mystery Centres of the Middle Ages", 1924 [http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/RosiModInit/RosIni_index.html www]
William Wynn Westcott, "Rosicrucian Thoughts on the Ever-Burning Lamps of the Ancients", 1903 [http://www.levity.com/alchemy/westcott.html www]
*Alexandre David, "Fama Fraternitatis - Introduction" [http://rosicrucianlight.tripod.com/rc_famafraternitatis.htm www]
Corinne Heline, "The Seven Jewels and the Seven Stages of Initiation " [http://themysticlight.tripod.com/nbtr.htm www]
* St. Leon by William Godwin, 1799
* St. Irvyne; or, The Rosicrucian by Percy Bysshe Shelley, 1811, London, J.J. Stockdale
*Wolfstein; or, The Mysterious Bandit by Percy Bysshe Shelley, circa 1815, J. Bailey, London, a chapbook reduction of St. Irvyne
*Edward Bulwer-Lytton, "" (1842), [http://www.edward-bulwer-lytton.org/zanoni/ www]
*Edward Bulwer-Lytton, "" (1870) [http://sacred-texts.com/atl/vril/index.htm www]
Franz Hartmann, "With the Adepts: An Adventure Among the Rosicrucians" (1910) [http://www.sacred-texts.com/sro/wta/index.htm www]
Hermann Hesse, " Journey to the East" (1932, also "Journey to the Land of the Morning/of the Tomorrow" ("Die Morgenlandfahrt"))
*Hermann Hesse, "
The Glass Bead Game" (1943), also known as "Magister Ludi" (Master of the Game)
*Prentiss Tucker, "In the Land of the Living Dead: an Occult Story" (1929) [http://members.shaw.ca/jamis/LivingDead.htm www] .
*Michael Baigent, Richard Leigh and
Henry Lincoln, " Holy Blood, Holy Grail" (1982), advanced a pseudohistoricalrelation of Rosicrucianism with a secret society called Priory of Sion.
Umberto Eco, "Foucault's Pendulum" (1988), "Serendipities: Language and Lunacy" (1998).
Dan Brown, " The Da Vinci Code" (2003), follows the " Holy Blood, Holy Grail"'s conspiracy theories line.
* [http://www.levity.com/alchemy/rosi_grp.html A detailed listing of modern Rosicrucian groups]
* [http://www.accessibleportugal.com/Magazine_ficheiros/July/templar.html Accessible magazine (2006): The Portugal Code: the Knights Templar, the Rosicrucian Order and the Holy Grail]
* [http://www.levity.com/alchemy/rosicros.html Alchemy Web Site (The): Rosicrucianism]
Catholic Encyclopedia: [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13193b.htm Rosicrucians]
CESNUR: [http://www.cesnur.org/2005/pa_imbs.htm 2005 International Conference - Spiritual filiation or doctrinal conflicts in modern Rosicrucian movements]
* [http://www.americanreligion.org/cultwtch/rosicruc.html Cultwatch: Rosicrucians]
* [http://www.godulike.co.uk/faiths.php?chapter=85&subject=intro God-u-Like: Rosicrucianism]
* [http://www.roca.org/OA/95/95p.htm Orthodox America: The Rosicrucians]
* [http://www.reversespins.com/rosicrucian.html Reverse Spins: The Mysterious Rosicrucian...]
* [http://grailstar.4t.com/rosie.htm Rosie: Speculum Sophicum Rhodo-Stauroticum]
* [http://www.spiritualislibrae.com/fama-fraternitatis/ Spiritualis Librae - Occult Library (The): Fama Fraternitatis]
*Straight Dope (The): [http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mrosicrucian.html What is Rosicrucianism all about?]
* [http://www.textfiles.com/occult/ROSICRUCIAN/ textfiles.com - Occult (The): Rosicrucianism]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.