Plymouth Brethren

Plymouth Brethren

The Plymouth Brethren is a conservative, Evangelical Christian movement, whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s.[1][2] Although the group is notable for not taking any official "church name" to itself, and not having an official clergy or liturgy, the title "The Brethren," is one that many of their number are comfortable with in that the Bible designates all believers as "brethren" (meaning "brothers"). "Brethren assemblies" are commonly perceived as being divided into at least two branches, the "Open Brethren" and the "Exclusive Brethren".[3]



The Plymouth Brethren movement began in Dublin around 1827, and soon spread from Ireland to Britain. The first English assembly was in Plymouth, where the movement became well known. Brethren assemblies diffused throughout Europe and beyond.[4] Leonard Strong led the formation about 1836 of assemblies in British Guiana among the slaves.[5][6] In the early years, those involved were largely unknown to one another, with no direct contact between the various groups.[2]

The two main but conflicting aspirations of the movement were to create a holy and pure fellowship on one hand, and to allow all Christians into fellowship on the other. Following decades of dissent, and the expansion of Methodism and political revolutions in the United States and France, believers in the movement felt that the established Church of England had abandoned or distorted many of the ancient traditions of Christendom. To get away from the sectarianism of dissenters, people in the movement wanted simply to meet together in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ without reference to denominational differences. Early meetings included Christians from a variety of denominations.

A feeling of dissatisfaction toward existing church gatherings also contributed to such differing movements as the "Oxford Movement", "Irvingism" and other Christian manifestations of change.

In Dublin, more than one group of believers met separately around 1827, and for some time were unknown to each other.[7] These believers included John Nelson Darby and Anthony Norris Groves, who were dubbed "brethren" because of their practice of calling each other "brother" instead of the titles favoured by mainstream denominations.

The first meeting in England was held in December 1831[8] in Plymouth. It was organised primarily by George Wigram, Benjamin Wills Newton and John Nelson Darby.[9] The movement soon spread throughout the UK. By 1845, the assembly in Plymouth had over 1,000 people in fellowship.[10] They became known as "the brethren from Plymouth" and were soon simply called "Plymouth Brethren". The term "Darbyites" is also used, especially when describing the "Exclusive" branch where the influence of John Nelson Darby is more pronounced. Many within the movement refuse to accept any name other than "Christian".

The movement rapidly gained popularity and spread worldwide. By 1848 divergence of practice and belief led to the development of two separate branches, commonly known as the Exclusive Brethren (sometimes referred to as "Closed Brethren") and the Open Brethren. One opinion is that the rift was caused primarily by theological differences between John Nelson Darby and Benjamin Wills Newton with regard to eschatology. Another opinion is that the rift was due to Darby's strong objections to a shift towards clericalism and away from the priesthood of all believers within the assembly in Plymouth in the early 1840s, whilst under the leadership of Newton during the years when Darby spent much of his time teaching and preaching in mainland Europe. Despite more divisions, assemblies are still often generalised into the two main categories of Open Brethren and Exclusive Brethren.

The Brethren have been in decline in the UK since the 1950s, but the assemblies with more progressive approaches have grown. There has been a blurring of distinctions between some assemblies and other non-denominational and house church congregations. Some groups have abandoned earlier principles, such as rejection of a salaried ministry and insistence on women's silence.[11]

Some fellowships maintain these distinctive principles while updating many traditions and practices, while others continue in much the same way as they have for most of the 20th century. The more traditional assemblies in the UK today can be found in Northern Ireland (where other denominations refer to them as 'Plyms'), Scotland, Northern England and parts of the South of England, like Hampshire. Outside the British Isles, the brethren have a large presence in the Faroe Islands, forming the largest non-conformist group amongst a population that predominantly belongs to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark.[12]

The Brethren movement is widespread in the United States and Canada, where it has spread through evangelistic endeavours, immigration from the UK and Commonwealth countries, and by attracting Christians from other backgrounds with its emphasis on Biblicism, centrality of the Lord's Supper and equality of all believers under Christ, as well as its avoidance of denominational governance. Open Brethren congregations in America often are barely distinguishable from other evangelical denominations on the outside and often engage in joint efforts with other Christians in their communities. On the other hand, some previously thriving Brethren assemblies have seen dwindling attendances in recent years due in part to the lack of strong denominational loyalties and cultural discomfort with some Brethren traditions, such as head covering for women, silence of women, and a cappella singing. In America, the designation of the building in which Open Brethren assemblies meet most often include the word "Chapel" in their formal name, combined with a biblical place name or principle or otherwise a local geographic feature—for instance, Bethany Chapel, Central Gospel Chapel, Park Road Bible Chapel, Riverview Believers Chapel. But unlike many other Christian groups, the names of Christian saints, (e.g. Paul, Luke) are rarely or never used. Exclusive to Closed groups, however, is the avoidance of "taking a name" to their group. A Closed group building is referred to as a "Meeting Room" or "Gospel Hall", and the word "Chapel" is avoided.

"Open" and "Exclusive" Brethren

The term "Exclusive" is most commonly used in the media to describe one separatist group known by other groups as "Taylor-Hales Brethren". The majority of Christians known as "Brethren" are not in any way connected with the Taylor-Hales group, who are known for their extreme isolationism. What other groups refer to as the "Raven" Brethren (named for prominent Exclusive leader Mr. Raven) are rather like the Taylor-Hales group but less strict and isolationist. Exclusive Brethren groups that are not in any way affiliated with, nor as isolationist as, the Ravens or the Taylor-Hales Exclusives (the "Tunbridge Wells" groups, for instance) are happier being called "Closed" rather than "Exclusive" brethren, so as to avoid any connection with these more militant groups.

With the exception of the separatist Raven-Taylor-Hales Brethren, so-called Open Brethren and Exclusive Brethren differ on few theological issues. Some Exclusives hold to "Household Baptism" as opposed to "Believers' Baptism", which is practised by the Open Brethren. With the exception of the separatist Taylor-Hales brethren, all assemblies welcome visitors to Gospel meetings and other gatherings. Some Open Brethren assemblies allow any believer to "break bread" with them, and are said to have an "open table" approach to strangers. Others believe that only those formally recognised as part of that or another equivalent assembly should break bread. Similarly, practices of reception among "Exclusive" assemblies vary, many tending to operate a cautious or "guarded" approach to reception and others being more liberal. It is felt by many Brethren that the mutual Communion of their fellowship with bread and wine can be tainted by the inclusion of those whose hearts are not pure before God. Fellowship in the Lord's Supper is not considered a private matter but a corporate expression, "Because we, being many, are one loaf, one body; for we all partake of that one loaf." (1 Corinthians 10:17) A further verse that Brethren refer to is, "Shall two walk together except they be agreed?" (Amos 3:3) Many, both Closed and Open Brethren, hold that association with evil defiles and that the Communion meal can bring that association. Their support text is from 1 Corinthians 15:33, "Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners."

A clearer difference between Open and Exclusive assemblies is in the nature of relationships between meetings. Open Brethren meetings are generally local assemblies that are autonomous but often informally linked with each other. Exclusive Brethren are generally "connexional" and so feel under obligation to recognise and adhere to the disciplinary actions of other associated assemblies. Disciplinary action normally involves denying the individual the breaking of bread (taking of communion) on Sunday mornings, and to varying degrees, dependant upon which kind of Brethren group it is, may also involve forms of formal social ostracism or shunning. (For instance, people placed "under discipline" may be asked not to attend any group functions which are purely social, and people may decline to eat with and shake hands with members who are under discipline.) One practical result of this might be that among Open Brethren, should a member be "disciplined" in one assembly other assemblies may feel free to allow the member to break bread with them (if they are not concerned by whatever caused the disciplinary action of the one in question). A numerically small movement known as the Needed Truth Brethren emerged out of the Open Brethren, around 1892, partly in an attempt to address the problem of making discipline more effective.

Reasons for being put "under discipline" by both the Open and Exclusive Brethren include refusing to recant and disseminating what is, in the eyes of the fellowship, gross Scriptural or doctrinal error, and/or being involved in what is deemed sexual immorality (including adulterous, homosexual or premarital sex). Being accused of irregular or illegal financial dealings may also result in being put under discipline. In Exclusive meetings, a member "under discipline" in one assembly would not be accepted (allowed to "break bread" or play an active teaching and worshipping role) in another assembly, as the Assembly generally respects the decisions made by the other Assembly. As Exclusives have developed into a number of different branches, often when there was not universal agreement among the assemblies in a specific case of excommunication, a particular act of discipline may not be recognised by all assemblies. Exclusives are also much more adherent to the shunning (or "shutting up") of the offending party, using instructions given for dealing with a "leprous house" in Leviticus 14:34–48 as guidance. In extreme cases, members may be asked to shun or divorce members of their immediate families (as described in Ngaire Thomas[13]' book Behind Closed Doors).

Another less clear difference between assemblies lies in their approaches to collaborating with other Christians. Some Open Brethren will hold Gospel meetings, youth events, or other activities in partnership with Evangelical Christian churches, while others (and perhaps the majority of Exclusive Brethren) tend not to support activities outside their own meetings.

Since the formation of the Exclusives in 1848, there have been a great number of subdivisions into separate groups, but most groups have since re-joined with the exception of the separatist Taylor-Hales (otherwise known as 'Jimite' from their following of James Taylor Jnr at the division in 1970) groups who practise extreme separation and whom other Brethren generally believe to be a cult. This, and other Exclusive groups (Closed Brethren), prefer not be known by any name and are only given such designations by non-members.

Both Open and Exclusive assemblies generally maintain relations within their respective groups through common support of missionaries, area conferences and the ministry of travelling "Commended Workers" or "Labouring Brothers."


Cregagh Street Gospel Hall, Belfast.

The Plymouth Brethren are generally dispensational, pre-tribulational, premillennial and cessational in their theology and have much in common with other conservative evangelical Christian groups. They believe in the "Eternal Security" of the true Bible-believing Christian with each believer being subject to "grace" and not "law".[14] In Open Brethren meetings each local assembly is independent and autonomous, so the characteristics of each may differ to a greater or lesser degree, which makes it difficult to describe distinctive characteristics. Exclusive Brethren meetings are more affiliated to one another, but characterising their meetings is made difficult because over the years they have split many times into many divisions.

Essentially, therefore, the Brethren have no central hierarchy to dictate a statement of faith, and even local assemblies tend not to give tacit adherence to any of the historic "Creeds" and "Confessions of Faith" such as are found in many Protestant denominations. This is not because they are opposed to the central sentiments and doctrines expressed in such formulations but rather because they hold the Bible as their sole authority in regard to matters of doctrine and practice. Like many non-conformist churches, Brethren observe only the two ordinances of Baptism and Communion.

Their notable differences from other Christian groups lie in a number of doctrinal beliefs that affect the practice of their gatherings and behaviour. These differences can be summarised as follows:[2]

Avoidance of traditional symbols

Traditionally, meetings do not have a cross displayed inside or outside their place of worship as the focus is on Christ and the Word of God.[15] The Plymouth Brethren view an unembellished room as more effective.[16][17] Crosses are not typically placed inside homes or worn around the neck by these believers. Other symbols such as stained glass windows for their normal meeting hall have been traditionally discouraged. Their meeting places sometimes have Bible names, e.g., "Ebenezer," "Hebron," "Shiloh" and "Bethel"; sometimes they are named after the street on which they are found, e.g. Curzon Street Gospel Hall, Derby; sometimes after the locality, e.g. Ballynagarrick Gospel Hall. Some use the name Chapel instead of Gospel Hall.

Services do not follow a set liturgy nor the liturgical calendar of "High Church" groups, such as the Anglican or Lutheran churches.

Exclusive Brethren do not generally name their meeting rooms except by reference perhaps to the road, e.g. Galpins Road Meeting Room. The meeting room is often referred to as "The Room". Notice boards give the times of Gospel Preachings with a formula such as "If the Lord will, the Gospel will be preached in this room Lord's Day at 6.30." Symington/Taylor/Hales meeting rooms have notice boards which indicate that it is a place registered for public worship and give a contact number for further information.[citation needed]

Fellowship, not membership

Traditionally the assemblies have rejected the concept of anyone "joining" as a member of a particular local gathering of believers and the maintenance of any list of such members.[18] Brethren emphasise the Christian doctrine of the one "Church" made up of all true believers and enumerated in Heaven in "Lamb's Book of Life",[19] rather than by humans. However, as a practical matter, in the late 20th century many American Open assemblies began maintaining informal lists of those in regular attendance at services. This was often to comply with secular governance issues or to offer a directory of attendees for internal use. The Open Brethren emphasise that meeting attendance for the nonbeliever has no direct spiritual benefit (though it is hoped the individual may be influenced to convert). Nonbelievers are not to partake of the "Breaking of Bread", though this proves generally difficult to enforce in larger Open assemblies. Regardless, regular attendance for believers is felt to be an act of obedience to the New Testament command that they should not neglect the assembling of themselves together.[20] Despite the Brethren's rejection of the term 'member', many observers use the term to refer to those who attend services. The concept of not having an official membership is not so clear cut among the Exclusives, as people who wish to break bread must be affiliated with a "home assembly" to which they are responsible in terms of lifestyle choices. Visiting brethren are usually expected to bring a "letter of commendation" from their "home assembly", assuring the group they are visiting that they are in fellowship and not under any form of discipline.

No clergy

While much of typical Brethren theology closely parallels non-Calvinist English and American Baptist traditions on many points, the view on clergy is much closer to the Protestant Reformation in rejecting the idea of clergy. Many Protestant denominations claim adherence to the New Testament doctrine of the priesthood of all believers[1Pet 2:9-10] to varying extents. The Plymouth Brethren embrace the most extensive form of that idea in that there is no ordained or unordained person or group employed to function as minister(s) or pastor(s). The spiritual leaders of certain Plymouth Brethren assemblies or meetings are called "Elders", and sometimes more practical leaders, called "Deacons", are identified. The term "Elder" is based on the same Scriptures that are used to identify "Bishops" and "Overseers" in other Christian circles.[21], and some claim that the system of elders and appointment mean that the Plymouth Brethren as a movement cannot claim full adherence to the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers.[22] There is usually more than one Elder in an assembly and although officially naming and designating "eldership" is common to Open Brethren, there are many Exclusive assemblies that believe granting a man the title of "Elder" is too close to having clergy, and therefore a group of "leading brothers", none of whom has an official title of any kind, attempts to present issues to the entire group for it to decide upon, believing that the whole group must decide, not merely a body of "Elders". (As in all Exclusive Brethren meetings, women are generally not permitted to speak at meetings at which the entire group makes "assembly decisions", and in many groups women may not attend these affairs.)

Plymouth Brethren groups generally recognise from the teachings of the Apostle Paul's epistles that not all the believers in any one fellowship are suited to give public ministry such as teaching and preaching.[23]

As a practical matter, many Open assemblies have come to embrace the need to financially compensate an individual who has made preaching and teaching his full-time occupation, and these people are sometimes salaried. Such an individual may be termed a "full-time worker" (or a "labouring brother" or "on the Lord's work"). At a given assembly, there may be no full-time workers, or one or several. It is generally up to the Elders and dependent on the availability of such an individual and the financial means of the assembly. Some Exclusive assemblies "commend" men who are dedicated to the work of preaching. Although they usually do not receive a salary, gifts are often given to them by the separate assemblies where they preach and teach.

Traditionally, the assemblies have recognized New Testament passages that seem to deny speaking and teaching roles to women, except when working with children or with other women. Some women may also be full-time workers, but their efforts are often limited to these mentioned areas or to supporting roles. Women are generally not allowed to participate in individual speech during the "Breaking of Bread" service. (see Separate Roles of Men and Women)

It is not strictly accurate to say that the assemblies reject the ordination of women. The assemblies reject the concept of ordination altogether. As a substitute practice, a male full-time worker often receives a "commendation" to the service of preaching and/or teaching that demonstrates the blessing and support of the assembly of origin, but that does not connote a transfer of any special spiritual authority. In some groups, both men and women may be commended to service, but again the role of women is limited. In recent years some American assemblies have loosened the rules on women participating, such as women singing special music during the "family Bible hours" at their assemblies, though others have reacted by placing more emphasis on this traditional teaching.[citation needed]

Weekly "Remembrance" meeting

Former Brethren Meeting House, Burgess Hill

A distinctive practice of the Brethren is a separate weekly Communion meeting, referred to as the "Breaking of Bread" or "The Lord's Supper". Although specific practices will vary from meeting to meeting, there are general similarities.

  • The "Remembrance Service" is usually held each Sunday morning (though some assemblies hold it in the evening).[24]
  • Where a meeting hall allows for the adjustment of furniture, the table bearing the communion "emblems" (bread and wine or grape juice) is sometimes placed in the centre of the room. Chairs may be arranged around the table in four radiating sections, all facing the table, although this is not a recognised standard.
  • There is no order or plan for the service: rather the meeting is extempore; men (see The Separate Roles of Men and Women) will (as "called by the Spirit") rise and quote scripture, pray, request a hymn to be sung or give a thought.
  • Most assemblies do not have instrumental accompaniment to hymns and songs sung during the "Remembrance Service" but instead have men who "start the hymns" (choosing a tune, tempo, pitch and key and singing the first few words, with the rest joining in shortly thereafter).[25] In some groups, musical accompaniment may be used at the other services.
  • Either at the beginning or toward the end of the "Remembrance Service" meeting, a prayer is said in reference to the bread concerning its portrayal as "the body of Christ", perhaps by an individual so appointed or (in a meeting where no one is appointed) by a man who has taken it upon himself.[26][27][28]
  • Generally a loaf of leavened bread is used as an emblem of Christ's body. After giving thanks for the loaf, it is broken and circulated to the quiet, seated congregation. Congregants will break off small pieces as it is passed, and eat them individually (i.e. not waiting for a group invitation to consume it together).
  • As with common Christian practice, wine has been traditionally used at Brethren Remembrance Services as the emblem of Christ's blood. Some individual meetings use grape juice, especially if someone in fellowship may had an alcohol problem in the past. The emblem of the blood is served after the bread has been circulated to the congregation and after it has been prayed over.
  • An offering bag, basket or box may be sent around after these two "emblems" have been passed, collecting money given voluntarily for use in maintaining the building, hall or room, to remunerate full-time or labouring members, or for distribution to the needy. In some cases an offering box may be placed at the door and not circulated.
  • Because some assemblies do not encourage strangers to take Communion, it is the custom of those who are travelling to take with them a "letter of commendation" so they might be permitted to take Communion away from their home assemblies. These letters are typically read aloud to those present at the "Remembrance Service" and serve the purpose of introducing visitors to the meetings so that they can be made welcome and benefit from fellowship. These Exclusive and Open Brethren meetings operate what is termed a "Closed Table Policy". Any stranger arriving at such a meeting without a letter is allowed only to observe the meeting. Some Open assemblies welcome any who profess Jesus Christ as the Saviour.
  • Some Exclusive meetings differ from Open meetings in seating accepted men (men who are "in fellowship") in the front rows toward the table bearing the emblems, with accepted women behind the men, and unaccepted men and women towardd the rear. Other Exclusive meetings seat accepted men and women together (so spouses can be seated together), and unaccepted men and women towards the rear in the "Seat of the Unlearned" or "Seat of the Observer".

Other Sunday meetings

Following the Remembrance meeting there may be one other Sunday meeting, or perhaps more. Whereas the purpose of the Lord's Supper is predominantly for worship, recalling the person and work of Christ, other meetings involve Bible teaching, evangelism and gospel preaching (among young and old). Sunday Schools and Bible classes are common. In ministry and Gospel meetings the congregation, seated in rows facing a pulpit or platform, sing hymns and choruses and listen to Scripture readings and a sermon preached by one of the brethren called to "preach". Bible teaching may be given either in the form of a ministry meeting in which a sermon is delivered or in a "Bible reading" or "Bible study" in which the men discuss a portion of Scripture.

Low-key offerings taken

The assemblies do not take an offering during the time their Sunday sermons are preached; but do take an offering at the Breaking of Bread meetings. Only those in fellowship are expected to give. Tithing, giving 10 percent of one's income, is seen as commandment for Israel from the Old Testament law and not applicable to the Church. Instead, the amount given is left to the giver and is a private matter between the individual and the Lord.[29]

One reason for not taking up an offering at all meetings is to avoid causing any unbelievers who may be present to think that they might gain a spiritual benefit by making a donation. Some assemblies never send an offering bag round the congregation, even at the Breaking of Bread service. They prefer to simply have a box or two located at the back of the meeting hall, thus avoiding even the appearance of solicitation for funds. Many assemblies operate a "back seat" or "guest row" during the Breaking of Bread so that neither the offering bag nor the emblems of bread and wine will pass down the row of those not in fellowship.

No salaried ministry

See the comments on "No Clergy" above. Most assemblies are led by a group of unordained men, "Overseers" or "Elders", who believe they have been "Called by God" (Romans 8:28). (Ordination is "anathema" to Plymouth Brethren, because the separate "office" of "Preacher" does not appear in the original Koine Greek language of the New Testament, and because such ordination connotes unbiblical separation of some believers into a distinctly higher class.[30] Conversely, an Elder is supposed to be able and ready to "teach" when his assembly sees the "Call of God" on his life to assume that office (1 Timothy 3:2). The Elders conduct many other duties that would be typically performed by "clergy" in other Christian groups, including: counselling those who have decided to be baptised, performing baptisms, visiting the sick and giving general spiritual advice. Some Open assemblies, especially the larger assemblies in North America, have salaried staff, including some designated as "Teaching Elders" or "Teaching Pastors". Normally, sermons are given by both Elders and other members of the meeting. Visiting speakers, however, are usually paid to cover expenses such as the cost of travel. Full-time missionaries are often financially supported by assemblies known by them, particularly their home assemblies.

Separate roles of men and women

No distinction is made in Brethren teaching between men and women in their individual relation to Christ and his "vicarious atonement" for them on the cross, or their individual position before God as believers. However, in most Brethren meetings the principle of "male headship" is applied in accordance with teaching found in several passages in the Bible, including 1 Corinthians 11:3, which says:

"But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God."

"1 The Head of every man is Christ – no equality. 2 The head of the woman is the man – equality and subjection. 3 The Head of Christ is God – equality, yet subjection."[31]

Thus most Brethren meetings reserve public leadership and teaching roles to men, based on 1 Timothy 2:11,12...:

"A woman should learn in quietness and full submission. I do not permit a woman to teach or to have authority over a man; she must be silent."

Also, 1 Corinthians 14:34,35 states, "Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience, as also saith the law. And if they will learn any thing, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church." (The reason for this has to do with acknowledging Headship: Headship and the head covering are seen by many as inseparable since the head covering is intended to teach the meaning of headship. See below for information on the head covering).

From this, Brethren teaching traditionally (there are regional exceptions) outlines a system in which the men take the "vocal" and leadership roles and the women take supportive and "silent" roles. In practical terms, what is traditionally seen is that the men are fully responsible for all preaching, teaching and leading of worship. Therefore, in most Brethren groups women will be heard to sing the hymns along with the group, but their voices will not otherwise be heard during the service. Often the men are, practically speaking, the only ones involved fully and vocally in all discussions leading up to administrative decision making as well. Within Exclusive groups in particular, matters up for debate may be discussed at special meetings attended solely by adult males called, in some groups, "Brothers Meetings".

The Head Covering:

[As to the reason behind women covering their heads at meetings in some groups, 1 Corinthians 11:5,6 says:

"But every woman that prays or prophesies with her head uncovered dishonours her head: for that is even all one as if she were shaven. For if the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn: but if it be a shame for a woman to be shorn or shaven, let her be covered."

For this reason, some meetings will be characterized by the women wearing head coverings ("loaners" in some assemblies are available at the back for women who have come without a covering). Head coverings typically take the form of a tam, beret or similar hat which can be more aptly described as a "head topping," rather than as covering the head in any real way. Sisters in Exclusive ('Jimite') gatherings quite commonly wear a headscarf or "mantilla" (a lace/doily-like Spanish veil) on their heads. It is a fairly common misconception that Exclusive women characteristically wear a shawl over their heads, though no doubt some women have sometimes resorted to this.

While that is an overly-simplified view of the head covering, understanding the purpose for the head covering comes from looking at 1 Corinthians 11:3&4, which says:

"3But I would have you know, that the head of every man is Christ; and the head of the woman is the man; and the head of Christ is God. 4 Every man praying or profesying, having his head covered, dishonoreth his head."

Here is the "picture" that the head covering displays: the Head of the man is Christ, so the man's physical head needs to be uncovered to honor his Head, Christ is displayed. The head of the woman is the man, so the woman's physical head must be covered, men are not on display in the church. The woman's head covering and silence in the church shows that the men participating are not on display but rather that Christ is on display.[31]

Over recent years the practice in some Open and Closed Brethren assemblies throughout the world have developed to leave questions of head coverings, levels of female participation and responsibility mainly to the discretion of individuals and groups.

Some Brethren of both Open and Exclusive persuasion seek to be completely untouched by changing attitudes within society regarding the role of women. They view the abandonment of the traditionally practised doctrine of Headship as evidence of an overall apostasy (or moral deterioration) within Christendom and as leading to disorder and eventual anarchy within their fellowships.

Other practices

Gatherings and meetings

Assemblies might also have weekly meetings which might include: preaching/teaching services, missionary reports, Bible studies and prayer meetings. There is frequently a Sunday School for children and youth groups for teens. Although women do not verbally participate in the Breaking of Bread service, in some groups they take part in Sunday School, teach classes, conduct ladies meetings and are generally very active in "Camping" ministry.


During the weekly Breaking of Bread service, hymns are traditionally sung unaccompanied by any musical instrument, though some assemblies may have instrumental accompaniment. In some assemblies, hymns sung during the other types of meetings are accompanied by piano or electronic organ, though this practice varies among assemblies. Other musical instruments are used at some assemblies. Some assemblies blend traditional hymns with contemporary "Praise & Worship" music accompanied by bands. One of the unifying features in each of the different branches of the Brethren is a common hymnbook. The first collection used among the united assemblies was, "Hymns for the Poor of the Flock," from 1838 and again in 1840. Another such hymnbook, used by Exclusive Brethren (Tunbridge-Wells and Ames) dating back to 1856 is called, "Hymns and Spiritual Songs for the Little Flock," the first edition of which was compiled by G.V. Wigram. A revision was made in 1881 by J.N. Darby. The Little Flock hymnbook has gone through many different editions in different languages. In modern times one of the more commonly-used English hymn books in British and North American assemblies is The Believers Hymn Book.


The influence of the Plymouth Brethren upon evangelical Christianity exceeds their relatively small numerical proportion. The movement today has many congregations around the world.

Christian Missions in Many Lands (CMML), in the United States, Missionary Service Committee (MSC), in Canada, and Echoes of Service, in the United Kingdom, serve as support agencies for Brethren missionaries, helping with logistics and material support. These agencies help to equip and support those sent from local churches. Hudson Taylor, the founder of the China Inland Mission, kept strong ties with the Open Brethren, even though he was raised a Methodist and later was a member of a Baptist Church. The concept of "Faith Missions" can be traced back through Hudson Taylor, to the example of the early Brethren missionary, Anthony Norris Groves.

J.N. Darby, one of the original members and perhaps the most well known of the movement, wrote over 50 books including a translation of the New Testament and is often credited with the development of the theology of "dispensationalism" and "pretribulationism" which have been widely adopted in evangelical churches outside of the brethren movement. In the early twentieth century, J.N. Darby's writings have the greatest influence on the Little Flock of Watchman Nee and Witness Lee.

Many leaders of the contemporary evangelical movement came from Brethren backgrounds. These include England-born Dr. D. Stuart Briscoe, author, international speaker and former senior pastor of Elmbrook Church (one of the 50-largest churches in the U.S.), in Brookfield, Wisconsin, Dr. Geoff Tunnicliffe, CEO of the World Evangelical Alliance; the late British scholar F.F. Bruce; 1956 Auca missionary martyrs Ed McCully, Jim Elliot and Peter Fleming; Walter Liefeld, NT professor at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School; the late preacher Dr. Harry A. Ironside, who wrote the, Historical Sketch of the Brethren Movement. Radio personality Garrison Keillor was raised among the Plymouth Brethren, whom he sometimes refers to as the, "sanctified brethren," in his News from "Lake Wobegon" monologues. Peter Maiden, the current leader of Operation Mobilization, also came from the Brethren.[32]

Since 2004 the separatist Raven-Taylor-Hales Exclusive Brethren have become politically active. Formerly, they embraced non-involvement, "in the things of the world", because they are "citizens of heaven". These heterodox Taylor Exclusive Brethren have been responsible for the production and distribution of political literature in the Australian, American, Swedish, Canadian and New Zealand national elections.[33] For more details, see Exclusive Brethren. These Taylor Brethren are atypical of other streams of Plymouth Brethren, which distance themselves from the "Taylorites."

Many mainstream assemblies discourage political involvement, sometimes to the extent of judging anyone in fellowship who opts to exercise their voting rights in democratic, free elections. This teaching is based on the premise that the Bible teaches that Christians are citizens of heaven, only sojourners here on earth and therefore ought not to become involved in activities which could be deemed as being too worldly.[34] A criticism could be leveled that the movement, with its upper-class roots, lacks compassion for the plight of the underprivileged. For example, it was left to William Wilberforce, Lord Shaftesbury and other politically active Christians to work toward the abolishment of slavery and improving the welfare of factory children in the 19th century. This can be viewed as unfair criticism when reflecting on the light of George Müller's ministry caring for homeless orphans and also on some of the sacrifices of its missionaries such as Anthony Norris Groves. It is more reasonable to state that the Brethren are more concerned with people's spiritual rather than their physical condition. However, where physical help is given, it is tended to be given directly and not through secular organisations.

Notable members

Major collection of literature

The "Christian Brethren Archive" is housed at the John Rylands University Library in Oxford Road, Manchester. It contains a large collection of materials, including books and manuscripts, relating to assemblies or meetings of Christians often called Plymouth Brethren, with particular reference to the British Isles.[73]

Film portrayal

The Exclusive Hales branch of the Plymouth Brethren are portrayed in the film Son of Rambow as trying to restrict the creativity and freedom of the film's main character. The Plymouth Brethren are also featured in the book Oscar and Lucinda by Peter Carey, and in the film adaptation. Oscar is raised by a strict Plymouth Brethren father and rebels by becoming an Anglican priest. Sir Edmund Gosse wrote the book Father and Son about his upbringing in a Plymouth Brethren household.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ Abigail, Shawn (June 2006). "What is the history of the 'Brethren'?". "Plymouth Brethren" FAQ. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c Mackay, Harold (1981). Assembly Distinctives. Scarborough, Ontario: Everyday Publications. ISBN 978-0-88873-049-7. OCLC 15948378. [page needed]
  3. ^ Steidl, Grant (c. 1988). "Schematic Diagram of Brethren History". Philip H. Van Amerongen. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  4. ^ Neatby, William Blair (1902). A History of the Plymouth Brethren (2nd ed.). London: Hodder and Stoughton. p. 24. ISBN 1437451489. OCLC 11627558. 
  5. ^ Stunt, T. C. F. (1984). "Leonard Strong: The motives and experiences of early missionary work in British Guiana". Christian Brethren Review 34: 95–105. 
  6. ^ Bjorlie, John (14 September 2004). "Strong , Leonard Bio". Stewards Foundation. Retrieved 12 June 2009. [unreliable source?]
  7. ^ Bellet, John Gifford; et al.. Interesting Reminiscences of the Early History of "Brethren" in and around 1827. Retrieved 12 June 2009. 
  8. ^ Burnham, Jonathan D. (2004). "The Emergence of the Plymouth Brethren". A Story of Conflict: The Controversial Relationship Between Benjamin Wills Newton and John Nelson Darby. Carlisle: Paternoster Press. ISBN 978-1-84227-191-9. OCLC 56336926. [page needed]
  9. ^ Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2000). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280057-2. OCLC 46858944. [page needed]
  10. ^ Noel, Napoleon (1936). The History of the Brethren. Denver: Knapp. p. 46. OCLC 2807272. 
  11. ^ G.Brown. "Whatever Happened to the Brethren?" Partnership, Paternoster Press. 2003.[page needed]
  12. ^ "The Faeroe Islands". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  13. ^ a b Ngaire Thomas. "Behind Closed Doors". Behind Closed Doors. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  14. ^ "Which Is Stronger: Law Or Grace?". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  15. ^ "What foundation". Assembly Care. Retrieved 2009-07-18. [dead link]
  16. ^ Miller, Andrew. "The Brethren". p. 10. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  17. ^ "What I have Found". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  18. ^ "Who are the Brethren?". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  19. ^ "Revelation 13:8". Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  20. ^ "Hebrews 10:25". Retrieved 2009-10-25. 
  21. ^ "Elders and Bishops". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  22. ^ "The Priesthood of All Believers". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  23. ^ "Ephesians IV, 11". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  24. ^ Muller, G. (1860) A Narrative of some of the Lords dealings with George Muller, pp.279-281
  25. ^ "The Mystery Worshipper: Downshire Road Hall, Holywood, County Down, Northern Ireland". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  26. ^ "Embley". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  27. ^ Muller, G. (1860) A Narrative of some of the Lords dealings with George Muller, pp.279-281
  28. ^ Bradshaw, P.F. The new SCM dictionary of liturgy and worship, p.375
  29. ^ "Precious Seed". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  30. ^ "Defining Religion In American Law". Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  31. ^ a b Crawford, N. (October 2003). Gathering Unto His Name.Gospel Tract Publications. ISBN 0-948417-07-2, p.76
  32. ^ "Who is Peter Maiden? – OM International". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  33. ^ Marr, David (2006-07-01). "Hidden prophets". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2006-07-01. 
  34. ^ "Precious Seed". Precious Seed. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  35. ^ Cullen, Pamela V., "A Stranger in Blood: The Case Files on Dr John Bodkin Adams", London, Elliott & Thompson, 2006, ISBN 1-904027-19-9
  36. ^ "Dr Thomas John Barnardo: homes, schools and other works". 2009-11-04. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  37. ^ ''Cambridge Guide to Women's Writing in English''. 1999. ISBN 9780521668132. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  38. ^ "BBC – Religion & Ethics – Exclusive Brethren: Introduction". 2009-08-11. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  39. ^ "The Septuagint LXX". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  40. ^ The Times, Sept 28 1942 – Carlile's obituary
  41. ^ "Brother Indeed – Robert Chapman « Articles & Links". 2007-07-07. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  42. ^ "Edward Cronin (1801–?) — Pioneers of homeopathy by T. L. Bradford". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  43. ^ The Times, Feb.21 1977 – Crosland's obituary
  44. ^ "The Confessions by Aleister Crowley". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  45. ^ "The Brethren Writers' Hall of Fame". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  46. ^ "http". // Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  47. ^ "Papers of Philip James Elliot – Collection 277". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  48. ^ "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  49. ^ "About Anthony Norris Grove". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  50. ^ "John Haigh: The Acid Bath Murderer – Crime And Investigation Network". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  51. ^ "Cult Help and Information – Roots of Hendricks' religion traced". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  52. ^
  53. ^ "Radiocarbon Dating and American Evangelical Christians". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  54. ^ "A Brief History of the Modern American Creation Movement". 1995-01-20. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  55. ^ By: William MacDonald. "Believer's Bible Commentary: Edited By: Arthur Farstad By: William MacDonald: 9780840719720". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  56. ^ "Charles Henry Mackintosh Bio". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  57. ^ "emergent-us: Brian McLaren on "Becoming Convergent" – Part 1 of 3". 2005-10-01. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  58. ^ History[dead link]
  59. ^
  60. ^ "Biography of Thomas Newberry". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  61. ^
  62. ^ "Mr. Newton and the "Brethren"". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  63. ^ The Times, April 23, 1962 – Page's obituary
  64. ^ "El Predicador Bilingue (The Bilingual Preacher) By John M. DeMarco – Charisma Magazine". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  65. ^ "Cult Help and Information". 2006-07-27. Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  66. ^ W.Melville Capper and Douglas Johnson, "Arthur Rendle Short", Inter Varsity, 1954
  67. ^ "http". // Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  68. ^ Albert Hibbert, "Smith Wiggleworth – The Secret of His Power",ISBN 1 85240 004 8
  69. ^ "GV Wigram Bio". Retrieved 2010-10-24. 
  70. ^
  71. ^ page 57 of "The Brethren : An Autobiography of a Plymouth Brethren Childhood by Anne Arnott
  72. ^'s+never+far+from+the+limelight.-a062228775
  73. ^ "Christian Brethren Printed Book Catalogue and Archive List". 


  • Carroll, H. K. (1912) Religious Forces in the United States. New York
  • Adams, Norman (1972) Goodbye, Beloved Brethren. Impulse Publications Inc. ISBN 0-901311-13-8
  • Coad, F. Roy (2001) A History of the Brethren Movement: Its Origins, Its Worldwide Development and Its Significance for the Present Day. Regent College Publishing ISBN 1-57383-183-2
  • Grass, Tim (2006) Gathering to his Name Carlisle: Paternoster
  • Ironside, H. A. (1985) Historical Sketch of the Brethren MovementLoizeaux Brothers ISBN 0-87213-344-3
  • Neatby, William Blair (1901) A History of the Plymouth Brethren; Reprinted by Tentmaker Publications [1][dead link] covers the first seventy years of the Brethren movement. Free download site
  • Pickering, Henry (1918) Chief Men Among the Brethren. London: Pickering & Inglis, 1918; Loizeaux Brothers, Inc. Neptune, NJ, 1996, ISBN 0-87213-798-8
  • Smith, Natan Dylan (1996) Roots, Renewal and the Brethren. Hope Publishing House ISBN 0-932727-08-5
  • Strauch, Alexander (1995) Biblical Eldership: an Urgent Call to Restore Biblical Church Leadership. Lewis & Roth Publishers ISBN 0-936083-11-5
  • Stunt, Timothy C. F. (2000) From Awakening to Secession: radical evangelicals in Switzerland and Britain, 1815–35. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark ISBN 0-567-08719-0
  • Teulon, J. S. (1883) The History and Teaching of The Plymouth Brethren. London Free download site
  • Kelly, William (1883) Response by William Kelly to J. S. Teulon's Plymouth Brethren Free download site
  • Groves, Mrs. (1869) Biography of A. N. Groves, by his widow, 3rd edition. London
  • Taylor (1866) Biography of Henry Craik. London
  • Dorman (1866) The Close of Twenty-eight Years of Association with J. N. Darby. London
  • Groves, Henry (1866) Darbyism: Its Rise and Development. London


  • J. L. C. Carson, The Heresies of the Plymouth Brethren (London, 1862) Free Download 19mb
  • W. Reid, The Plymouth Brethren Unveiled and Refuted (Second edition, Edinburgh, 1874–76) Free Download 17mb
  • T. Croskery, Plymouth Brethrenism: A Refutation of its Principles and Doctrines (London, 1879)
  • A. Miller, Plymouthism and the Modern Churches (Toronto, 1900)

Other sources of information are writings by B. W. Newton and W. Kelly.

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Plymouth Brethren — Plym outh Breth ren The members of a religious sect which first appeared at Plymouth, England, about 1830. They protest against sectarianism, and reject all official ministry or clergy. Also called {Brethren}, {Christian Brethren}, {Plymouthists} …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Plymouth Brethren — a loosely organized body of Christians founded in Plymouth, England, about 1830, having no ordained ministry, no formal creed or ritual, and accepting the Bible as the only guide. [1835 45] * * * ▪ religious community       community of… …   Universalium

  • Plymouth Brethren — Dieser Artikel oder Absatz stellt die Situation in Deutschland dar. Hilf mit, die Situation in anderen Ländern zu schildern. Die Brüderbewegung ist eine im 19. Jahrhundert entstandene freikirchliche Bewegung, deren örtliche Gemeinden… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PLYMOUTH BRETHREN —    one of the most influential NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS to emerge in the nineteenth century; founded by John Nelson Darby (1800 1882) in 1830. The Brethren split into a number of different groups including the extremist EXCLUSIVE BRETHREN and… …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Plymouth Brethren —    See Brethren …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • PLYMOUTH BRETHREN —    an anti clerical body of Christians, one of the earliest communities of which was formed in Plymouth about 1830; they accept, along with Pre Millenarian views, generally the Calvinistic view of the Christian religion, and exclude all… …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Plymouth Brethren — plural noun a strict Calvinistic religious body formed at Plymouth in Devon, having no formal creed or ministry and emphasizing an expected millennium …   English new terms dictionary

  • Plymouth Brethren — /plɪməθ ˈbrɛðrən/ (say plimuhth bredhruhn) plural noun a Christian denomination which originated in the 1820s in the UK in Plymouth, Bristol, and Dublin, based on a conservative and puritanical theology, but having no formal creed and no order of …  

  • Plymouth Brethren — a strict Calvinistic religious body formed at Plymouth in Devon c.1830, having no formal creed and no official order of ministers …   Useful english dictionary

  • Plymouth Brethren — Plym|outh Breth|ren n [plural] a Christian organization that has very strict moral rules and is opposed to religious ceremony …   Dictionary of contemporary English

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”