For other expansions of the initialism "OGD", see the disambiguation page.


Endoscopic still of esophageal ulcers seen after banding of esophageal varices, at time of esophagogastroduodenosocopy
ICD-9-CM 45.13
MeSH D016145
OPS-301 code: 1-631, 1-632

In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualizes the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. It is considered a minimally invasive procedure since it does not require an incision into one of the major body cavities and does not require any significant recovery after the procedure (unless sedation or anesthesia has been used). However, a sore throat is common.[1][2][3]


Alternative names

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy may be abbreviated EGD, or OGD if one uses the British spelling oesophagogastroduodenoscopy. It is also called upper GI endoscopy (UGIE), gastroscopy or simply endoscopy (since it is the most commonly performed type of endoscopy, the ambiguous term 'endoscopy' refers to EGD by default).




  • Surveillance of Barrett's esophagus
  • Surveillance of gastric ulcer or duodenal ulcer
  • Occasionally after gastric surgery

Confirmation of diagnosis/biopsy


Newer interventions

  • Endoscopic trans-gastric laparoscopy
  • Placement of gastric balloons in bariatric surgery


  • Endoscope
    • Non-coaxial optic fiber system to carry light to the tip of the endoscope
    • A chip camera at the tip of the endoscope - this has now replaced the coaxial optic fibers of older scopes that were prone to damage and consequent loss of picture quality
    • Irrigation channel to clean the lens
    • Suction/Insufflation/Working channels - these may be in the form of one or more channels
    • Control handle - this houses the controls
  • Stack
    • Light source
    • Insufflator
    • Suction
    • Electrosurgical unit
    • Video recorder/photo printer
  • Instruments
    • Biopsy forceps
    • Snares
    • Injecting needles


The patient is kept NPO (Nil per os) or NBM (Nothing By Mouth) that is, told not to eat, for at least 4–6 hours before the procedure. Most patients tolerate the procedure with only topical anesthesia of the oropharynx using lidocaine spray. However, some patients may need sedation and the very anxious/agitated patient may even need a general anesthetic. Informed consent is obtained before the procedure. The main risks are bleeding and perforation. The risk is increased when a biopsy or other intervention is performed.

The patient lies on his/her left side with the head resting comfortably on a pillow. A mouth-guard is placed between the teeth to prevent the patient from biting on the endoscope. The endoscope is then passed over the tongue and into the oropharynx. This is the most uncomfortable stage for the patient. Quick and gentle manipulation under vision guides the endoscope into the esophagus. The endoscope is gradually advanced down the esophagus making note of any pathology. Excessive insufflation of the stomach is avoided at this stage. The endoscope is quickly passed through the stomach and through the pylorus to examine the first and second parts of the duodenum. Once this has been completed, the endoscope is withdrawn into the stomach and a more thorough examination is performed including a J-maneuver. This involves retroflexing the tip of the scope so it resembles a 'J' shape in order to examine the fundus and gastroesophageal junction. Any additional procedures are performed at this stage. The air in the stomach is aspirated before removing the endoscope. Still photographs can be made during the procedure and later shown to the patient to help explain any findings.

In its most basic use, the endoscope is used to inspect the internal anatomy of the digestive tract. Often inspection alone is sufficient, but biopsy is a very valuable adjunct to endoscopy. Small biopsies can be made with a pincer (biopsy forceps) which is passed through the scope and allows sampling of 1 to 3 mm pieces of tissue under direct vision. The intestinal mucosa heals quickly from such biopsies.

Biopsy allows the pathologist to render an opinion on later histologic examination of the biopsy tissue with light microscopy and/or immunohistochemistry. Biopsied material can also be tested on urease to identify Helicobacter pylori.


The complication rate is about 1 in 1000. They include:


Problems of gastrointestinal function are usually not well diagnosed by endoscopy since motion or secretion of the gastrointestinal tract are not easily inspected by EGD. Nonetheless, findings such as excess fluid or poor motion of gut during endoscopy can be suggestive of disorders of function. Irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia is not diagnosed with EGD, but EGD may be helpful in excluding other diseases that mimic these common disorders.

Additional images


  1. ^ "Gastroscopy - examination of oesophagus and stomach by endoscope". BUPA. December 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  2. ^ National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (November 2004). "Upper Endoscopy". National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 
  3. ^ "What is Upper GI Endoscopy?". Patient Center -- Procedures. American Gastroenterological Association. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-10-07. 

See also

  • Colonscopy

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy — Also known as EGD (for EsophagoGastroDuodenoscopy) or as upper endoscopy. A procedure that enables the examiner ({{}}usually a gastroenterologist) to examine the esophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, and duodenum (first portion of small bowel)… …   Medical dictionary

  • esophagogastroduodenoscopy — noun /ɪsɒfəɡəʊɡastɹəʊdjuːəʊdɪˈnɒskəpi/ upper gastrointestinal endoscopy …   Wiktionary

  • EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy) — A procedure that enables the examiner (usually a gastroenterologist) to examine the esophagus (swallowing tube), stomach, and duodenum (first portion of small bowel) using a thin flexible tube (a "scope") that can be looked through or… …   Medical dictionary

  • EGD — • esophagogastroduodenoscopy …   Dictionary of medical acronyms & abbreviations

  • EGD — Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (Medical » Laboratory) ** Entropy Gathering Daemon (Computing » General) * Electronic Government Directorate (Governmental » State & Local) * Elite Gross Dachshund (Regional » Countries) …   Abbreviations dictionary

  • Colonoscopy — Intervention ICD 9 CM 45.23 MeSH …   Wikipedia

  • EGD — Abbreviation for esophagogastroduodenoscopy. * * * esophagogastroduodenoscopy * * * esophagogastroduodenoscopy …   Medical dictionary

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease — Acid reflux redirects here. Acid reflux may also refer to Laryngopharyngeal reflux. Gastroesophageal reflux disease Classification and external resources ICD 10 K21 ICD 9 …   Wikipedia

  • Endoscopy — For the notion in mathematics introduced by Langlands, see Endoscopic group. Endoscopy Intervention An example of a flexible endoscope MeSH …   Wikipedia

  • Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy — Intervention ICD 9 CM 43.11 Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is an endoscopic medical procedure in which a tube (PEG tube) is passed into a patient s stomach through the abdo …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”