MeSHheading [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=gastroenterology] ) is the branch of medicinewhereby the digestive systemand its disorders are studied. Etymologically, the name is a combination of three Ancient Greekwords "gastros" ( stomach), "enteron" ( intestine), and " logos" ( reason). Diseasesaffecting the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the organs from mouthto anus, along the alimentary canal, are the focus of this specialty. Physicianspracticing in this field of medicine are called gastroenterologists. Important advances have been made in the last fifty years, contributing to rapid expansion of its scope. Hepatology, or hepatobiliary medicine, encompasses the study of the liver, pancreas, and biliary treeand is traditionally considered a sub-specialty.
Citing from Egyptian papyri, Nunn identified significant knowledge of gastrointestinal diseases among practising physicians during the periods of the
pharaohs. Irynakhty, of the tenth dynasty, c. 2125 B.C., was a court physicianspecialising in gastroenterology and proctology. [Nunn JF. Ancient Egyptian Medicine. 2002. ISBN 0-80613-504-2.]
Greeks, Hippocratesattributed digestionto concoction. Galen's concept of the stomachhaving four "faculties" was widely accepted up to modernity in the eighteenth century.
Lazzaro Spallanzani(1729–99) was among early physicians to disregard Galen's theories, and in 1780 he gave experimental proof on the action of gastricjuice on foodstuffs.
* In 1767, German Johann von Zimmermann wrote an important work on
* In 1777,
Maximilian Stollof Viennadescribed cancer of the gallbladder. [Edgardo Rivera, MDJames L. Abbruzzese, MD; Pancreatic, Hepatic, and Biliary Carcinomas, MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW [http://www.cancernetwork.com/textbook/morev16.htm/] ] [DeStoll M: Rationis Mendendi, in Nosocomio Practico vendobonensi.Part 1 LugduniBatavarum, Haak et Socios et A et J Honkoop 1788, OCLC: 23625746]
* In 1805,
Philip Bozzinimade the first attempt to observe inside the living human body using a tube he named "Lichtleiter" (light guiding instrument) to examine the urinary tract, the rectum, and the pharynx. This is the earliest description of endoscopy. [Gilger, Mark A. MD,Gastroenterologic endoscopy in children: past, present, and future. Gastroenterology and nutritionCurrent Opinion in Pediatrics. 13(5):429-434, October 2001.] [ [http://www.olympus-global.com/en/corc/history/endo/ The Origin of Endoscopes, Olympus history] ]
Charles Emile Troisierdescribed enlargement of lymph nodes in abdominal cancer. [Anton Sebastian,A Dictionary of the History of Medicine, ISBN 1850700214 ]
* In 1868,
Adolf Kussmaul, a well-known German physician, developed the gastroscope. He perfected the technique on a sword swallower.
* In 1871, at the society of physicians in Vienna, Carl Stoerk demonstrated an esophagoscope made of two telescopic metal tubes, initially devised by Waldenburg in 1870.
* In 1876,
Karl Wilhelm von Kupfferdescribed the properties of some liver cells now called Kupffer cell.
* In 1884, Kronecker and Meltzern studied oesophageal
Rudolph Schindlerdescribed many important diseases involving the human digestive system during World War Iin his illustrated textbook and is portrayed by some as the "father of gastroscopy". He and Georg Wolfdeveloped a semiflexible gastroscope in 1932.
* In 1932,
Burrill Bernard Crohndescribed Crohn's disease.
* In 1957,
Basil Hirschowitzintroduced the first prototype of a fibreoptic gastroscope.
* In 2005,
Barry Marshalland Robin Warrenof Australia were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicinefor their discovery of " Helicobacter pylori" (1982/1983) and its role in peptic ulcer disease. James Leavitt assisted in their research, but the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously so he was not included in the award.
1. International Classification of Disease(
*Chapter XI,Diseases of the digestive system,(K00-K93) [http://www.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/] 2.
*Gastroenterology (G02.403.776.409.405) [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Gastroenterology&field=entry]
*Gastroenterological diseases(C06.405) [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/cgi/mesh/2007/MB_cgi?mode=&term=Gastrointestinal+Diseases#TreeC06.405] 3.
National Library of MedicineCatalogue(NLM classification 2006):
*Digestive system(W1) [http://wwwcf.nlm.nih.gov/class/class_wi.html#WI]
American College of Gastroenterology
American Gastroenterological Association
American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
British Society of Gastroenterology
* [http://www.virtualgastrocentre.com/ Virtual Gastro Centre]
* [http://www.gastrohep.com/ GastroHep.com - Gastrohep]
* [http://www.daveproject.org/ The Digital Atlas of Video Education - Gastroenterology]
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