Hematemesis

Hematemesis

Infobox_Disease
Name = Hematemesis


Caption =
DiseasesDB = 30745
ICD10 = ICD10|K|92|0|k|92
ICD9 = ICD9|578.0
ICDO =
OMIM =
MedlinePlus =
eMedicineSubj = med
eMedicineTopic = 3565
MeshName = Hematemesis
MeshNumber = C23.550.414.788.400

Hematemesis or haematemesis (see American and British spelling differences) is the vomiting of blood. The source is generally the upper gastrointestinal tract. Patients can easily confuse it with hemoptysis (coughing up blood), although the former is more common.

igns

Signs of the onset of hematemesis may include:
* A history of excessive alcohol use or liver disease
* Any esophago-gastric symptoms, such as nausea or vomiting
* Brown or black vomit
* Vomit that looks like coffee grounds
* Dark colored, tar like stools (a condition known as melena)

Causes

Causes can be:
* Prolonged and vigorous retching (may cause a tear in the small blood vessels of the throat or the esophagus, producing streaks of blood in the vomit, and is called Mallory-Weiss syndrome).
* Irritation or erosion of the lining of the esophagus or stomach
* Bleeding ulcer located in the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus
* Ingested blood (for example, swallowed after a nosebleed)
* Vomiting of ingested blood after hemorrhage in the oral cavity, nose or throat
* Vascular malfunctions of the gastrointestinal tract
* Tumors of the stomach or esophagus
* Esophagitis
* Gastroenteritis
* Gastritis
* Mallory-Weiss syndrome (esophageal tear)
* Esophageal varices
* Peptic ulcer
* Gastric varices
* Dieulafoy's lesion
* Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)
* Trichophagia
* Ebola or Marburg Virus
* Yellow Fever

Management

Hematemesis is treated as a medical emergency. The most vital distinction is whether there is blood loss sufficient to cause shock.

Minimal blood loss

If this is not the case, the patient is generally administered a proton pump inhibitor (e.g. omeprazole), given blood transfusions (if the level of hemoglobin is extremely low, that is less than 8.0 g/dL or 4.5-5.0 mmol/L), and kept nil per os(nil by mouth) until endoscopy can be arranged. Adequate venous access (large-bore cannulas or a central venous catheter) is generally obtained in case the patient suffers a further bleed and becomes unstable.

ignificant blood loss

In a "hemodynamically significant" case of hematemesis, that is hypovolemic shock, resuscitation is an immediate priority to prevent cardiac arrest. Fluids and/or blood is administered, preferably by central venous catheter, and the patient is prepared for emergency endoscopy, which is typically done in theatres. Surgical opinion is usually sought in case the source of bleeding cannot be identified endoscopically, and laparotomy is necessary.

See also

* Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
* Shock
* Melena

External links

* [http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/003118.htm]
* [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003118.htm NIH/Medline]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • hematemesis — f. gastrol. Vómito de sangre. Puede ser debido a una hemorragia digestiva causada por una úlcera de estómago o duodeno, cirrosis, gastritis aguda, alteraciones en la coagulación de la sangre o un cáncer gástrico. La hematemesis es un trastorno… …   Diccionario médico

  • Hematemesis — es la expulsión de vomito con sangre procedente del tubo digestivo alto (boca angulo duodeno yeyunal). Cualquier lesión del aparato digestivo, desde la boca hasta los intestinos, puede desencadenar una hematemesis. Por ejemplo, en los abusadores… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Hematemesis — Hem a*tem e*sis, n. [NL., fr. Gr. a i^ma, a i matos, blood + ? a vomiting, fr. ? to vomit.] (Med.) A vomiting of blood. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hematemesis — (De hemat y el gr. ἔμεσις, vómito). f. Med. Vómito de sangre …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Hematemesis — (Del gr. haima, sangre + emesis, vómito.) ► sustantivo femenino MEDICINA Vómito de sangre procedente del aparato gastrointestinal. IRREG. plural hematemesis * * * hematemesis (de «hemato » y el gr. «émesis», vómito) f. Med. Vómito de sangre. ⇒… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • hematemesis — {{#}}{{LM H19934}}{{〓}} {{[}}hematemesis{{]}} ‹he·ma·te·me·sis› {{◆}}(pl. hematemesis){{◇}} {{《}}▍ s.f.{{》}} Vómito de sangre causado por una lesión de la mucosa digestiva: • La úlcera de estómago puede provocar hematemesis.{{○}}… …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • Hematemesis — The medical term for bloody vomitus. The word “hematemesis” is made up of “hema “, blood + “emesis”, vomit = bloody vomit. * * * Vomiting of blood. SYN: vomitus cruentes. [hemat + G. emesis, vomiting] * * * he·ma·tem·e·sis or chiefly Brit… …   Medical dictionary

  • hematemesis — noun Blood within vomitus; the vomiting of blood …   Wiktionary

  • hematemesis — Vómito de sangre proveniente del estómago …   Diccionario ecologico

  • hematemesis — he·ma·tem·e·sis …   English syllables

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”