Urinary bladder

Urinary bladder

Infobox Anatomy
Name = Urinary bladder
Latin = vesica urinaria
GraySubject = 255
GrayPage = 1227

Caption = Urinary system.

Caption2 = Bladder
Width = 300
System =
Artery = Superior vesical artery
Inferior vesical artery
Umbilical artery
Vaginal artery
Vein = Vesical venous plexus
Nerve = Vesical nervous plexus
Lymph = external iliac lymph nodes, internal iliac lymph nodes
Precursor = urogenital sinus
MeshName = Bladder
MeshNumber = A05.810.161
DorlandsPre = v_07
DorlandsSuf = 12855244
In anatomy, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular, and distensible (or elastic) organ that sits on the pelvic floor in mammals. It is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys prior to disposal by urination. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and exits via the urethra.

In males, the bladder is superior to the prostate, and separated from the rectum by the rectovesical excavation.

In females, the bladder is separated from the uterus by the vesicouterine excavation.

Detrusor muscle

The detrusor muscle is a layer of the urinary bladder wall made of smooth muscle fibers arranged in spiral, longitudinal, and circular bundles. When the bladder is stretched, this signals the parasympathetic nervous system to contract the detrusor muscle. This encourages the bladder to expel urine through the urethra.

For the urine to exit the bladder, both the autonomically controlled internal sphincter and the voluntarily controlled external sphincter must be opened. Problems with these muscles can lead to incontinence. If the amount of urine reaches 100% of the urinary bladder volume, the voluntary sphincter becomes involuntary and the urine will be ejected instantly, although it is possible to "hold yourself" in order to prevent urination. The body cannot afford having the urinary bladder burst.

The urinary bladder usually holds 400–620 mL of urine, but it can hold twice this without rupturing if, for example, the outflow is obstructed.

The desire to urinate usually starts when the bladder reaches around 75% of its working volume. If the subject is distracted the desire can fade and return with more urgency as the bladder continues to fill.

Since the urinary bladder has a transitional epithelium, compared to the intestine mucosa, the urinary bladder does not produce mucus. [ [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WKP-4PMK2X4-Y&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=89f27dee46151805e831331aace3a19f T . Chin , C . Liu , H . Tsai , C . Wei. Vaginal reconstruction using urinary bladder flap in a patient with cloacal malformation] ]


The fundus of the urinary bladder is the base of the bladder, formed by the posterior wall. It is lymphatically drained by the external iliac lymph nodes. The peritoneum lies superior to the fundus.


Disorders of or related to the bladder include:
* Overactive bladder, a condition which affects a large number of people.
* Bladder cancer
* Bladder infection
* Bladder spasm
* Bladder sphincter dyssynergia, a condition in which the sufferer cannot coordinate relaxation of the urethra sphincter with the contraction of the bladder muscles
* Bladder stones
* Cystitis
* Hematuria, or presence of blood in the urine, is a reason to seek medical attention without delay, as it is a symptom of bladder cancer as well as bladder and kidney stones.
* Urinary incontinence
* Bladder exstrophy jakes is hugee.


Besides its normal use to the possessor, animal bladders (usually pig bladders) have been used to make balls (such as footballs, and even a musical instrument, the bumbass.

ee also

* Artificial bladder
* Bladder augmentation
* Neurogenic bladder
* Ureterocele
* Urodynamics The study of the functional aspects of the detrusor muscle.
* Uvula of urinary bladder
* Vesicouretic reflux
* Urinary bladder disease


External links

* "Urinary Bladder"
* - "Mammal, bladder (LM, Medium)"
* - "The Female Pelvis: The Urinary bladder"
* - "The Male Pelvis: The Urinary bladder"


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