Michel Rocard

Michel Rocard
Michel Rocard
Prime Minister of France
In office
10 May 1988 – 15 May 1991
President François Mitterrand
Preceded by Jacques Chirac
Succeeded by Édith Cresson
Personal details
Born 23 August 1930 (1930-08-23) (age 81)
Courbevoie, Hauts-de-Seine
Political party Socialist
Occupation Civil Servant
Religion Protestant (French Reformed)

Michel Rocard (French pronunciation: [miʃɛl ʁɔkaʁ]; born 23 August 1930) is a French politician, member of the Socialist Party (PS). He served as Prime Minister under François Mitterrand from 1988 to 1991, during which he created the Revenu minimum d'insertion (RMI), a social minimum welfare program for indigents, and led the Matignon Accords regarding the status of New Caledonia. He is currently a member of the European Parliament, and has been strongly involved in European policies. As of August 2007, he has accepted a mission in a Commission under the authority of Sarkozy's Minister of Education, Xavier Darcos.



He was born at Courbevoie (Hauts-de-Seine) in a Protestant family, son of the nuclear physicist Yves Rocard, and entered politics as a student leader whilst studying at the Paris Institute of Political Studies (a.k.a. Sciences-Po). He became Chair of the French Socialist Students (linked to the main French Socialist party at the time, the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO)), and studied at the École nationale d'administration (ENA). A finance inspector (senior official) and anti-colonialist, he went to Algeria and wrote a report regarding the widely ignored refugee camps of the Algerian War (1954–62). This report was leaked to the newspapers Le Monde and France Observateur in April 1959, almost costing Rocard his job.

Having left the SFIO because of Guy Mollet's position towards the Algerian war, he led the dissident Unified Socialist Party (PSU) from 1967 to 1974. He was a prominent figure during the May 68 crisis, supporting the auto-gestionary project. He ran in the 1969 presidential election but obtained only 3.6% of the vote. Some months later, he was elected deputy for the Yvelines département, defeating the former Prime minister Maurice Couve de Murville. He lost his parliamentary seat in 1973, but retook it in 1978.

In 1973–74, he participated in the LIP conflict, selling watches with the workers and participating, behind the scenes, in the attempts to find an employer who would take back the factory, which was on the verge of being liquidated.[1]

In 1974, he joined François Mitterrand and the renewed Socialist Party (PS), which had replaced the old SFIO. Most of the PSU members and a part of the French and Democratic Confederation of Labour (CFDT) trade union – generally known in France as the non-Marxist, "Second Left" – followed him.

Elected mayor of Conflans-Sainte-Honorine in 1977, he led the opposition to Mitterrand inside the Socialist Party (as a candidate of the right-wing of the party). After the defeat of the left at the 1978 legislative election, he tried to take over the leadership of the party. In spite of his alliance with Pierre Mauroy, the number 2 of the PS, he lost the Metz Congress (1979). Being the Socialist Party's most popular politician at the time (including Mitterrand himself), he announced that he would run for president but his "Call of Conflans" did not result in majority support within the PS, and he withdrew his candidacy. Mitterrand was the successful Socialist candidate for the 1981 presidential election.

From the 1970s to the 1990s, Michel Rocard's group inside the Socialist Party, known as "les rocardiens", advocated a re-alignment of French socialism through a clearer acceptance of the market economy, more decentralisation and less state control. It was largely influenced by Scandinavian social democracy, and stood in opposition to Mitterrand's initial agenda of nationalization, programmed in the 110 Propositions for France. Nonetheless, the "rocardiens" always remained a minority.

Serving in government

Under Mitterrand's first presidency, he was Minister of Territorial Development and Minister of Planning from 1981 to 1983 and Minister of Agriculture from 1983 to 1985. He resigned from the cabinet in due to his opposition to the introduction of the proportional system for the legislative elections. He hoped, in vain, that Mitterrand would not run for re-election so he could be the PS candidate in the 1988 presidential election.

After Mitterrand's re-election, he was chosen as Prime Minister (May 1988 – May 1991). Indeed, Rocard was popular and his position, on the right-wing of the PS, corresponded with the slogan of the electoral campaign, "a United France". He formed a cabinet including 4 center-right ministers. As Prime Minister, he led the Matignon Accords regarding the status of New Caledonia, which ended the troubles in this overseas territory. His record in office also include a decrease in unemployment and a large-scale reform of the welfare state's financing system. He created a minimum social assistance scheme, the RMI, which was effective in reducing poverty and extended health care and housing assistance for eligible recipients.

The wealth tax (abolished under the previous government of Jacques Chirac) was restored and the CSG (general social contribution) was introduced in 1990 to provide a more egalitarian way of financing social security. Additional day-care services and related services for working mothers and families were introduced, and a new allowance for skilled baby-sitters (L'aide a la famille pour l'emploi d'une AFEAMA) was created in 1990 to promote the employment of skilled baby-minders, recognised by public authorities, through a reduction of insurance contributions and through tax incentives.[2]

In 1990, in an effort to give new impetus to the collective bargaining process and to bring it into line with increases in actual wages, a goal was set up Rocard and his ministers to raise “collectively agreed minimum pay rates". This was based on a study of 164 sectors in both the "general" category (excluding metalworking) and in the metalworking category, each employing more than 10,000 workers. In 1997, however, it was found that only 38% of the "general" sectors had "complied" with the stated goals (i.e. all pay levels were higher than the SMIC), down from 41% in 1990. In metalworking, the proportion of "complying" sectors was only 11%, down from 29% in 1990.[3]

The ALMP (Active Labour Market Policy) was strengthened with increased placement services for the unemployed and new tax subsidies for employers hiring youth as well as the long-term unemployed. To combat political corruption, a law was passed in January 1990 that provided for strict regulation of campaign contributions and personal use of funds for non-governmental organisations. Other measures included increases in minimum social benefits,[4] a major investment in education, the reform of the legal profession, and the modernisation of the public sector.[5] The Rocard Government also raised the minimum wage[6] while spending a lot of money on the wages of public sector employees, particularly tax collectors, postal workers, transport workers, and nurses,[7] Expenditure on culture was significantly increased,[8] while a law was passed (the Evin Act) to regulate smoking in public places, together with the anti-discriminatory Gayssot Act. In the 1989 budget, corporate taxes were reduced by 10 billion francs, taxes on individuals by cut by 5 billion francs, and public spending was increased in line with inflation (4.5%).[9] In addition, the “loi Soisson” of 1989 codified the procedures and requirements for so-called “plans sociaux” for firms laying off more than ten employees, “requiring efforts on the part of firms to avoid layoffs and compensation for workers who did lose their jobs.”[10]

Housing was a major priority of the Rocard Government, as characterised by increases in aid for many housing programmes and the maintenance of the real value of benefits under the housing allowance programme (APL), the first time that its real value had not been reduced by inflation. A new rent law provided the government with the power to issue decrees prohibiting excessive rent increases, while more funds were allocated to social housing. Housing aid was increased by over 8% over 1989, with personalized aid extended to those who had been previously excluded from the housing allowance. More land was also made available in city centres for social housing construction by releasing government land for building.[11]

Basic housing allowances were increased and efforts were made to improve social housing for low-income groups via the Besson Act of 1990, which strengthened the rights of families to find and stay in adequate housing. It was passed in response to the growing problem of homelessness and inadequate housing, and stipulated that "guaranteeing the right to housing is a duty of solidarity for the whole society." The act required local authorities to develop schemes for those in need of housing, as well as to create special funds for assisting the poor in paying for rental deposits or moving expenses.[12]

In October 1988, the National Council of Cities (CNV) was established by decree, together with an inter-ministerial committee. The decree also set up the Délégation interministérielle à la ville (DIV), an interministerial delegation that was allocated the task of co-ordinating urban policy. The purpose of the DIV's establishment was not only to bring an administrative focus to urban policy programmes within other state institutions and policies, but also to ensure that urban policy was given greater importance.

The 1989 housing budget froze the rate of payback for those having difficulty repaying subsidised loans, and the Rocard Government decided that from 1990 onwards the payback rate would be no more than 2.65% a year (the inflation rate at that time). Members of the Socialist Party group called for the transition features of the Mehaignerie Law (introduced under the previous Chirac Government) to be made permanent. Under these features, most rents would not be free, but would instead “be set by negotiation between landlord and tenant and subject to arbitration by conciliation committees, with rent increases being based on comparable rents in the area.” In partial response to this call, a law was passed in January 1989 which called for “spreading out rent increases exceeding 10 percent over six years and required that all proposals from landlords to increase rents had to include proof that there were comparable rents in the neighbourhood.”[11]

In 1991, the Loi de dotation de solidarité urbaine (urban solidarity grant) was passed, which established the urban solidarity grant. This reform intended to bring about greater intercommunal solidarity by redistributing funds from richer communes with fewer social problems to poorer communes with greater social problems. Since its creation, the urban solidarity grant has been upheld as an effective instrument of national solidarity and assistance to the most troubled cities, including rewarding those that put the most effort into providing social housing.[13]

The Loi d'orientation sur la ville was also passed that same year, which sought to bring about a better balance of land uses by requiring developers to include a proportion of social housing in new developments or pay a percentage tax to pay for social housing to be constructed in other locations.

Local housing programmes (PLH) were established in 1991. While the financing of social housing was still done at a national level, planning increasingly became a local responsibility. "Sensitive neighbourhoods" were also introduced, a response to the "suburb crisis", which began as a question of the (urban/technical) decline of large estates, and gradually became about the social and ethnic mix in social housing.[12]

Attempts were also made to encourage integration. A Consultative Commission was established in 1990 to track racism, together with a High Counsel on Integration to document racial segregation. In 1991, another law was passed to prevent local officials from directing immigrants to only certain units in government housing, and a new Urban Ministry was established.

Modifications were also made to some of the harsher legislation introduced by the previous Chirac Government on immigration and the rights of landlords and employers to get rid of unwanted tenants and workers. In addition, government aid to small businesses was increased, while VAT was reduced in an attempt to enliven the market. Retired home-owners and widows, who were reluctant to sell family homes, benefited from legislation passed by the National Assembly in May 1990 which converted the local departmental tax from a property-based tax to one based on income.[14]

In terms of education, expenditure on the national education system rose considerably, from 198 billion francs in 1988 to 250 billion francs in 1991.[15] In addition, the Baccalauréat was democratised, which was once the preserve of the elite. In 1980, for instance, only 29% of the eligible age group passed it, but in 1995 61% attained it. This improvement was achieved by a law passed in June 1989 that redesigned the curriculum and provided extra support for schools in poor areas. To manage the growing number of university entrants, a plan was developed entitled "University 2000," which significantly increased university budgets and resulted in the building of new universities, including four in the suburbs of Paris, for a total capital investment of 23 billion francs between 1990 and 1995.

Rocard also managed the economy well enough to maintain his high approval ratings right until the end of his tenure as prime minister,[16] as characterised by a fall in the rate of unemployment.[17] By the end of his premiership, Roacrd not only had a good economic record, but also a record of social reform second only to that the Mauroy Government.[18]

Life after the premiership

Michel Rocard's poor relations with François Mitterrand, notably during his mandate as Prime Minister, were notorious. In addition, the Socialists only held a small parliamentary majority. In 1991, when his popularity decreased, President Mitterrand forced him to resign. However, according to Mauroy, who led the party, Rocard stood as the "natural candidate" for the following presidential elections. After the 1993 electoral disaster, he became leader of the PS by advocating a political "big-bang", that was to say a questioning of the left/right divide. His speech did not have the desired effect.

In 1992 he was appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia (AC), Australia's highest civilian honour, "for eminent service to Australian/French relations and the preservation of the Antarctic environment".[19]

Rocard stood as leader of the Socialist Party during only one year, in part because of the PS's complete defeat during the 1994 European elections. The defeat was in part due to the success of the list of the Left Radicals Movement, which was covertly supported by President Mitterrand[citation needed]. Consequently, he was toppled by the left-wing of the party and lost his last chance to run for president the next year.

Having lost his deputy's seat in 1993, he became Senator of Yvelines from 1995 to 1997. His supporters within the Socialist Party became allies of candidate Lionel Jospin, who was Prime Minister in 1997–2002, and then Dominique Strauss-Kahn.

Since 1994, he has been a member of the European Parliament, and chaired the Committee on Development and Cooperation (1997–1999), the Committee on Employment and Social Affairs (1999–2002) and the Committee on Culture, Youth, Education, the Media and Sport. Michel Rocard is known for his hostility for the proposed directives to allow software patents in Europe, and has been an outspoken opponent of what he considers to be sneaky manoeuvres to force the decision on this issue.[20] He has thus played an instrumental role in causing the rejection of the recent directive seeking to enforce software patents on 6 July 2005.

On the French political scene, Rocard presented himself as the political heir of Pierre Mendès-France, known for his moral rigour, and as the politician who "speaks the truth". After Mitterrand's death, he caused controversy when he said, about the former president, "he was not an honest man". An impersonator mocked him for his problems of elocution.

In the run up to the presidential elections in 2007, Rocard called for an alliance between the Socialists and the centrist Union for French Democracy (UDF) party of François Bayrou in an effort to defeat Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) candidate Nicolas Sarkozy. Ségolène Royal, the PS candidate, rejected any such compromise, lamenting that she was once again obliged to face obstacles from within her own party. Rocard also publicly admitted, after the election, having asked Ségolène Royal to step down in his favor in March 2007, one month before the first round of voting[citation needed].

Like other Socialist politicians, such as Jack Lang or Hubert Védrine, who accepted similar positions, Rocard accepted a post on the Committee on the re-evaluation of the teaching profession, which was placed under the "high authority" of Sarkozy's Minister of Education Xavier Darcos.[21] Criticized by Medhi Ouraoui, national delegate of the PS, Rocard claimed it was a "democrat's duty" to participate in such Commissions and that he was "not concerned" by the "game of the President of the Republic [consisting of making of such left-wing participations] political symbols".[21] He furthermore explained that he had accepted to speak before the Gracques' spring university (a group of senior left-wing civil servants who advocated a centrist strategy) because political parties were not suited any more to serious reflexion.[21] Finally, he again claimed that the (Marxist) SFIO had been created in 1905 on a fundamental "ambiguity", that of whether to accept or reject market economy.[21]

Michel is a member of Collegium International, an organisation of leaders with political, scientific, and ethical expertise whose goal is to provide new approaches in overcoming the obstacles in the way of a peaceful, socially just and an economically sustainable world.

Political career

Governmental functions

Prime minister : 1988–1991 (Resignation).

Minister of State, minister of Planning and Land Development : 1981–1983.

Minister of Agriculture : 1983–1985 (Resignation).

Electoral mandates

European Parliament

Member of the European Parliament : 1994–2009 (Resignation). Elected in 1994, reelected in 1999, 2004.

Senate of France

Senator of Yvelines : 1995–1997 (Resignation). Elected in 1995.

National Assembly of France

Member of the National Assembly of France for Yvelines (4th constituency) : 1969–1973 / 1978–1981 (Became minister in 1981) / 1986–1988 (Became Prime minister in 1988). Elected in 1969, reelected in 1978, 1981, 1986, 1988

Regional Council

Regional councillor of Île-de-France : 1978–1988 (Resignation). Elected in 1986.

Municipal Council

Mayor of Conflans-Sainte-Honorine : 1977–1994. Reelected in 1983, 1989.

Municipal councillor of Conflans-Sainte-Honorine : 1977–2001. Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995.

Political functions

First Secretary (leader) of the Socialist Party (France) : 1993–1994 (Resignation).

Rocard's Ministry, 12 May 1988 – 15 May 1991

  • Michel Rocard – Prime Minister
  • Roland Dumas – Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Edith Cresson – Minister of European Affairs
  • Jean-Pierre Chevènement – Minister of Defense
  • Pierre Joxe – Minister of the Interior
  • Pierre Bérégovoy – Minister of Economy, Finance, Budget, and Privatization
  • Roger Fauroux – Minister of Industry
  • Michel Delebarre – Minister of Employment and Social Affairs
  • Pierre Arpaillange – Minister of Justice
  • Lionel Jospin – Minister of National Education, Sport, Research, and Technology
  • Jack Lang – Minister of Culture and Communication
  • Henri Nallet – Minister of Agriculture and Forests
  • Maurice Faure – Minister of Housing and Equipment
  • Louis Mermaz – Minister of Transport
  • Jean Poperen – Minister of Relations with Parliament
  • Jacques Pelletier – Minister of Cooperation and Development
  • Paul Quilès – Minister of Posts, Telecommunications, and Space
  • Michel Durafour – Minister of Civil Service
  • Roger Fauroux – Minister of External Commerce
  • Louis Le Pensec – Minister of Sea


  • 22–23 June 1988 – Michel Delebarre succeeds Mermaz as Minister of Transport and Le Pensec as Minister of Sea. The office of Minister of Social Affairs is abolished, but Claude Evin enters the ministry as Minister of Solidarity, Health, and Social Protection. Jean-Pierre Soisson succeeds Delebarre as Minister of Employment, becoming also Minister of Labour and Vocational Training. Louis Le Pensec becomes Minister of Overseas Departments and Territories. Jean-Marie-Rausch succeeds Fauroux as Minister of External Commerce. Hubert Curien succeeds Jospin as Minister of Research and Technology. Jospin remains Minister of National Education and Sport. Michel Durafour becomes Minister of Administrative Reforms as well as Minister of Civil Service.
  • 28 June 1988 – Jack Lang becomes Minister of Great Works and Bicentenary in addition to being Minister of Culture and Communication.
  • 22 February 1989 – Michel Delebarre succeeds Faure as Minister of Housing and Equipment, remaining also Minister of Transport.
  • 2 October 1990 – The office of Minister of European Affairs is abolished. Henri Nallet succeeds Arpaillange as Minister of Justice. Louis Mermaz succeeds Nallet as Minister of Agriculture and Forests. The office of Minister of Bicentenary is abolished. Jack Lang remains minister of Culture, Communication and Great Works.
  • 21 December 1990 – Michel Delebarre becomes Minister of City. Louis Besson succeeds Delebarre as Minister of Transport, Housing, Sea, and Equipment.
  • 29 January 1991 – Pierre Joxe succeeds Chevènement as Minister of Defense. Philippe Marchand succeeds Joxe as Minister of the Interior.


In June 2007, Rocard was admitted at Calcutta Medical Research Institute, Kolkata, India where doctors found he had a blood clot in the brain and was operated. He was discharged from the hospital on 10 July 2007.[22]


  • Michel Rocard, Rapport sur les camps de regroupement et autres textes sur la guerre d'Algérie, Editions Mille et une nuits, 2003 (Report on regroupment camps and others texts on the Algerian War)
  • Michel Rocard, Le Coeur à l'ouvrage, Odile Jacob, 1987
  • Michel Rocard, Entretiens, Paris, Flammarion, 2001
  • Ch. Piaget, Lip, Postface by Michel Rocard, Lutter Stock, 1973.
  • Collective, Lip : affaire non classée, Postface by Michel Rocard, Syros, 1975.

Sources for social reforms carried out by Michel Rocard's government

France since 1870: Culture, Politics and Society by Charles Sowerine

The history of France by W. Scott Haine

Poor Women in Rich Countries: The Feminization of Poverty Over the Life Course by Gertrude Schaffner Goldberg

Global Capital, Political Institutions, and Policy Change in Developed Welfare States by Duane Swank

Urban Planning in Europe: International Competition, National Systems and Planning Projects by Paul Newman and Andy Thornley

Macroeconomic policy in open economies by Michele Fratianni, Dominick Salvatore, and Jürgen von Hagen

Hovels to high rise: state housing in Europe since 1850 by Anne Power

François Mitterrand: a study in political leadership‎ by Alastair Cole.

Policies to combat social exclusion: A French-British comparison by Hilary Silver and Frank Wilkinson, International Institute for Labour Studies by Hilary Silver and Frank Wilkinson (ilo-mirror.library.cornell.edu/public/English/bureau/inst/.../dp8395.pdf).


  1. ^ "Ils voulaient un patron, pas une coopérative ouvrière", Le Monde, interview with Rocard, 20 March 2007 (French)
  2. ^ http://www.kent.ac.uk/wramsoc/workingpapers/secondyearsreports/policymaps/francepolicymaps.pdf
  3. ^ http://www.eurofound.europa.eu/eiro/1998/03/inbrief/fr9803196n.htm
  4. ^ The crisis of socialism in Europe by Christiane Lemke and Gary Marks
  5. ^ François Mitterrand: a study in political leadership by Alistair Cole
  6. ^ Democratic socialism: a global survey by Donald F. Busky
  7. ^ From state to market?: the transformation of French business and government by Vivien Ann Schmidt
  8. ^ The politics of cultural policy in France by Kim Eling
  9. ^ From state to market?: the transformation of French business and government by Vivien Ann Schmidt
  10. ^ Recasting Welfare Capitalism: Economic Adjustment in Contemporary France and Germany by Mark I. Vail
  11. ^ a b The French Welfare State: Surviving Social and Ideological Change by John S. Ambler
  12. ^ a b Social Housing in Europe Edited by Christine Whitehead and Kathleen Scanlon
  13. ^ http://dominiquevoynet.net/v2/index.php/2008/09
  14. ^ France Since The Popular Front: Government and people 1936-1996 by Maurice Larkin
  15. ^ From state to market?: the transformation of French business and government by Vivien Ann Schmidt
  16. ^ The New Encyclopaedia Britannica, Volume 19, Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc, Jacob E.. Safra
  17. ^ http://www2.budget.gouv.fr/directions_services/dgtpe/TRESOR_ECO/anglais/pdf/2007-004-10en.pdf
  18. ^ François Mitterrand: a study in political leadership by Alistair Cole
  19. ^ It's an Honour: AC
  20. ^ « Tout le monde se copie et c'est bien ainsi », Freescape, 30 June 2003 (French)
  21. ^ a b c d L'ouverture politique à gauche se poursuit avec Michel Rocard, Reuters, 29 August 2007 (13h22), mirrored by Le Monde (French)
  22. ^ Victime d'une hémorragie cérébrale, Michel Rocard se remet doucement, Le Monde, 3 July 2007 (French)

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Minister of Territorial Development
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Fernand Icart
Minister of Planning
Preceded by
Edith Cresson
Minister of Agriculture
Succeeded by
Henri Nallet
Preceded by
Jacques Chirac
Prime Minister of France
Succeeded by
Edith Cresson
Party political offices
Preceded by
Laurent Fabius
First Secretary of the Socialist Party
Succeeded by
Henri Emmanuelli

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