- Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau Prime Minister of France In office
16 November 1917 – 20 January 1920
President Raymond Poincaré Preceded by Paul Painlevé Succeeded by Alexandre Millerand In office
25 October 1906 – 24 July 1909
President Armand Fallières Preceded by Ferdinand Sarrien Succeeded by Aristide Briand Personal details Born 28 September 1841 Died 24 November 1929(aged 88) Political party Radical Profession Physician, newspaper publisher
Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (French pronunciation: [ʒɔʁʒ klemɑ̃so]; 28 September 1841 – 24 November 1929) was a French statesman, physician and journalist. He served as the Prime Minister of France from 1906 to 1909, and again from 1917 to 1920. For nearly the final year of World War I he led France, and was one of the major voices behind the Treaty of Versailles at the Paris Peace Conference in the aftermath of the war. He is commonly nicknamed "Le Tigre" (The Tiger) and "Père-la-Victoire" (Father Victory) for his determination as a wartime leader.
Georges Clemenceau was the leader of France at this time. He strongly believed in nationalism.
Clemenceau was born at Mouilleron-en-Pareds, Vendée, France. In Revolutionary times the Vendée had been a hotbed of monarchist sympathies but now it was fiercely republican. This town would also be famous as the birthplace of another famous politico-military figure in French history: Jean de Lattre de Tassigny.
Clemenceau's mother Sophie Eucharie Gautreau (1817–1903) was from a Huguenot family. His father Benjamin Clemenceau (1810–1897) was the village physician who hoped that his son would follow in his footsteps. A fervent republican despite being the grandson of the nobleman Seigneur du Colombier, the elder Clemenceau fought in 1830 in the revolt against Charles X and later against Louis Phillippe. Arrested on the orders of Emperor Napoleon III after his attempted assassination by Felice Orsini, Clemenceau had been sentenced to exile in Algeria but was set free in Marseilles before the deportation order was carried out.
After his studies in the Nantes Lycée, Georges received his baccalaureate of letters in 1858. Like his father, he then enrolled in school. During his first few years in the Nantes school, as he himself pointed out, he was disruptive. He opposed the infatuation other students and faculty had with religion and the imperial ideals.
Journalism and exile
In 1861 Clemenceau left for Paris to pursue his studies where he began frequenting artistic and Republican circles in the Latin Quarter. He co-founded a weekly newsletter in December called Le Travail along with some friends. On 23 February 1862 he was arrested by the police for having placed posters summoning a demonstration. He spent 77 days in the Mazas prison.
In the midst of all of this he became a doctor on 13 May 1865, found the time to take part in founding several magazines, and wrote many articles, most of which attacked the Imperial regime of Napoleon III. It soon became advisable to leave when the Imperial agents began cracking down on dissidents (sending most of them to Devil's Island). On 25 July of that year he set sail for the United States, perfecting his English along the way.
For a short period he maintained a medical office on 12th Street in New York City, supporting himself as a correspondent for a Parisian newspaper. He then took a post teaching French and horseback riding at a girls' school in Stamford, Connecticut. He later married in New York City, New York, on 23 June 1869 one of his students, Mary Elizabeth Plummer (1850–1923), daughter of William Kelly Plummer and wife Harriet A. Taylor, with whom he had three children before the marriage ended in divorce. During this time he joined French exile clubs in New York opposing the imperial regime.
The beginning of the Third Republic
He returned to Paris after the fall of the regime with the defeat at Sedan. He took part in the Paris Commune but was there to establish the third Republic. His political career began in earnest at this time.
He was elected to the Paris municipal council on 23 July 1871 for the Clignancourt quarter, and retained his seat till 1876, passing through the offices of secretary and vice-president, and becoming president in 1875.
Chamber of Deputies
In 1876 he stood again for the Chamber of Deputies, and was elected for the 18th arrondissement. He joined the far left, and his energy and mordant eloquence speedily made him the leader of the Radical section. In 1877, after the Seize Mai crisis, he was one of the republican majority who denounced the de Broglie ministry, and he took a leading part in resisting the anti-republican policy of which the Seize Mai incident was a manifestation. His demand in 1879 for the indictment of the de Broglie ministry brought him into particular prominence.
In 1880 he started his newspaper, La Justice, which became the principal organ of Parisian Radicalism. From this time onwards, throughout Jules Grévy's presidency, his reputation as a political critic and destroyer of ministries ("le Tombeur de ministères") who yet would not take office himself grew rapidly. Leading the Far Left in the National Assembly, he was an active opponent of Jules Ferry's colonial policy (which he opposed on moral grounds and also as a form of diversion from the “Revenge against Germany”) and of the Opportunist party, and in 1885 it was his criticism of the Tonkin disaster which principally determined the fall of the Ferry cabinet.
At the elections of 1885 he advocated a strong Radical programme, and was returned both for his old seat in Paris and for the Var, district of Draguignan, selecting the latter. Refusing to form a ministry to replace the one he had overthrown, he supported the Right in keeping Freycinet in power in 1886, and was responsible for the inclusion of General Boulanger in the Freycinet cabinet as War Minister. When Boulanger showed himself as an ambitious pretender, Clemenceau withdrew his support and became a vigorous opponent of the heterogeneous Boulangist movement, though the Radical press and a section of the party continued to patronize the general.
By his exposure of the Wilson scandal, and by his personal plain speaking, Clemenceau contributed largely to Jules Grévy's resignation of the presidency in 1887, having himself declined Grévy's request to form a cabinet on the downfall of Maurice Rouvier's Cabinet. He was also primarily responsible, by advising his followers to vote for neither Floquet, Ferry, or Freycinet, for the election of an "outsider" (Sadi Carnot) as president.
The split in the Radical party over Boulangism weakened his hands, and its collapse made his help unnecessary to the moderate republicans. A further misfortune occurred in the Panama affair, as Clemenceau's relations with Cornelius Herz led to his being included in the general suspicion. Although he remained the leading spokesman of French Radicalism, his hostility to the Russian alliance so increased his unpopularity that in the 1893 election he was defeated for his Chamber seat, having held it continuously since 1876.
After his 1893 defeat, Clemenceau confined his political activities to journalism. His career was further overclouded by the long-drawn-out Dreyfus case, in which he took an active part as a supporter of Emile Zola and an opponent of the anti-Semitic and Nationalist campaigns. In all, Clemenceau published 665 articles defending Dreyfus during the affair.
On 13 January 1898 Clemenceau, as owner and editor of the Paris daily L'Aurore, published Émile Zola's "J'accuse" on the front page of his paper. Clemenceau decided that the controversial story that would become a famous part of the Dreyfus Affair would be in the form of an open letter to the President, Félix Faure.
In 1900 he withdrew from La Justice to found a weekly review, Le Bloc, in which Clemenceau was practically the sole contributor. Le Bloc lasted until 15 March 1902. On 6 April 1902 he was triumphally elected senator for the Var, district of Draguignan although he had previously continually demanded the suppression of the Senate, considered a strong-house of conservatism. He was senator of Draguignan until 1920. He sat with the Radical-Socialist Party and moderated somehow his positions, although he still vigorously supported the Combes ministry, who spearheaded the anti-clericalist Republican struggle. In June 1903 he undertook the direction of the journal L'Aurore, which he had founded. In it he led the campaign for the revision of the Dreyfus affair, and for the separation of Church and State, which was implemented by the 1905 Act.
In March 1906 the fall of the Rouvier ministry, owing to the riots provoked by the inventories of church property, and the Radicals' victory during the 1906 legislative election, at last brought Clemenceau to power as Minister of the Interior in the Sarrien cabinet. On a domestic level, Clemenceau reformed the police forces and ordered repressive policies towards the workers' movement. He supported the formation of scientifical police by Alphonse Bertillon, and founded the Brigades mobiles (French for "mobile squads") led by Célestin Hennion. These squads were nicknamed Brigades du Tigre ("Tiger's Brigades") after Clemenceau himself.
The miners' strike in the Pas de Calais after the disaster at Courrieres (more than a thousand victims), leading to the threat of disorder on 1 May 1906, prompted him to employ the military; and his attitude in the matter – as well as the repression of the wine-growers' strike in the Languedoc-Roussillon – alienated the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) socialist party, from which he definitively broke in his notable reply in the Chamber to Jean Jaurès, leader of the SFIO, in June 1906.
This speech marked him out as the strong man of the day in French politics; and when the Sarrien ministry resigned in October, he became premier. During 1907 and 1908 his premiership was notable for the way in which the new Entente cordiale with England was cemented, and for the successful part which France played in European politics, in spite of difficulties with Germany and attacks by the Socialist party in connection with Morocco (First Moroccan Crisis in 1905–06, settled by the Algeciras Conference).
Clemenceau was defeated however on 20 July 1909 in a discussion in the Chamber on the state of the navy, in which bitter words were exchanged between him and Théophile Delcassé, former president of the Council, and whose downfall had been aided by Clemenceau. Clemenceau refused to respond to Delcassé's technical questions, and resigned after his proposal for the order of the day vote was rejected. He was succeeded as premier by Aristide Briand, with a reconstructed cabinet.
Between 1909 and 1912, Clemenceau dedicated his times to travels, conferences and also to the treatment of his sickness. He went to South America in 1910, traveling to Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina (where he went as far as Santa Ana de Tucuman in the North-West of Argentina). There, he was amazed by the influence of French culture and of the French Revolution on local elites. In 1912, he was operated on because of a problem of the prostate.
He published the first issue of the Journal du Var on 10 April 1910, before creating L'Homme libre (The Free Man) newspaper, based in Paris, on 6 May 1913, in which he published daily his editorial. In these tribunes, Clemenceau focused more and more on foreign policy, and condemned the Socialists' anti-militarism. When World War I broke out, his newspaper was one of the first to be censored, being completely suspended from 29 September 1914 to 7 October. In response, Clemenceau changed its name to L'Homme enchaîné (The Man in Chains), and criticized both the lack of transparency of the government and its inefficacity, while defending the patriotic Union sacrée against the German Empire.
World War I
When World War I broke out in 1914 Clemenceau refused to act as justice minister under the French Prime Minister.
In November 1917 Clemenceau was appointed prime minister. Unlike his predecessors, he immediately halted disagreement and called for peace among senior politicians.
When Clemenceau became Prime Minister in 1917 victory seemed to be a long way off. There was little activity on the Front because it was believed that there should be limited attacks until the American support arrived. At this time, Italy was on the defensive, Russia had virtually stopped fighting – and it was believed they would be making a separate peace with Germany. At home the government had to combat increasing resentment against the war. They also had to handle increasing demonstrations against the war, scarcity of resources and air raids – which were causing huge physical damage to Paris as well as damaging the morale of its citizens. It was also believed that many politicians secretly wanted peace. It was a challenging situation for Clemenceau, because after years of criticizing other men during the war, he suddenly found himself in a position of supreme power. He was also isolated politically. He did not have close links with any parliamentary leaders (especially after years of criticism) and so had to rely on himself and his own circle of friends.
Clemenceau's ascension to power meant little to the men in the trenches at first. They thought of him as "Just another Politician", and the monthly assessment of troop morale found that only a minority found comfort in his appointment. Slowly, however, as time passed, the confidence he inspired in a few began to grow throughout all the fighting men. They were encouraged by his many visits to the trenches. This confidence began to spread from the trenches to the home front and it was said "We believed in Clemenceau rather in the way that our ancestors believed in Joan of Arc."
Clemenceau was also well received by the media because they felt that France was in need for strong leadership. It was widely recognised that throughout the war he was never discouraged and he never stopped believing that France could achieve total victory. There were sceptics, however, that believed that Clemenceau, like other war time leaders, would have a short time in office. It was said that "Like everyone else … Clemenceau will not last long- only long enough to clean up [the war]."
1918: Clemenceau's crackdown
As the situation worsened in early 1918, Clemenceau continued to support the policy of total war – "We present ourselves before you with the single thought of total war" – and the policy of "la guerre jusqu'au bout" (war until the end). His 8 March speech advocating this policy was so effective it left a vivid impression on Winston Churchill, who would make similar speeches on becoming British Prime Minister in 1940. Clemenceau's war policy encompassed the promise of victory with justice, loyalty to the fighting men, and immediate and severe punishment of crimes against France.
Joseph Caillaux, a former French prime minister, disagreed with Clemenceau's policies. He was a believer in negotiated peace by surrendering to Germany. Clemenceau observed Caillaux as a threat to national security. Unlike previous ministers, Clemenceau publicly stepped against Caillaux. As a result, the parliamentary committee decided that Caillaux would be arrested and imprisoned for three years. Clemenceau believed, in the words of Jean Ybarnégaray, that Caillaux's crime "was not to have believed in victory [and] to have gambled on his nation's defeat".
It was believed by some in Paris that the arrest of Caillaux and others was a sign that Clemenceau had begun a Reign of Terror. The many trials and arrests aroused great public excitement, one newspaper ironically reported "The war must be over, for no one is talking about it anymore". These trials, far from making the public fear the government, inspired confidence as they felt that for the first time in the war, action was being taken and they were being firmly governed. The claims that Clemenceau's "firm government" was a dictatorship found little support. Clemenceau was still held accountable to the people and media. He relaxed censorship on political views as he believed that newspapers had the right to criticize political figures – "The right to insult members of the government is inviolable". The only powers that Clemenceau assumed were those that he thought necessary to win the war.
In 1918, Clemenceau thought that France should adopt Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, mainly because of its point that called for the return of the disputed territory of Alsace-Lorraine to France. This meant that victory would fulfill the war aim that was crucial for the French public. Clemenceau was however sceptical about some other points, including those concerning the League of Nations, as he believed that the latter could succeed only in a utopian society.
As war minister Clemenceau was also in close contact with his generals. However, he did not always make the most effective decisions concerning military issues (though he did heed the advice of the more experienced generals). As well as talking strategy with the generals he also went to the trenches to see the Poilu , the French infantrymen. He would speak to them and assure them that their government was actually looking after them. The Poilu had great respect for Clemenceau and his disregard for danger as he often visited soldiers only yards away from German frontlines. These visits contributed to Clemenceau's title Le Père de la Victoire (Father of Victory).
1918: the German spring offensive
On 21 March the Germans began their great spring offensive. The Allies were caught off guard as they were waiting for the majority of the American troops to arrive. As the Germans advanced on 24 March, the British Fifth army retreated and a gap was created in the British/French lines – giving them access to Paris. This defeat cemented Clemenceau's belief, and that of the other allies, that a coordinated, unified command was the best option. It was decided that Foch would be appointed to the supreme command.
The German line continued to advance and Clemenceau believed that they could not rule out the fall of Paris (see appendix 2.0). It was believed that if "the tiger" as well as Foch and Pétain stayed in power, for even another week, France would be lost. It was thought that a government headed by Briand would be beneficial to France because he would make peace with Germany on advantageous terms. Clemenceau adamantly opposed these opinions and he gave an inspirational speech to parliament and "the chamber" voted their confidence in him 377 votes to 110.
1918: the Allied counter-offensive and the Armistice
As the Allied counter-offensives began to push the Germans back, with the help of American reinforcements, it became clear that the Germans could no longer win the war. Although they still occupied allied territory, they did not have sufficient resources and manpower to continue the attack. As countries allied to Germany began to ask for an armistice, it was obvious that Germany would soon follow. On 11 November an armistice with Germany was signed – Clemenceau saw this was Germany's admission of defeat. Clemenceau was embraced in the streets and attracted admiring crowds. He was a strong, energetic, positive leader who was key to the allied victory of 1918.
It was decided that a peace conference would be held in Paris, France. (The treaty signed by both parties was signed in the Palace of Versailles, but deliberated upon in Paris). On 13 December Woodrow Wilson received an enormous welcome. His Fourteen Points and the concept of a League of Nations had made a big impact on the war weary French. Clemenceau realised at their first meeting that he was a man of principle and conscience but narrow minded.
It was decided that since the conference was being held in France, Clemenceau would be the most appropriate president. He also spoke both English and French, the official languages of the conference.
The Conference progress was much slower than anticipated and decisions were being constantly adjourned. It was this slow pace that induced Clemenceau to give an interview showing his irritation to an American journalist. He said he believed that Germany had won the war industrially and commercially as its factories were intact and its debts would soon be overcome through ‘manipulation’. In a short time, he believed, the German economy would be much stronger than the French.
France's diplomatic position at the Paris Peace Conference was repeatedly jeopardized by Clemenceau's mistrust of David Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson, and his intense dislike of French President Raymond Poincaré. When negotiations reached a stalemate, Clemenceau had a habit of shouting at the other heads of state and storming out of the room rather than participating in further discussion.
On 19 February 1919, during the Paris Peace Conference, as Clemenceau was leaving his house in the Rue Franklin to drive to a meeting with House and Balfour at the Crillon, a man jumped out and fired several shots at the car. One bullet hit Clemenceau between the ribs, just missing his vital organs. Too dangerous to remove, the bullet remained with him for the remainder of his life. Clemenceau's assailant, fr:Emile Cottin, was seized by the crowd following the leader's procession and nearly lynched. Taken back to his house, Clemenceau's faithful assistant found him pale but conscious. "They shot me in the back," Clemenceau told him. "They didn't even dare to attack me from the front."
Clemenceau often joked about the "assassin's" bad marksmanship – “We have just won the most terrible war in history, yet here is a Frenchman who misses his target 6 out of 7 times at point-blank range. Of course this fellow must be punished for the careless use of a dangerous weapon and for poor marksmanship. I suggest that he be locked up for eight years, with intensive training in a shooting gallery."
Rhineland and the Saar
When Clemenceau returned to the council of ten on 1 March he found that little had changed. One issue that had not changed was a dispute over the long running Eastern Frontier and control of the German province Rhineland. Clemenceau believed that Germany’s possession of the territory left France without a natural frontier in the East and so simplified invasion into France for an attacking army. The issue was finally resolved when Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson guaranteed immediate military assistance if Germany attacked without provocation. It was also decided that the Allies would occupy the territory for 15 years, and that Germany could never rearm the area.
There was increasing discontent among Clemenceau, Lloyd George and Woodrow Wilson about slow progress and information leaks surrounding the Council of Ten. They began to meet in a smaller group, called the Council of Four, Vittorio Orlando of Italy being the fourth, though less weighty, member. This offered greater privacy and security and increased the efficiency of the decision making process. Another major issue which the Council of Four discussed was the future of the German Saar province. Clemenceau believed that France was entitled to the province and its coal mines after Germany deliberately damaged the coal mines in Northern France. Wilson, however, resisted the French claim so firmly that Clemenceau accused him of being ‘pro German’. Lloyd George came to a compromise and the coal mines were given to France and the territory placed under French administration for 15 years, after which a vote would determine whether the province would rejoin Germany.
Although Clemenceau had little knowledge of the Austrian-Hungarian empire, he supported the causes of its smaller ethnic groups and his adamancy lead to the stringent terms in the Treaty of Trianon which dismantled Hungary. Rather than recognizing territories of the Austrian-Hungarian empire solely within the principles of self-determination, Clemenceau sought to weaken Hungary just as Germany and remove the threat of such a large power within Central Europe. The entire Czechoslovakian state was seen a potential buffer from Communism and this encompassed majority Hungarian territories.
Clemenceau was not experienced in the fields of economics or finance, but was under strong public and parliamentary pressure to make Germany’s reparation bill as large as possible. It was generally agreed that Germany should not pay more than it could afford, but the estimates of what it could afford varied greatly. Figures ranged between £2000 million which was quite modest compared to another estimate of £20,000 million. Clemenceau realised that any compromise would anger both the French and British citizens and that the only option was to establish a reparations commission which would examine Germany’s capacity for reparations. This meant that the French government was not directly involved in the issue of reparations.
Clemenceau was defeated for the French Presidency in 1920.
Clemenceau's First Ministry, 25 October 1906 – 24 July 1909
- Georges Clemenceau – President of the Council and Minister of the Interior
- Stéphen Pichon – Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Georges Picquart – Minister of War
- Joseph Caillaux – Minister of Finance
- René Viviani – Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions
- Edmond Guyot-Dessaigne – Minister of Justice
- Gaston Thomson – Minister of Marine
- Aristide Briand – Minister of Public Instruction, Fine Arts, and Worship
- Joseph Ruau – Minister of Agriculture
- Raphaël Milliès-Lacroix – Minister of Colonies
- Louis Barthou – Minister of Public Works, Posts, and Telegraphs
- Gaston Doumergue – Minister of Commerce and Industry.
- 4 January 1908 – Aristide Briand succeeds Guyot-Dessaigne as Minister of Justice. Gaston Doumergue succeeds Briand as Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts. Briand remains Minister of Worship. Jean Cruppi succeeds Doumergue as Minister of Commerce and Industry.
- 22 October 1908 – Alfred Picard succeeds Thomson as Minister of Marine.
Clemenceau's Second Ministry, 16 November 1917 – 20 January 1920
- Georges Clemenceau – President of the Council and Minister of War
- Stéphen Pichon – Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Louis Loucheur – Minister of Armaments and War Manufacturing
- Jules Pams – Minister of the Interior
- Louis Lucien Klotz – Minister of Finance
- Pierre Colliard – Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions
- Louis Nail – Minister of Justice
- Georges Leygues – Minister of Marine
- Louis Lafferre – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
- Victor Boret – Minister of Agriculture and Supply
- Henry Simon – Minister of Colonies
- Albert Claveille – Minister of Public Works and Transport
- Étienne Clémentel – Minister of Commerce, Industry, Maritime Transports, Merchant Marine, Posts, and Telegraphs
- Charles Jonnart – Minister of Liberated Regions and Blockade.
- 23 November 1917 – Albert Lebrun succeeds Jonnart as Minister of Liberated Regions and Blockade.
- 26 November 1918 – Louis Loucheur becomes Minister of Industrial Reconstitution. His office of Minister of Armaments and War Manufacturing is abolished.
- 24 December 1918 – The office of Minister of Blockade is abolished. Lebrun remains Minister of Liberated Regions.
- 5 May 1919 – Albert Claveille succeeds Clémentel as Minister of Merchant Marine. He remains Minister of Public Works and Transport, while Clémentel remains Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Telegraphs
- 20 July 1919 – Joseph Noullens succeeds Boret as Minister of Agriculture and Supply.
- 6 November 1919 – André Tardieu succeeds Lebrun as Minister of Liberated Regions.
- 27 November 1919 – Léon Bérard succeeds Lafferre as Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts. Louis Dubois succeeds Clémentel as Minister of Commerce, Industry, Posts, and Telegraphs.
- 2 December 1919 – Paul Jourdain succeeds Colliard as Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions.
Clemenceau was a long-time friend and supporter of the impressionist Claude Monet. He was instrumental in helping Monet overcome loss of eyesight and perfectionism to complete the paintings that are now on display in Paris's Musée de l'Orangerie, in specially constructed oval galleries.
- James Douglas, Jr. bought an apartment in Paris for his friend Georges Clemenceau in 1926, for his retirement home. This building later became the Musée Clémenceau.
- Clemenceau, Arizona, USA was named in honor Georges Clemenceau by his friend James Douglas, Jr. in 1917
- The French aircraft carrier Clemenceau was named after Georges Clemenceau.
- The Cuban Romeo y Julieta cigar brand once produced a size named the Clemenceau in his honour, and the Dominican-made variety still does.
- A character named "George Clemenceau" portrayed by Cyril Cusack appears in The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles episode Paris, May 1919.
- Clemenceau's famous line "War is too important to be left to the generals" is quoted by the character General Ripper in the movie Dr. Strangelove.
- He was played by Paul Bildt in the 1930 German film Dreyfus.
- List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s – 4 Jan. 1926
- ^ Clemenceau's name is spelled with an ‹e› and not with the ‹é› that is normally required in French for the pronunciation /e/.
- ^ Clemenceau himself preferred the pronunciation kləmɑ̃so, but current usage has adopted the vowel [e] (by analogy with the name Clément). See P. Fouché, Traité de prononciation française, Paris, 1956, p. 65.
- ^ 117James G. Ravin, MD, The Statesman, the Artist, and the Ophthalmologist: Clemenceau, Lautrec, and Meyer, Archives of Ophthalmology Vo. 117, No. 7, July 1999, http://archopht.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/177/7/951 (accessed 28 June 2010)
- ^ http://www.musee-clemenceau.html (accessed 28 June 2010)
- ^ See the 30 September 1906 discourse in La Roche-sur-Yon (French)
- ^ G. Clemenceau, Notes de voyage dans l'Amérique du Sud, Hachette, 1911
- ^ Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World, Random House: New York, (2003) 150
- ^ Roberta Smith, Serenade in Blue, New York Times, 10 September 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/11/arts/design/11monet.html?pagewanted=all (accessed 28 June 2010)
- ^ Musée Clémenceau
- Holt, E., The Tiger: The Life of Georges Clemenceau 1841–1929, (London : Hamilton, 1976);
- Georges Clemenceau, La France devant l'Allemagne, (Paris: Lumet & Martet, 1916);
- Cochet, A., Clemenceau et la Troisieme Republique, (Paris: Denoel, 1989).
- The Clemenceau museum
- Encyclopaedia Britannica, Georges Clemenceau
- Clemenceau, the man and his time by Henry Mayers Hyndman at archive.org
- South America To Day by Georges Clemenceau at archive.org. In English.
- The strongest (Les plus fort) by Georges Clemenceau at archive.org
- The surprises of life by Georges Clemenceau at archive.org
- At the foot of Sinai by Georges Clemenceau at archive.org
- Clemenceau's cartoons
- Dreyfus Rehabilitated
Académie Française Seat 3
Jacques de Serisay (1634) · Paul-Philippe de Chaumont (1654) · Louis Cousin (1697) · Jacques-Louis de Valon (1707) · Nicolas Gédoyn (1719) · François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis (1744) · Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard (1803) · Denis-Luc Frayssinous (1822) · Étienne-Denis Pasquier (1842) · Jules Armand Dufaure (1863) · Victor Cherbuliez (1881) · Émile Faguet (1900) · Georges Clemenceau (1918) · André Chaumeix (1930) · Jérôme Carcopino (1955) · Roger Caillois (1971) · Marguerite Yourcenar (1980) · Jean-Denis Bredin (1989)
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