- List of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll
This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll. It covers the lowest estimate of death as well as the highest estimate, the name of the event, the location, and the start and end of each event. Some events overlap categories.
- 1 Wars and armed conflicts
- 2 Genocides and Alleged Genocides
- 3 Famine
- 4 Floods and landslides
- 5 Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
- 6 African genocides
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Wars and armed conflicts
Where only one estimate is available, it appears in both the low and high estimates. This is a sortable table. Click on the column sort buttons to sort results numerically or alphabetically.
Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To See also Percentage of the world population 40,000,000 72,000,000 World War II Worldwide 1939 1945 World War II casualties and Second Sino-Japanese War 1.7%–3.1% 33,000,000 36,000,000 An Lushan Rebellion China 755 763 Medieval warfare 14.0%–15.3% 30,000,000 60,000,000 Mongol Conquests East Asia, Eastern Europe, West Asia 1207 1472 Mongol invasions and Tatar invasions 7.5%–17.1% 25,000,000 25,000,000 Qing dynasty conquest of the Ming Dynasty China 1616 1662 Qing Dynasty 4.8% 20,000,000 60,000,000 Taiping Rebellion China 1851 1864 Dungan revolt 1.6%–2.1% 15,000,000 65,000,000 World War I (High estimate includes Spanish flu deaths) Worldwide 1914 1918 World War I casualties 0.8%–3.6% 15,000,000 20,000,000 Conquests of Timur West Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Russia 1369 1405  3.4%–4.5% 8,000,000 12,000,000 Dungan revolt China 1862 1877 Panthay Rebellion 0.6%–0.9% citation needed]5,000,000[ 9,000,000 Russian Civil War Russia 1917 1921 Russian Revolution (1917), List of civil wars 0.28%–0.5% 3,800,000 5,400,000 Second Congo War Democratic Republic of the Congo 1998 2003 First Congo War 0.06%–0.09% citation needed]3,500,000[ citation needed]6,500,000[ Napoleonic Wars Europe, Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean 1804 1815 Napoleonic Wars casualties 0.4%–0.7% 3,000,000 11,500,000 Thirty Years' War Holy Roman Empire 1618 1648 Religious war 0.5%–2.1% 3,000,000 7,000,000 Yellow Turban Rebellion China 184 205 Part of Three Kingdoms War 1.3%–3.1% 3,000,000 4,000,000 Deluge Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth 1655 1660 Second Northern War 0.6%–0.7% citation needed]2,500,000[ 3,500,000 Korean War Korean Peninsula 1950 1953 Cold War 0.1% citation needed]2,495,000[ 6,020,000 Vietnam War Southeast Asia 1955 1975 Indochina War 0.08%–0.19% 2,000,000 4,000,000 French Wars of Religion France 1562 1598 Religious war 0.4%–0.8% 2,000,000 2,000,000 Shaka's conquests Africa 1816 1828 Ndwandwe–Zulu War 0.2% 1,000,000 2,000,000 Second Sudanese Civil War Sudan 1983 2005 Religious war 0.02% 1,000,000 9,000,000 Crusades Holy Land, Europe 1095 1291 Religious war 0.3%–2.3% 500,000 2,000,000 Mexican Revolution Mexico, United States 1911 1920 Pancho Villa and Columbus Raid 0.03%–0.1% 500,000 2,000,000 Iran–Iraq War Iran, Iraq 1980 1988 Al-Anfal Campaign and Invasion of Kuwait 0.01%–0.04% 300,000 1,200,000 War of the Triple Alliance South America 1864 1870 Military history of South America and Duke of Caxias 0.02%–0.08%
Genocides and Alleged Genocides
The United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) defines genocide in part as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group".
Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the interpretation and details of the event, often to the point of promoting wildly different versions of the facts. An accusation of genocide, therefore, will almost always be controversial. Determining the number of persons killed in each genocide can be just as difficult, with political, religious and ethnic biases or prejudices often leading to downplayed or exaggerated figures.
The following list of genocides and alleged genocides should be understood in this context and not necessarily regarded as the final word on the events in question.
Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes 4,194,200 10,500,000 Holocaust Europe 1941 1945 With around 6 million Jews murdered as well as the genocide of the Romani: most estimates of Romani deaths are in the 200,000–500,000 range but some estimate more than a million. A broader definition includes political and religious dissenters, 200,000 handicapped, 2 to 3 million Soviet POWs, 5,000 Jehovah's Witnesses, 15,000 homosexuals and small numbers of mixed-race children (known as the Rhineland bastards), bringing the death toll to around 10.5 million. See Holocaust, Porajmos, Consequences of German Nazism 2,582,000 8,000,000. Holodomor (and Soviet famine of 1932-1933) Ukrainian SSR 1932 1933 Holodomor was a famine in Ukraine caused by the government of Joseph Stalin, a part of Soviet famine of 1932–1933. Holodomor is claimed by contemporary Ukrainian government to be a genocide of the Ukrainians.
As of March 2008[update], Ukraine and nineteen other governments have recognized the actions of the Soviet government as an act of genocide. The joint statement at the United Nations in 2003 has defined the famine as the result of cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians, Russians, Kazakhs and other nationalities in the USSR. On 23 October 2008 the European Parliament adopted a resolution that recognized the Holodomor as a crime against humanity.
On January 12, 2010, the court of appeals in Kiev opened hearings into the "fact of genocide-famine Holodomor in Ukraine in 1932–33", in May 2009 the Security Service of Ukraine had started a criminal case "in relation to the genocide in Ukraine in 1932–33". In a ruling on January 13, 2010 the court found Stalin and other Bolshevik leaders guilty of genocide against the Ukrainians.
2,000,000 10,000,000 European colonization of the Americas The Americas 1492 1900 Many historians consider the deaths caused by disease, displacement, and conquest of Native American populations during European settlement of North and South America as constituting an act of genocide (or series of genocides). The genocidal aspects of this event are entwined with loss of life caused by the lack of immunity of Native Americans to diseases carried by European settlers and their livestock (see Population history of American indigenous peoples). 1,671,000 3,000,000 Cambodian Genocide Cambodia 1975 1979 As of September 2010[update], no one has been found guilty of participating in this genocide, but on 16 September 2010 Nuon Chea, second in command of the Khmer Rouge and its most senior surviving member, was indicted on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity. He will face Cambodian and United Nations appointed foreign judges at the special genocide tribunal. 500,000 3,000,000 Expulsion of Germans after World War II Europe 1945 1950
With at least 12 million Germans directly involved, it was the largest movement or transfer of any single ethnic population in modern history and largest among the post-war expulsions in Central and Eastern Europe (which displaced more than twenty million people in total). The events have been usually classified as population transfer, or as ethnic cleansing. Martin Shaw (2007) and W.D. Rubinstein (2004) describe the expulsions as genocide. Felix Ermacora writing in 1991, (in line with a minority of legal scholars) considered ethnic cleansing to be genocide and stated that the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans was genocide.
500,000 1,000,000 Rwandan genocide Rwanda 1994 1994 Hutu killed unarmed men, women and children. Some perpetrators of the genocide have been found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, but most have not been charged due to no witness accounts. 480,000 600,000 Massacres in Zunghar Khanate Western China, Kazakhstan, northern Kyrgyzstan, southern Siberia 1755 1758 Qianlong emperor moved the remaining Zunghar people to the mainland and ordered the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, and divided their wives and children to Qing soldiers. Qing officials wrote about 30–50% of the Dzungar people were massacred, 30–40% killed by smallpox, and 20–30% ran to Russia or Kazakh. and no people in the several thousands li area. Clarke wrote 80%, or between 480,000 and 600,000 people, were killed between 1755 and 1758 in what "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people." Historian Peter Perdue has shown that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of extermination launched by Qianlong. Although this "deliberate use of massacre" has been largely ignored by modern scholars, 400,000 400,000 Russian conquest of the Caucasus Caucasus 1817 1864 During the last decade or so, especially after the two First and Second Chechen Wars, pro-Chechen groups started to investigate the history of the Caucasian War and came to label the Caucasian exodus as a "Circassian ethnic cleansing", although the term had not been in use in the 19th century. They point out that the exodus was not really voluntary but rather was a matter of what is today called ethnic cleansing – the systematic emptying of villages by Russian soldiers and was accompanied by Russian colonisation. They estimate that some 90 percent of the Circassians estimated at more than three million had relocated from the territories conquered by Russia. During these events, and the preceding Caucasian War, at least tens of thousands of Circassians perished in a "programme of forced expulsion, deportation and massacre at the hands of the Russian government". See also: Muhajir (Caucasus) 300,000 1,500,000 Armenian Genocide Anatolia 1915 1923 Usually called the first genocide of the 20th century. Despite recognition by some twenty one countries as a genocidal act, the accused, Turkey, disputes allegations of genocide by the Ottoman Empire 300,000 500,000 Decossackization Don River area, Soviet Union 1919 1920 In the Russian Civil War that followed the October Revolution, the Cossacks found themselves on both sides of the conflict. Many officers and experienced Cossacks fought for the White Army, and some for the Red Army. Following the defeat of the White Army, a policy of Decossackization (Raskazachivaniye) took place on the surviving Cossacks and their homelands since they were viewed as a potential threat to the new regime. This mostly involved dividing their territory amongst other divisions and giving it to new autonomous republics of minorities, and then actively encouraging settlement of these territories with those peoples. This was especially true for the Terek Cossacks land. According to Michael Kort, "During 1919 and 1920, out of a population of approximately 3 million, the Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 Cossacks". 275,000 750,000 Assyrian genocide Anatolia 1915 1918 Disputed, but some consider it a genocide. 270,000 655,000 Ustashe massacres of Serbs, Jews, Roma and Croats Croatia 1941 1945 Genocide during period of Independent State of Croatia, with official policy of extermination similar to that of Nazi Germany. See also The Holocaust in Croatia. 200,000 1,000,000 Greek genocide Anatolia 1915 1918 Disputed, but some consider it a genocide. 178,258 400,000 Darfur conflict Sudan 2003 2010 See International response to the Darfur conflict 100,000 340,000 Nanking Massacre Nanking, China 1937 1938 The Nanking Massacre, commonly known as the Rape of Nanking, was an infamous genocidal war crime committed by the Japanese military in Nanjing, then capital of the Republic of China, after it fell to the Imperial Japanese Army on 13 December 1937. 100,000 250,000 War in the Vendée France 1793 1796 Described as genocide by some historians but this claim has been widely discounted. See also French Revolution 100,000 200,000 Massacres of Mayan Indians Guatemala 1962 1996 Genocide according to the Historical Clarification Commission. 100,000 120,000 Manila Massacre Manila, Philippines 1945 1945 During the Battle of Manila, at least 100,000 civilians were killed. 50,000 200,000 Al-Anfal Campaign Iraq 1986 1989 Ba'athist Iraq destroys over 2,000 villages and commits genocide on their Kurdish population. 50,000 100,000 Massacres of Hutus Burundi 1972 1972 Tutsi government massacres of Hutu, part of the Burundi genocide. citation needed]50,000[ citation needed]50,000[ Massacres of Tutsis Burundi 1993 1993 Hutu government massacres of Tutsi, part of the Burundi genocide. 26,000 3,000,000 1971 Bangladesh atrocities East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 1971 1971 Atrocities in East Pakistan by the Pakistani Armed Forces, leading to the Bangladesh Liberation War and Indo-Pakistani War of 1971, are widely regarded as a genocide against Bengali people, but to date no one has yet been indicted for such a crime. 24,000 75,000 Herero and Namaqua genocide Namibia 1904 1908 Generally accepted. See also Imperial Germany 20,000 80,000 Dictatorship and political repression in Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea 1969 1979 Francisco Macías Nguema led a brutal dictatorship in his country, most notably against the minority of Bubi. It is estimated that his regime killed at least 20,000 people, while around 100,000 (one third of the population) fled the country. On a trial, Nguemu was found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity. He was executed in 1979. 18,600 183,000 Political repression of East Timorese East Timor 1975 1990s Referred to as genocide by some scholars. 13,160 70,000 Dersim Massacre Dersim, Turkey 1937 1938 Tens of thousands of Kurds were killed and thousands more forced into exile, depopulating the province. 9,000 30,000 Dirty War Argentina 1976 1983 At least 9,000 people were tortured and killed in Argentina from 1976 to 1983, carried out primarily by Jorge Rafael Videla's military dictatorship. 8,000 17,000 Massacres during Zanzibar Revolution Zanzibar (now Tanzania) 1964 1964 Thousands of Arabs and Indians were massacred during the revolution. 7,500 8,000 Srebrenica massacre Srebrenica, Bosnia 1995 1995 A genocidal massacre according to the ICTY. Currently, it is the last genocide committed in modern Europe after World War II. On 31 March 2010, the Serbian Parliament passed a resolution condemning the Srebrenica massacre and apologizing to the families of Srebrenica for the deaths of Bosniaks. See also: War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian genocide. 2,000 70,000 Persecution of Falun Gong China 1999 ongoing A campaign initiated by the Chinese Communist Party against practitioners of Falun Gong since July 1999, aimed at eliminating the practice in the People's Republic of China. It is estimated that since 1999, hundreds of thousands of Falun Gong practitioners have been detained in "re-education through labor" camps for refusing to renounce the spiritual practice, while at least 2,000 Falun Gong adherents have been tortured to death amidst the persecution campaign.
Individual extermination camps and concentration camps
- 800,000-1,500,000 Auschwitz-Birkenau, by Nazi Germany, located in Oświęcim, Poland, 1940–1945
- 700,000-1,000,000 Treblinka, by Nazi Germany, located in Treblinka, Poland, 1942–1943
- 480,000–600,000 Bełżec, by Nazi Germany, located in Bełżec, Poland, 1942–1943
- 350,000 Majdanek, by Nazi Germany, located in Lublin Poland, 1942–1944
- 300,000 Chełmno, by Nazi Germany, located in Chełmno Poland, 1941–1943
- 260,000 Sobibór, by Nazi Germany, located in Sobibor Poland, 1942–1943
- 100,000 Bergen-Belsen, by Nazi Germany, located by Belsen, Germany, 1942–1945
- 55,000 – Neuengamme concentration camp, (by Nazi Germany, located by Hamburg, Germany, 1938–1945)
- 53,000-100,000 – Jasenovac extermination camp – (by NDH Ustaše Nazi regime in Croatia.)
- 35,000 – Jadovno concentration camp, (by NDH Ustaše Nazi regime in Croatia, located by Gospić, Croatia, 1941 May–August)
- 12,790-75,000 – Stara Gradiška extermination camp, (by NDH Ustaše Nazi regime in Croatia, primarily for women and children, 1941–1945)
- 12,000 Crveni Krst, by Nazi regime in Nedić's Serbia, located in Niš, 1941
- 8,500 **Gakovo, by yougoslavia located in northern Serbia 1944
- 4,000–5,000. Omarska camp, by Bosnian Serb forces, located in Omarska, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1992
- 2,000 Rab concentration camp , by Italy on the island of Rab 1942
Note: Some of these famines may be caused or partially caused by nature.
This section includes famines that were caused or exacerbated by the policies of the ruling regime.
Lowest estimate Highest estimate Event Location From To Notes 15,000,000
43,000,000 Great Chinese Famine People's Republic of China 1959 1961 Great Leap Forward famine under the Chinese Communist Party led by Mao Zedong. Between the spring of 1959 and the end of 1961 some 30 million Chinese starved to death and about the same number of births were lost or postponed. State violence during this period further exacerbated the death toll, and some 2.5 million people were beaten or tortured to death in connection with Great Leap policies. 9,000,000 13,000,000 Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79 China 1876 1879 6,000,000 17,000,000 Soviet famine of 1932–1933, including Holodomor Soviet Union 1932 1939 As of November 2006[update], the Ukraine government was trying to get this mass starvation recognised by the United Nations as an act of genocide, with Russian government and many members of the Ukrainian parliament opposing such a move. 5,250,000 10,300,000 Great Famine of 1876–78 British-ruled India 1876 1878 See also: Famine in India 4,000,000 4,000,000 Bengal famine of 1943 British-ruled India 1943 1943 1,250,000 10,000,000 Indian famine of 1899–1900 British-ruled India 1899 1900 750,000 1,500,000 Great Irish Famine British-ruled Ireland 1846 1849 Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland—where a third of the population was entirely dependent on the potato for food—was exacerbated by a host of political, social and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.
Floods and landslides
Rank Death toll Event Location Date 1. 2,500,000–3,700,000 1931 China floods China 1931 2. 900,000–2,000,000 1887 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1887 3. 500,000–700,000 1938 Yellow River (Huang He) flood China 1938 4. 231,000 Banqiao Dam failure, result of Typhoon Nina. Approximately 86,000 people died from flooding and another 145,000 died during subsequent disease. China 1975 5. 145,000 1935 Yangtze river flood China 1935 6. more than 100,000 St. Felix's Flood, storm surge Netherlands 1530 7. 100,000 Hanoi and Red River Delta flood North Vietnam 1971 8. 100,000 1911 Yangtze river flood China 1911 9. 50,000–80,000 St. Lucia's flood, storm surge Netherlands, England 1287 10. 10,000–50,000 Vargas Tragedy, landslide Venezuela 1999 11. 2,400 North Sea flood, storm surge Netherlands, Scotland, England, Belgium 31 January 1953
Human sacrifice and ritual suicide
Lowest estimate Highest estimate Description Group Location From To Notes citation needed]300,000[ citation needed]1,500,000[ Human sacrifice Aztecs Mexico 14th century 1521 Human sacrifice in Aztec culture 13,000 13,000 Human sacrifice Shang dynasty China BC1300 BC1050 Last 250 years of rule 7,941 7,941 Ritual suicides Sati Bengal, India 1815 1828 3,912 3,912 Kamikaze suicide pilots, see note  Imperial Japanese air forces Pacific theatre 1944 1945 913 913 Jonestown murder-suicide Followers of The Peoples Temple cult Jonestown November 18, 1978 November 19, 1978 The event was the largest loss of American civilian life in a non-natural disaster until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Including the African Holocaust
Lowest estimate Highest estimate Description Location From To Notes 8,000,000 10,000,000 Tropical diseases, including sleeping sickness and smallpox, and the exploitation of the Congo Free State under the rule of King Leopold II of Belgium Congo Free State 1885 1908 In 1885, King Leopold II of Belgium created his own privately owned state that included today's Democratic Republic of the Congo. His goal was to enrich himself by exploiting the country's natural resources like ivory and rubber. Adam Hochschild estimates that the population of the Congo region had been halved during Leopold’s rule, but determining precisely how many people died is next to impossible as no accurate records exist. Louis and Stengers state that population figures at the start of Leopold's control are only "wild guesses", while E.D. Morel's attempt and others at coming to a figure for population losses were "but figments of the imagination". 1,200,000 2,400,000 African Holocaust Atlantic Ocean 16th century 19th century African slaves died in large numbers during transportation from Africa. The number could more accurate if it included deaths during the acquisition of slaves in Africa and subsequent deaths in America. Before the 16th century the principal market for the warring African tribes that enslaved each other's populations was the Islamic world to the east. Gustav Nachtigal, an eye-witness, believed that for every slave who arrived at a market three or four died on the way.
Other lists organized by death toll
- List of accidents and disasters by death toll
- List of battles and other violent events by death toll
- List of murderers by number of victims
- List of natural disasters by death toll
- List of ongoing conflicts
- List of disasters in Australia by death toll
- List of Canadian disasters by death toll
- List of New Zealand disasters by death toll
- List of United Kingdom disasters by death toll
- List of United States disasters by death toll
Other lists with similar topics
- List of accidents and incidents involving commercial aircraft
- List of battles
- List of disasters
- List of earthquakes
- List of famines
- List of historic fires
- List of invasions
- List of massacres
- List of notable tropical cyclones
- List of riots
- List of terrorist incidents
- List of wars
- Lists of rail accidents
Topics dealing with similar themes
- Casualties of the Iraq War
- Genocide in history
- Infectious disease
- Mass murder
- Most lethal battles in world history
- United States casualties of war
- ^ World population estimates
- ^ Wallechinsky, David: David Wallechinsky's Twentieth Century : History With the Boring Parts Left Out, Little Brown & Co., 1996, ISBN 0-316-92056-8, ISBN 978-0-316-92056-8 – cited by White
- ^ Brzezinski, Zbigniew: Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the Twenty-first Century, Prentice Hall & IBD, 1994, ASIN B000O8PVJI – cited by White
- ^ BBC – History – Nuclear Power: The End of the War Against Japan
- ^ Sorokin, Pitirim: The Sociology of Revolution, New York, H. Fertig, 1967, OCLC 325197 – cited by White
- ^ "Death toll figures of recorded wars in human history". http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat0.htm.
- ^ The world's worst massacres Whole Earth Review
- ^ Mongol Conquests
- ^ McFarlane, Alan: The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap, Blackwell 2003, ISBN 0-631-18117-2, ISBN 978-0-631-18117-0 – cited by White
- ^ Taiping Rebellion – Britannica Concise
- ^ http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/KF11Ad01.html
- ^ "Emergence Of Modern China: II. The Taiping Rebellion, 1851–64". http://www-chaos.umd.edu/history/modern2.html#taiping.
- ^ Willmott 2003, p. 307
- ^ 1918 Influenza: the Mother of All Pandemics, CDC
- ^ a b Timur Lenk (1369–1405)
- ^ Matthew's White's website (a compilation of scholarly estimates) -Miscellaneous Oriental Atrocities
- ^ a b c d Davis, Mike. Late Victorian Holocausts. 1. Verso, 2000. ISBN 1-85984-739-0 pg 113
- ^ Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.ISBN 0-521-49712-4
- ^ Russian Civil War
- ^ Inside Congo, An Unspeakable Toll
- ^ [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L22802012.htm "Congo war-driven crisis kills 45,000 a month-study" – Reuters, 22 Jan 2008.
- ^ The Thirty Years War (1618–48)
- ^ a b "Mankind’s Worst Wars and Armed Conflicts". http://www.paranormalknowledge.com/articles/mankinds-worst-wars-and-armed-conflicts.html. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- ^ a b Jan Wróbel, Odnaleźć przeszłość 1 (2002)"Odnaleźć przeszłość 1". http://www.lideria.pl/Odnalezc-przeszlosc-Zakres-podstawowy-Czesc-1-Poradnik-dla-nauczyciela/sklep/opis?nr=77255.
- ^ Cease-fire agreement marks the end of the Korean War on 27 July 1953.
- ^ Vietnam War – Kosmix
- ^ Huguenot Religious Wars, Catholic vs. Huguenot (1562–1598)
- ^ Shaka: Zulu Chieftain
- ^ Sudan: Nearly 2 million dead as a result of the world's longest running civil war, U.S. Committee for Refugees, 2001. Archived 10 December 2004 on the Internet Archive. Accessed 10 April 2007
- ^ John Shertzer Hittell, "A Brief History of Culture" (1874) p.137: "In the two centuries of this warfare one million persons had been slain..." cited by White
- ^ Robertson, John M., "A Short History of Christianity" (1902) p.278. Cited by White
- ^ Mexican Revolution Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls. Accessdate 15 October 2010.
- ^ 
- ^ "The Iran-Iraq War". Jewish Virtual Library. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/arabs/iraniraq.html. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- ^ Roger Hardy (22 September 2005). "The Iran-Iraq War: 25 years on". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4260420.stm. Retrieved 15 October 2010.
- ^ 
- ^ Jurg Meister, Francisco Solano López Nationalheld oder Kriegsverbrecher?, Osnabrück: Biblio Verlag, 1987. 345, 355, 454–5
- ^ Another estimate is that from the pre-war population of 1,337,437, the population fell to 221,709 (28,746 men, 106,254 women, 86,079 children) by the end of the war (War and the Breed, David Starr Jordan, p. 164. Boston, 1915; Applied Genetics, Paul Popenoe, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1918)
- ^ Davies, Europe A History (1998) ISBN 0060974680 cited by White
- ^ ,
- ^ cited in Re. Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation (Swiss Banks) Special Master's Proposals, September 11, 2000.
- ^ Jacques Vallin, France Mesle, Serguei Adamets, Serhii Pyrozhkov, A New Estimate of Ukrainian Population Losses during the Crises of the 1930s and 1940s, Population Studies, Vol. 56, No. 3. (Nov. 2002), pp. 249–264
- ^ France Meslé, Gilles Pison, Jacques Vallin France-Ukraine: Demographic Twins Separated by History, Population and societies, N°413, juin 2005
- ^ ce Meslé, Jacques Vallin Mortalité et causes de décès en Ukraine au XXè siècle + CDRom ISBN 2-7332-0152-2 CD online data (partially – http://www.ined.fr/fichier/t_publication/cdrom_mortukraine/cdrom.htm
- ^ - "The famine of 1932–33", Encyclopædia Britannica. Quote: "The Great Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33—a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians... Its deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis for famine existed in Ukraine... Soviet authorities set requisition quotas for Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades of special agents were dispatched to Ukraine to assist in procurement, and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated... The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed itself."
- ^ sources differ on interpreting various statements from different branches of different governments as to whether they amount to the official recognition of the famine as genocide by the country. For example, after the statement issued by the Latvian Sejm on March 13, 2008, the total number of countries is given as 19 (according to Ukrainian BBC: "Латвія визнала Голодомор ґеноцидом"), 16 (according to Korrespondent, Russian edition: "После продолжительных дебатов Сейм Латвии признал Голодомор геноцидом украинцев"), "more than 10" (according to Korrespondent, Ukrainian edition: "Латвія визнала Голодомор 1932–33 рр. геноцидом українців")
- ^ European Parliament resolution on the commemoration of the Holodomor, the Ukraine artificial famine (1932–1933)
- ^ European Parliament recognises Ukrainian famine of 1930s as crime against humanity (Press Release 23-10-2008)
- ^ Holodomor court hearings begin in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (January 12, 2010)
- ^ Yushchenko brings Stalin to court over genocide, RT (January 14, 2010)
- ^ Mann, Charles C. (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. Knopf. ISBN 1-4000-3205-9.
- ^ Stannard, David E. (1992). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195075816.
- ^ Stacy Goodling, "Effects of European Diseases on the Inhabitants of the New World"
- ^ Koplow, David A. (2003). "Smallpox The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge". University of California Press. http://www.ucpress.edu/books/pages/9968/9968.ch01.html. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
- ^ Midlarsky, Manus I. (20 October 2005). "15". The killing trap: genocide in the twentieth century (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 310. ISBN 978-0521815451.
- ^ http://www.eccc.gov.kh/english/about_eccc.aspx
- ^ Staff, Senior Khmer Rouge leader charged, BBC 19 September 2007
- ^ Seth Mydans, Khmer Rouge Leaders Indicted
- ^ Christoph Bergner, Secretary of State in Germany's Bureau for Inner Affairs, Deutschlandfunk, November 29, 2006,
- ^ Kinder, Anchor Atlas of World History: 3,000,000
- ^ a b Jürgen Weber, Germany, 1945–1990: A Parallel History, Central European University Press, 2004, p.2, ISBN 963-9241-70-9
- ^ a b Arie Marcelo Kacowicz, Pawel Lutomski, Population resettlement in international conflicts: a comparative study, Lexington Books, 2007, p.100, ISBN 073911607: "...largest movement of European people in modern history" 
- ^ Peter H. Schuck, Rainer Münz, Paths to Inclusion: The Integration of Migrants in the United States and Germany, Berghahn Books, 1997, p.156, ISBN 1-57181-092-7
- ^ *Expelling the Germans: British Opinion and Post-1945 Population Transfer in Context, Matthew Frank Oxford University Press, 2008
- Europe and German unification,
- ^ *Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan (2003). Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements. Routledge. p. 656. ISBN 0-415-93924-0. http://books.google.de/books?id=M734r1ZXW2cC&pg=PA657&dq=expulsion+cleansing+germans&lr=&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=expulsion%20cleansing%20germans&f=false.
- Naimark, Norman M. (2001). Fires of hatred: ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe. Harvard University Press. pp. 15, 112. 121, 136. ISBN 0-674-00994-0. http://books.google.de/books?id=L-QLXnX16kAC&pg=PA108&dq=expulsion+cleansing+germans&lr=&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=expulsion%20cleansing%20germans&f=false.
- Curp, T. David (2006). A clean sweep?: the politics of ethnic cleansing in western Poland, 1945–1960. University of Rochester Press. p. 200. ISBN 1-58046-238-3. http://books.google.de/books?id=ARxnK1u_WOEC&pg=PA53&dq=expulsion+cleansing+germans&lr=&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=expulsion%20cleansing%20germans&f=false.
- Cordell, Karl (1999). Ethnicity and democratisation in the new Europe. Routledge. p. 175. ISBN 0-415-17312-4. http://books.google.de/books?id=JFvq55U3wy8C&pg=PA175&dq=expulsion+cleansing+germans&lr=&as_brr=3#v=onepage&q=expulsion%20cleansing%20germans&f=false.
- Diner, Dan; Gross, Raphael; Weiss, Yfaat (2006). Jüdische Geschichte als allgemeine Geschichte. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 163. ISBN 3525362889.
- [|Gibney, Matthew J.] (2005). Immigration and asylum: from 1900 to the present, Volume 3. ABC-CLIO. p. 196. ISBN 1576077969.
- Glassheim, Eagle (2001). Ther, Philipp; Siljak, Ana. eds. Redrawing nations: ethnic cleansing in East-Central Europe, 1944–1948. Harvard Cold War studies book series. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 197. ISBN 0742510948.
- Shaw, Martin (2007). What is genocide?. Polity. p. 56. ISBN 0745631827.
- Totten, Paul; Bartrop; Jacobs, Steven L (2008). Dictionary of genocide, Volume 2. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 335. ISBN 0313346445.
- Frank, Matthew James (2008). Expelling the Germans: British opinion and post-1945 population transfer in context. Oxford historical monographs. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 0199233640.
- ^ European Court of Human Rights – Jorgic v. Germany Judgment, July 12, 2007. § 47
- ^ Jescheck, Hans-Heinrich (1995). Encyclopedia of Public International Law. http://books.google.com/books?id=7dH0qS_tQS0C&pg=PA118&dq=ethnic+cleansing+germans&lr=#v=onepage&q=ethnic%20cleansing%20germans&f=false.
- ^ Ermacora, Felix (1991). "Gutachten Ermacora 1991" (PDF). http://www.ermacora-institut.at/wDeutsch/dokumente/pdf/gutachten_ermacora_1991.pdf.
- ^ a b See, e.g., Rwanda: How the genocide happened, BBC, April 1, 2004, which gives an estimate of 800,000, and OAU sets inquiry into Rwanda genocide, Africa Recovery, Vol. 12 1#1 (August 1998), page 4, which estimates the number at between 500,000 and 1,000,000. 7 out of 10 Tutsis were killed.
- ^ a b c Perdue 2005, p. 285
- ^ 大清高宗純皇帝實錄, 乾隆二十四年
- ^ 平定準噶爾方略
- ^ Wei Yuan, Military history of the Qing Dynasty, vol.4
- ^ 昭槤, 嘯亭雜錄, vol.3
- ^ Michael Edmund Clarke, In the Eye of Power (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37
- ^ Perdue 2005, p. 283-287
- ^ Perdue 2005, p. 284
- ^ a b Goble 2005
- ^ Derluguian 2006
- ^ Smirnov 2006
- ^ Kullberg and Jokinen 2004
- ^ Bloxham, Donald. The Great Game of Genocide. 2005, page 42
- ^ Kamuran Gürün: Ermeni Soykirmi. 3rd Volume, Ankara 1985, p. 227
- ^ French in Armenia 'massacre' row BBC
- ^ a b c Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colosus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.
- ^ a b Assyrian Genocide; Lexicorient
- ^ Death Tolls:Yugoslavia"Lowest estimate for Serbs killed by Ustasha: 215,000. For Jews: 26,000. For Gypsies: 20,000. For Croats killed by Ustasha: 10,000. A total of 270,000"
- ^ Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls
- ^ a b Henry Morgenthau, Ambassador Morgenthau's Story, Doubleday, Page & Company, Garden City, New York, 1919.
- ^ "Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict". The Lancet. January 2010. http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736%2809%2961967-X/abstract. Retrieved 2010-03-24.
- ^ Debate over Darfur death toll intensifies
- ^ Donald Greer, The Terror, a Statistical Interpretation, Cambridge (1935)
- ^ a b Reynald Secher, La Vendée-Vengé, le Génocide franco-français (1986)
- ^ Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Éditions du Seuil, collection Points, 1987 he gives the highest estimate of the civil war, including republican losses and premature death. However, he does not consider it as a genocide.
- ^ Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007, p.148.
- ^ Gough, Hugh (December 1987). "Genocide and the Bicentenary: The French Revolution and the Revenge of the Vendee". The Historical Journal 30 (4). http://www.jstor.org/stable/2639130.
- ^ Larry Rohter (1995-08-23). "Death Squads in Guatemala: Even the Elite Are Not Safe". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1995/08/23/world/death-squads-in-guatemala-even-the-elite-are-not-safe.html. Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- ^ Clinton: Support for Guatemala Was Wrong, Charles Babington, Thursday, March 11, 1999; Page A1The Washington Post
- ^ Press conference by members of the Guatemala Historical Clarification Commission, United Nations website, 1 March 1999
- ^ Staff. Guatemala 'genocide' probe blames state. BBC. 25 February 1999. Retrieved from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/286402.stm.
- ^ White, Matthew. "Death Tolls for the Man-made Megadeaths of the 20th Century" http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/battles.htm#Manila
- ^ Edward Wong Hussein Charged With Genocide in 50,000 Deaths The New York Times. Published: April 5, 2006. Accessdate: 2 August 2010.
- ^ William Ochsenwald & Sydney N. Fisher, The Middle East: A History, 768 pp., McGraw Hill, 2004, ISBN 0-07-244233-6, pg 659
- ^ David McDowall, A Modern History of the Kurds, 504 pp., I.B. Tauris, 2004, ISBN 1-85043-416-6, pp. 359
- ^ a b Power, Samantha,A Problem From Hell: America and the Age of Genocide ISBN 0-06-054164-4 pp.82–4
- ^ a b While the official Pakistani government report estimated that the Pakistani army was responsible for 26,000 killings in total, other sources have proposed various estimates ranging between 200,000 and 3 million. Indian Professor Sarmila Bose recently expressed the view that a truly impartial study has never been done, while Bangladeshi ambassador Shamsher M. Chowdhury has suggested that a joint Pakistan-Bangladeshi commission be formed to properly investigate the event.
Chowdury, Bose comments – Dawn Newspapers Online.
Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report, chapter 2, paragraph 33 (official 1974 Pakistani report).
Death Tolls for the Major Wars and Atrocities of the 20th Century: Bangladesh – Matthew White's website
Virtual Bangladesh: History: The Bangali Genocide, 1971
- ^ Walter Nuhn: Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904. Bernhard & Graefe-Verlag, Koblenz 1989. ISBN 3-7637-5852-6.
- ^ According to the 1985 United Nations’ Whitaker Report, some 65,000 Herero (80 percent of the total Herero population), and 10,000 Nama (50% of the total Nama population) were killed between 1904 and 1907
- ^ a b Kevin Shillington; Encyclopedia of African history, Vol. I; ISBN 1-57958-245-1, p. 486, available online
- ^ Coup plotter faces life in Africa's most notorious jail
- ^ "Final Report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor (CAVR)- part 6, paras. 47, 56–7". International Centre for Transitional Justice. January 30, 2006. http://www.ictj.org/en/news/features/846.html. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- ^ Chega! The CAVR Report
- ^ Jardine; Taylor (1991), p. ix; Nevins cites a wide variety of sources discussing the question of genocide in East Timor, on p. 217–218.
- ^ Saul, Ben. "Was the Conflict in East Timor ‘Genocide’ and Why Does It Matter?". Melbourne Journal of International Law. 2:2 (2001). Retrieved on 17 February 2008.
- ^ "Resmi raporlarda Dersim katliamı: 13 bin kişi öldürüldü", Radikal, November 19, 2009. (Turkish)
- ^ http://www.pen-kurd.org/almani/haydar/Dersim-PresseerklC3A4rungEnglish.pdf
- ^ The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009
- ^ PBS News Hour, 16 Oct. 1997, et al. Argentina Death Toll, Twentieth Century Atlas
- ^ Line 3335
- ^ "Regions and territories: Zanzibar". BBC News. 2010-05-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/3850393.stm. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- ^ Who, What, Why: How will Mladic's fitness for trial be assessed?
- ^ While the ICJ found that "genocidal acts" had been carried out throughout the war, the court was able to definitely establish genocidal intent in only one case, the Srebrenica massacre: Serbia found guilty of failure to prevent and punish genocide, Sense Agency 26 Feb 2007, accessed 29 August 2007
- ^ "Serbian MPs offer apology for Srebrenica massacre". BBC News. 2010-03-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8594625.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-31.
- ^ Andrew Jacobs. 'China Still Presses Crusade Against Falun Gong', New York Times, 27 April 2009.
- ^ Ethan Gutmann. The China Conundrum. inFocus, Winter 2010, Volume IV: Number 4
- ^ Thomas Lum (25 May 2006). "CRS Report for Congress: China and Falun Gong" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/67820.pdf.
- ^ Congressional Executive Commission on China, Annual Report 2008
- ^ U.S. Department of State, 2009 Country Report on Human Rights: China (includes Hong Kong and Macao)
- ^ "China: The crackdown on Falun Gong and other so-called "heretical organizations"". Amnesty International. 23 March 2000. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA170112000. Retrieved 17 March 2010.
- ^ Andrew Jacobs. 'China Still Presses Crusade Against Falun Gong', New York Times, 27 April 2009.
- ^ Wellers, Georges. Essai de determination du nombre de morts au camp d'Auschwitz (attempt to determine the number of dead at the Auschwitz camp), Le Monde Juif, Oct–Dec 1983, pp. 127–159
- ^ Brian Harmon, John Drobnicki, Historical sources and the Auschwitz death toll estimates
- ^ Operation Reinhard: Treblinka Deportations
- ^ Encyclopedia Americana
- ^ Peter Witte and Stephen Tyas, A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, Vol. 15, No. 3, Winter 2001, ISBN 0-19-922506-0
- ^ Raul Hilberg, The Destruction of the European Jews, Yale University Press, 2003, revised hardcover edition, ISBN 0-300-09557-0
- ^ Yitzhak Arad, Bełżec, Sobibor, Treblinka. The Operation Reinhard Death Camps, Indiana University Press, Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1987, NCR 0-253-34293-7
- ^ Jewish virtual library
- ^ "Croatian holocaust still stirs controversy". BBC News. 29 November 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/1673249.stm. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
- ^ "Balkan 'Auschwitz' haunts Croatia". BBC News. 25 April 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4479837.stm. Retrieved 29 September 2010. "No one really knows how many died here. Serbs talk of 700,000. Most estimates put the figure nearer 100,000."
- ^ Jelka Smreka. "STARA GRADIŠKA Ustaški koncentracijski logor". Spomen područja Jasenovac. http://public.mzos.hr/fgs.axd?id=13416. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- ^ Davor Kovačić (2004). "Iskapanja na prostoru koncentracijskog logora Stara Gradiška i procjena broj žrtava". http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/75758. Retrieved 2010-08-25.
- ^ On the killing of Roma in World War II
- ^ "The Unindicted: Reaping the Rewards of "Ethnic Cleansing" in Prijedor". Human Rights Watch. 1 January 1997. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,HRW,,BIH,,3ae6a8368,0.html.
- ^ "Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team report". http://eaaf.typepad.com/pdf/1999/04Bosnia1999.pdf.
- ^ a b Stéphane Courtois (ed.), 1999: The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, ISBN 0-674-07608-7
- ^ "China's great famine: 40 years later". British Medical Journal 1999;319:1619–1621 (18 December)
- ^ Dikötter, Frank. Mao's Great Famine: The History of China's Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958–62. Walker & Company, 2010. p. 298.
- ^ Dimensions of need – People and populations at risk. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
- ^ a b Helen Fawkes Legacy of famine divides Ukraine BBC News 24 November 2006
- ^ Foster, R.F. 'Modern Ireland 1600–1972'. Penguin Press, 1988. p324. Foster's footnote reads: "Based on hitherto unpublished work by C. Ó Gráda and Phelim Hughes, 'Fertility trends, excess mortality and the Great Irish Famine'...Also see C.Ó Gráda and Joel Mokyr, 'New developments in Irish Population History 1700–1850', Economic History Review, vol. xxxvii, no.4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488."
- ^ Joseph Lee, The Modernisation of Irish Society p. 1. Lee says 'at least 800,000'.
- ^ Vaughan, W.E. and Fitzpatrick, A.J.(eds). Irish Historical Statistics, Population, 1821/1971. Royal Irish Academy, 1978
- ^ The Great Irish Famine Approved by the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on 10 September 1996, for inclusion in the Holocaust and Genocide Curriculum at the secondary level. Revision submitted 11/26/98.
- ^ Cecil Woodham-Smith, The Great Hunger, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1991, p. 19. ISBN 978-0-14-014515-1
- ^ Christine Kinealy, This Great Calamity, Gill & Macmillan, 1994, pp. xvi–ii, 2–3. ISBN 0-7171-4011-3
- ^ "Worst Natural Disasters In History". Nbc10.com. http://www.nbc10.com/news/4030540/detail.html. Retrieved 2010-08-11.
- ^ National Geographic, July 2003, cited by White
- ^ Sakuntala Narasimhan, Sati: widow burning in India, quoted by Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th Century", p.2 (July 2005), Historical Atlas of the 20th Century (self-published, 1998–2005).
- ^ This toll is only for the number of Japanese pilots killed in Kamikaze suicide missions. It does not include the number of enemy combatants killed by such missions, which is estimated to be around 4,000. Kamikaze pilots are estimated to have sunk or damaged beyond repair some 70 to 80 allied ships, representing about 80% of allied shipping losses in the final phase of the war in the Pacific (see Kamikaze).
- ^ The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/08/30/daily/leopold-book-review.html. Retrieved 2010-05-11.
- ^ Hochschild, Adam, King Leopold's Ghost, Pan Macmillan, London (1998). ISBN 0-330-49233-0
- ^ The 'Leopold II' concession system exported to French Congo with as example the Mpoko Company
- ^ "Reflections" (PDF). http://www.urome.be/fr2/reflexions/casemrepo.pdf.
- ^ a b Stannard, David. American Holocaust. Oxford University Press, 1993
- ^ Lewis. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Oxford Univ Press 1994.
- ^ "Case studies on human rights and fundamental freedoms: a world survey". Willem Adriaan Veenhoven, Winifred Crum Ewing, Stichting Plurale Samenlevingen1 (1976). p.440. ISBN 90-247-1779-5
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