- Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
name = Ukrainian SSR
rus-name = Украинская Советская Социалистическая Республика
loc-name = Українська Радянська Соціалістична Республіка
full-name = Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
year_start = 1917
year_end = 1991
p1 = Russian Empire
flag_p1 = Russian Empire 1914 17.svg
p2 = Ukrainian People's Republic
flag_p2 = Flag of UNR.svg
p3 = Second Polish Republic
flag_p3 = Flag of Poland.svg
p4 = Kingdom of Romania
flag_p4 = Flag of Romania.svg
s1 = Ukraine
flag_s1 = Flag of Ukraine.svg
arms = Coat of arms of Ukrainian SSR.png
language = Ukrainian and Russian
Lang-ISO = uk
December 25, 1917
December 30, 1922
August 24, 1991
area-rank = 3rd
area = 603,700
water = negligible
pop-rank = 2nd
pop = 51,706,746 (1989)
density = 85.6
time-zone = + 3
Anthem of Ukrainian SSR
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or the Ukrainian SSR was one of the 15 constituent republics that made up the
former Soviet Unionfrom its formation in 1917 to its abolishment in 1991.
The first Bolshevik republic declared in December 1917 was called the Soviet Republic of Ukraine ("Respublyka Rad Ukrayiny").
The third Bolshevik republic of December 1919 was known as the "Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic." Its Ukrainian initials were УРСС ("URSS").
In 1936, the republic's name was changed again, along with the names of all other Soviet republics, transposing the second and third words. It would be known from 1936–91 as the "Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic," abbreviated "Ukrainian SSR, UkrSSR," or "UkSSR".
The official names in Ukrainian and Russian were:
After the break-up of the Russian Empire, several factions sought to create an independent Ukrainian state, alternately co-operating and struggling against each other. Ukrainian
Bolsheviks and Mensheviks first participated in the formation of the Ukrainian National Republic(UNR), which initially declared autonomy in 1917, and then independence in 1918.
The Bolsheviks favoured federation with Russia, but lacking broad popular support within the UNR, convened a separate congress and declared the first Soviet Republic of Ukraine on
December 25, 1917. Warfare ensued against the UNR, and a series of alliances and conflicts with anarchists and neo- haydamakbands. The Ukrainian Bolsheviks fared poorly at first, being pushed out of Ukraine altogether, and having the government dissolved for two interludes lasting several months (being reformed on November 20, 1918, and December 21, 1919). Eventually, with the support of the Red Armyand local Anarchists, the Ukrainian SSR ended up controlling much of Ukrainian territory after the Polish-Soviet Peace of Riga.
December 30, 1922, along with the Russian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian republics, the Ukrainian SSR was one of the founding members of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics(USSR). In September 1939 the territory of the Ukrainian SSR was expanded to include West Ukraine, formerly under Polish rule. In 1945 the Transcarpathia region, formerly under Czechoslovakian administration was added as well,
In 1932 the government inflicted one of the largest national catastrophes in modern history of the Ukrainian nation. A man-made famine known as the
Holodomorcaused a direct loss of human life estimated between 2.6 and 3.5 million, while numbers as high as 10 million are sometimes cited in the media.Laura Sheeter, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7111296.stm "Ukraine remembers famine horror"] , " BBC News", November 24, 2007]
The Ukrainian SSR was also the site of the
Chernobyl disasterin 1986, when a reactor at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plantmelted down and exploded, subjecting countless multitudes to radiological effects.
World War IIsome amendments to the Constitution of the Ukrainian SSR were accepted, which allowed it to act as a separate subject of international law in some cases and to a certain extent, remaining a part of the Soviet Union at the same time. In particular, these amendments allowed the Ukrainian SSR to become one of founding members of the United Nations(UN) together with the Soviet Union and the Byelorussian SSR. In reality this simply meant giving the Soviet Union extra seats (and votes) in the UN, since the Ukrainian SSR had no independent voice in international affairs. The Ukrainian SSR was renamed Ukraineon August 24, 1991. It declared its intention of leaving the Soviet Union the same day, and on December 25, 1991became fully independent following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Ukrainian:The unbreakable union of the workers, peasants and
intelligentsiais the social base of the USSR]
Leaders of the Ukrainian SSR
Terms of the leaders of the
Communist Party (Bolshevik) of Ukraine, and " de facto" leaders of the republic:
Georgy Pyatakov, 1918
Stanislav Kosior, 1919–1920
Dmitry Manuilsky, 1921–1923
Emmanuil Kviring, 1923–1925
Lazar Kaganovich, 1925–1928
# Stanislav Kosior, 1928–1938
Nikita Khrushchev, 1938–1947
# Lazar Kaganovich, 1947
# Nikita Khrushchev, 1947–1949
Leonid Melnikov, 1949–1953
Alexei Kirichenko, 1953–1957
Nikolai Podgorny, 1957–1963
Petro Shelest, 1963–1972
Volodymyr Shcherbytsky, 1972–1989
Vladimir Ivashko, 1989–1990
Stanislav Gurenko, 1990–1991
The administrative divisions of the Ukrainian SSR changed numerous times throughout its 74-year history. The most common administrative division was the
oblast( province) of which there were 25 upon the UkSSR's abolishment in 1991. Most of the UkSSR's oblasts still exist to this day as part of independent Ukraine while one changed its status to an autonomopus republic. ("").
Upon the Ukrainian SSR's formation to 1934, the republic's capital was the city of
Kharkiv(Rus. "Kharkov") located in the east of the republic. In 1934, the capital was moved from Kharkiv to Kiev(Ukr. "Kyiv"), which remains the capital of Ukraine today.
Other administrative divisions of the Ukrainian SSR included the two Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics which existed during different time periods. The
Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republicexisted from 1924-1940 until it was upgraded to that of a constituent Soviet republic in 1940.
The other ASSR was the
Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republicwhich was formed in 1991 from the former Crimean Oblast, which was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR in 1954. After Ukrainian independence, the Crimean ASSR was renamed the Crimean Autonomous Republic.
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