- Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing is a
euphemismreferring to the persecution through imprisonment, expulsion, or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity in majority-controlled territory. [ [http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ethnic%20cleansing ethnic cleansing - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary ] ] It is sometimes used interchangeably with the more connotatively severe term genocide. The term entered English and international media in the early 1990s to describe war events in the former Yugoslavia.
Synonyms include "sectarian revenge"Fact|date=February 2007 and "ethnic purification" and (in the French versions of some UN documents) "nettoyage ethnique" and "épuration ethnique". [Drazen Petrovic, [http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol5/No3/art3.html "Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology"] , "European Journal of International Law", Vol. No. 3. Retrieved 20 May 2006.]
The term ethnic cleansing has been variously defined. In the words of Andrew Bell-Fialkoff:
: [E] thnic cleansing [...] defies easy definition. At one end it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population exchange while at the other it merges with deportation and genocide. At the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing can be understood as the expulsion of a population from a given territory. [Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, " [http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19930601faessay5199/andrew-bell-fialkoff/a-brief-history-of-ethnic-cleansing.html A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing] ", Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 110, Summer 1993. Retrieved 20 May 2006.]
Drazen Petrovic has distinguished between broad and narrow definitions. Broader definitions focus on the fact of expulsion based on ethnic criteria, while narrower definitions include additional criteria: for example, that expulsions are systematic, illegal, involve gross human-rights abuses, or are connected with an ongoing internal or international war. According to Petrovic:
: [E] thnic cleansing is a well-defined policy of a particular group of persons to systematically eliminate another group from a given territory, often based on economic principles, or nationalist claims to the land. Such a policy often involves violence and is very often connected with military operations. Unlike the U.S. Indian Removal program, which purchased the land from the natives, Ethnic Cleansing is to be achieved by all possible means, from discrimination to extermination, and entails violations of human rights and international humanitarian law." [Petrovic, "Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology" p.11 [http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol5/No3/art3.pdf] and quoted by Ilan Pappe "The Ethnic cleansing of Palestine" 2006, p.1]
United Nationsdefinition of ethnic cleansing is "rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group" [Hayden, Robert M. (1996) [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0037-6779(199624)55%3A4%3C727%3ASFGECA%3E2.0.CO;2-Y Schindler's Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and Population Transfers] . " Slavic Review" 55 (4), 727-48.]
However, ethnic cleansing rarely aims at complete ethnic homogeneity. The common practice is the removal of stigmatized ethnic groups, and thus can be defined as "the forcible removal of an ethnically defined population from a given territory", occupying the middle part of a somewhat fuzzy continuum between nonviolent pressured ethnic emigration and
genocide.Martin, Terry (1998). [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-2801%28199812%2970%3A4%3C813%3ATOOSEC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing] . " The Journal of Modern History" 70 (4), 813-861.]
In reviewing the
International Court of Justice(ICJ) Bosnian Genocide Casein the judgement of Jorgic v. Germanyon 12 July2007 the European Court of Human Rightsselectively quoted from the ICJ ruling on the "Bosnian Genocide Case" to explain that "ethnic cleansing" was not enough on its own to establish that a genocide had occurred:
Origins of the term
The term "ethnic cleansing" entered the English lexicon as a loan translation of the Bosnian/Serbian/Croatian/Montenegrin phrase "etničko čišćenje" (IPA2|ětnitʃkoː tʃîʃʨeːɲe). Dubious|date=March 2008 During the 1990s it was used extensively by the media in the former Yugoslavia in relation to the
Yugoslav wars, and appears to have been popularised by the international media some time around 1992. The term may have originated some time before the 1990s in the military doctrine of the former Yugoslav People's Army, which spoke of "cleansing the field" ("čišćenje terena", IPA2|tʃîʃʨeːɲe terěːna) of enemies to take total control of a conquered area. The origins of this doctrine are unclear, but may have been a legacy of the Partizan era.
This originally applied purely to military enemies, but came to be applied to ethnic groups as well. It was used in this context in Yugoslavia as early as 1982, in relation to the policies of the
KosovoAlbanian administration creating an "ethnically clean" territory (i.e. "cleanly" Albanian) in the province. [Marvine Howe in the New York Times (July 12, 1982), quoting an Albanian official in Kosovo] However, this usage had antecedents.
Carnegie Endowment report for the Balkan Wars in 1914 points out that village-burning and ethnic cleansing have traditionally accompanied Balkan wars, regardless of ethnicities involved. In probably the earliest attestation of the term,
Vuk Karadžićmakes use of the word "cleanse" to describe what happened to the Turks in the Belgradewhen the city was captured by the Karadjordje's forces in 1806 [cite book |author=Judah, Tim |title=The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia |year=1997 |location=New Haven and London |publisher=Yale University Press|pages=pp. 75] . Konstantin Nenadovićwrote in his biography of famous Serbian leader published in 1883 that after the fighting "the Serbs, in their bitterness, slit the throats of the Turks everywhere they found them, sparing neither the wounded, nor the woman, nor the Turkish children". [cite book |author=Mirko Grmek, Marc Gjidara, Neven Simac|title=Le Nettoyage ethnique: Documents historiques sur une idéologie serbe |year=1993 |location=Paris |language=French|pages=pp. 24]
Later attestation of the term "cleansing" can be found on
May 16, 1941, during the Second World War, by one Viktor Gutić, a commander in the Croatian fascist faction, the Ustaše: "Every Croat who today solicits for our enemies not only is not a good Croat, but also an opponent and disrupter of the prearranged, well-calculated plan for cleansing " [čišćenje] " our Croatia of unwanted elements [...] ." [ [http://www.pavelicpapers.com/documents/ndhnews/ndhn0004.html Pavelicpapers.com] ] Verify credibility|date=June 2008 The Ustaše did carry out large-scale ethnic cleansing and genocideof Serbs in Croatia during the Second World War and sometimes used the term "cleansing" to describe it. [ [http://www.pavelicpapers.com/documents/ndh/ndh002.html Pavelicpapers.com] ] .
Some time later, on
30 June, 1941, Stevan Moljević, a lawyer from Banja Lukawho was an ideologue of the Chetniks, published a booklet with the title "On Our State and Its Borders". Moljević assessed the circumstances in the following manner: "One must take the opportunity of the war conditions and at a suitable moment take hold of the territory marked on the map, cleanse " [očistiti] " it before anybody notices and with strong battalions occupy the key places (...) and the territory surrounding these cities, freed of non-Serb elements. The guilty must be promptly punished and the others deported - the Croatsto Croatia, the Muslimsto Turkeyor perhaps Albania- while the vacated territory is settled with Serb refugees now located in Serbia." [ [http://www.bosnia.org.uk/bosrep/report_format.cfm?articleid=3025&reportid=169 The Moljevic Memorandum] ]
The term "cleansing", more specifically the Russian term "cleansing of borders", "ochistka granits" (очистка границ), was used in Soviet documents of early 1930s in reference to the resettlement of
Polesfrom the 22-km border zone in Byelorussian SSRand Ukrainian SSR. The process was repeated on a larger and wider scale in 1939–1941, involving many other ethnicities with cross-border ties to foreign nation-states, see Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Unionand Population transfer in the Soviet Union.
A similar term with the same intent was used by the Nazi administration in
Germanyunder Adolf Hitler. When an area under Nazi control had its entire Jewish population removed, whether by driving the population out, by deportation to Concentration Camps, and/or murder, the area was declared " judenrein", (lit. "Jew Clean"): "cleansed of Jews".(cf. racial hygiene).
Ethnic cleansing as a military and political tactic
The purpose of ethnic cleansing is to remove the conditions for potential and actual opposition, whether political, terrorist, guerrilla or military, by physically removing any potentially or actually hostile ethnic communities. Although it has sometimes been motivated by a doctrine that claim an ethnic group is literally "unclean" (as in the case of the Jews of medieval Europe), more usually it has been a rational (if brutal) way of ensuring that total control can be asserted over an area.
Ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon in the
Bosnian war. This typically entailed intimidation, forced expulsion and/or killing of the undesired ethnic group as well as the destruction or removal of the physical vestiges of the ethnic group, such as places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings. According to numerous ICTY verdicts, Serbcite web|url=http://www.un.org/icty/brdjanin/trialc/judgement/index.htm|title=ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement|] and Croatcite web|url=http://www.un.org/icty/kordic/trialc/judgement/index.htm|title=ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict|] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership in order to create ethnically pure states ( Republika Srpskaand Herzeg-Bosnia). Furthermore, Serb forces committed genocide in Srebrenica at the end of the war. [ICTY; "Address by ICTY President Theodor Meron, at Potočari Memorial Cemetery" The Hague, 23 June 2004 [http://www.un.org/icty/pressreal/2004/p860-e.htm] ]
Based on the evidence of numerous Croat forces attacks against Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks), the ICTY Trial Chamber concluded in the "Kordić and Čerkez case" that by April 1993 Croat leadership from Bosnia and Herzegovina had a common design or plan conceived and executed to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley in Central Bosnia.
Dario Kordić, as the local political leader, was found to be the planner and of this plan. cite web|url=http://www.un.org/icty/kordic/trialc/judgement/kor-tj010226e-5.htm#IVC3|title=ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict - IV. Attacks on towns and villages: killings - C. The April 1993 Conflagration in Vitez and the Lašva Valley - 3. The Attack on Ahmići (Paragraph 642)|]
In 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, armed Abkhaz separatist insurgency confronted with large population of ethnic
Georgiansimplemented the campaign of ethnic cleansing directed against ethnic Georgians (Georgians formed the single largest ethnic group in pre-war Abkhazia, with a 45.7% plurality as of 1989) of Abkhazia. [US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Abkhazia case ] As the results, more than 250,000 ethnic Georgians were forced to flee and approximately 30,000 people were killed during separate incidents involving massacres and expulsion. (see Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia) [ Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. "Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow." Gothic Image Publications, 1994. ] [ "S State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, February 1994, Chapter 17. ] The ethnic cleansing campaign against ethnic Georgians of Abkhazia was recognized by OSCE conventions in Budapest, Lisbon, Istanbul and was also mentioned in UN General Assembly Resolution GA/10708. [ [http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs//2008/ga10708.doc.htm General Assembly Adopts Resolution Recognizing Right Of Return By Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons To Abkhazia, Georgia ] ]
As a tactic, ethnic cleansing has a number of significant impact. It enables a force to eliminate civilian support for resistance by eliminating the civilians — recognizing
Mao Zedong's dictum that guerrillas among a civilian population are fish in water, it disables the fish by draining the water. When enforced as part of a political settlement, as happened with the forced resettlement of ethnic Germans to Germany after 1945, it can contribute to long-term stability. [ Judt, Tony. "Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945" Penguin Press, 2005] Some individuals of the large German population in Czechoslovakiaand prewar Polandhad been sources of friction before the Second World War, but this was forcibly resolved [ Judt, Tony. "Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945" Penguin Press, 2005. ] . It thus establishes " facts on the ground" - radical demographic changes which can be very hard to reverse.
On the other hand, ethnic cleansing is such a brutal tactic and so often accompanied by large-scale bloodshed that it is widely reviled. It is generally regarded as lying somewhere between
population transfers and genocideon a scale of odiousness, and is treated by international law as a war crime.
Ethnic cleansing as a crime under international law
There is no formal legal definition of ethnic cleansing. [ Ward Ferdinandusse, [http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol15/No5/9.pdf The Interaction of National andInternational Approaches in the Repression of International Crimes] , The European Journal of International Law Vol. 15 no.5 (2004), p. 1042, note 7.] However, ethnic cleansing in the broad sense - the forcible deportation of a population - is defined as a crime against humanity under the statutes of both
International Criminal Court(ICC) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia(ICTY). [ [http://www.un.org/law/icc/statute/99_corr/2.htm "Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court"] , Article 7; [http://www.un.org/icty/legaldoc-e/index.htm "Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia"] , Article 5.] The gross human-rights violations integral to stricter definitions of ethnic cleansing are treated as separate crimes falling under the definitions for genocide or crimes against humanity of the statutes. [Daphna Shraga and Ralph Zacklin [http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol5/No3/art4-01.html "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia"] , The European Journal of International Law Vol. 15 no.3 (2004).]
The UN Commission of Experts (established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780) held that the practices associated with ethnic cleansing "constitute crimes against humanity and can be assimilated to specific war crimes. Furthermore ... such acts could also fall within the meaning of the Genocide Convention." The UN General Assembly condemned "ethnic cleansing" and racial hatred in a 1992 resolution. [ [http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/47/a47r080.htm A/RES/47/80] ""Ethnic cleansing" and racial hatred" United Nations. 12/16/1992. Retrieved on 2006, 09-03]
There are however situations, such as the
Expulsion of Germans after World War II, where ethnic cleansing has taken place without legal redress. Timothy V. Watersargues that if similar circumstances arise in the future, this precedent would allow the ethnic cleansing of other populations under international law. [ [http://law.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4600&context=expresso Timothy V. Waters, "On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing"] , Paper 951, 2006, University of MississippiSchool of Law. Retrieved on 2006, 12-13]
ilent ethnic cleansing
Silent ethnic cleansing is a term coined in the mid-1990s by some observers of the
Yugoslav wars. Apparently concerned with Western-media representations of atrocities committed in the conflict — which generally focused on those perpetrated by the Serbs— atrocities committed against Serbs were dubbed "silent", on the grounds that they were not receiving adequate coverage. [Krauthammer, Charles: "When Serbs Are 'Cleansed,' Moralists Stay Silent", "International Herald Tribune", 12 August 1995]
Since that time, the term has been used by other ethnically oriented groups for situations that they perceive to be similar — examples include both sides in
Northern Ireland's continuing troubles, and those who object to the expulsion of ethnic Germans from former German territories during and after World War II.
Some observers, however, assert that the term should only be used to denote population changes that do not occur as the result of overt violent action, or at least not from more or less organized aggression - the absence of such stressors being the very factor that makes it "silent" (although some form of coercion must logically exist).
Instances of ethnic cleansing
This section lists incidents that have been termed "ethnic cleansing" by some academic or legal experts. Not all experts agree on every case; nor do all the claims necessarily follow definitions given in this article. Where claims of ethnic cleansing originate from non-experts (e.g., journalists or politicians) this is noted.
Neanderthals were replaced by early modern humans traveling from Africa, with some experts believing that Cro-Magnons committed a form of slow ethnic cleansing. [ [http://english.pravda.ru/science/mysteries/24-10-2007/99419-genocide-0 First genocide of human beings occurred 30,000 years ago] ] [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19990716/ai_n14258651 Science: The Neanderthal in all of us] ]
Assyriabegan to utilize mass-deportation as a punishment for rebellions since the 13th century BC. By the 9th century BC the Assyrians made it a habit of regularly deporting thousands of restless subjects to other lands.
Carthagewas completely destroyed by Rome in the Third Punic War(149-146 BC). 50,000 Carthaginians (perhaps a tenth of the original pre- warpopulation) were sold into slavery. [ [http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001198.html Ancient History] ] [ [http://www.crystalinks.com/punicwars.html Punic Wars] ]
* After conquering western
Anatoliain 88 BC, Mithridates VIreportedly ordered the killing of all Romans living there. The massacre of Roman men, women and children is known as the Asiatic Vespers. [Staff. [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-572893/Lucius-Cornelius-Sulla Mithradates VI Eupator] , Encyclopaedia Britannica., Accessed 26 December2007]
Julius Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii, the Celtic inhabitants of modern Switzerland: approximately 60% of the tribe was killed, and another 20% was taken into slavery. The remainder of the Helvetii were driven back into their old lands.
* During the war against tribes in northern Spain trying to resist the Romans, led by emperor
Augustus, the latter is acknowledged for pursuing an extermination policyFact|date=June 2008 which included cleansing of the entire adult male population of Cantabriaand Asturiasand all of its culture were forcibly shattered and replaced by Roman or pro-Roman settlers.
* The ethnic cleansing and massacres of Roman population of
Roman Britainby Celtic Britons during the Boudica's revolt, in 60-61 AD. [ [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,6903,406152,00.html Dig uncovers Boudicca's brutal streak] ]
* The Germanic
Vandalswere enslaved and deported from North Africaafter the Vandal kingdom in North Africa was defeated by a Byzantinearmy during a Vandalic Warin 533 and 534. [ [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/BURLAT/17*.html J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. II Chap. XVII] ]
* The apartheid-like system existed in early Anglo-Saxon England, which prevented the native British genes getting into the Anglo-Saxon population by restricting intermarriage and wiped out a majority of original British genes in favour of Germanic ones, according to a new study. According to research led by
University College London, Anglo-Saxon settlers enjoyed a substantial social and economic advantage over the native Celtic Britons [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/2076470.stm English and Welsh are races apart] ] who lived in what is now England, for more than 300 years from the middle of the 5th century. [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1635457 Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England] ] [ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2006/07/060721-england.html Ancient Britain Had Apartheid-Like Society, Study Suggests] ] [ [http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/genetics/dn9575-apartheid-slashed-celtic-genes-in-early-england.html 'Apartheid' slashed Celtic genes in early England] ]
St. Brice's Day massacreof 1002. The Anglo-Saxon King Ethelred the Unreadyordered the death of all the Danes living in the Kingdom of England. [ [http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e896f82e-871c-11dc-a3ff-0000779fd2ac,s01=1,stream=FTSynd.html?nclick_check=1 England’s massacre of the immigrants] ] [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/history/making_history/making_history_winter2002.shtml BBC Making History] ]
Pechenegs, nomadic Turkic peoplefrom the steppe, were nearly annihilated at the Battle of Levounionby a combined Byzantineand Cumanarmy in 1091. Attacked again in 1094 by the Cumans, many Pechenegs were slain or absorbed.
Jewswere frequently and exiled from various European countries. The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades. In the First Crusade(1096) flourishing communities on the Rhine and the Danube were utterly destroyed; see German Crusade, 1096. In the Second Crusade(1147) the Jews in Francewere subject to frequent massacres. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including in, 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1396, 100,000 Jews were expelled from France.
* Jews and
Christiansexpelled from Moroccoand Islamic Spainduring the reign of Berber dynasty of Almohadsin the 12th century. Almohads gave a choice of either death or conversion to Islam, or exile. Some, such the family of Maimonides, fled east to the more tolerant Muslim lands, while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms. [ [http://www.theforgottenrefugees.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=66&Itemid=39 The Forgotten Refugees] ] [ [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm The Almohads] ]
* At the beginning of the 13th century the eastern part of the
Islamic worldexperienced the terrifying holocaust of the Mongol invasion, which turned northern and eastern Iraninto a desert. Over much of Central Asiaspeakers of Iranian languageswere replaced by speakers of Turkic languages. [ [http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/Ibn_Battuta/Battuta's_Trip_Three.html Battuta's Travels: Part Three - Persia and Iraq] ]
conquest of Prussiawas accomplished with much bloodshed over more than 50 years, during which native Prussianswho remained unbaptised were subjugated, killed, or exiled. To replace the partially exterminated native population, the Teutonic Orderencouraged the immigrationof German colonists.
* In 1270, the Jews of
Tunisiawere required either to leave or to embrace Islam.
* The ethnic cleansing of the French from
Sicilyduring the Sicilian Vespersin 1282.
Crow Creek Massacrein 1325 was part of the ethnic cleansing of the Initial Coalescent people by the Middle Missouri villagers. [ [http://www.usd.edu/anth/crow/crow1.html Crow Creek Massacre] ]
Iraqremained predominantly Assyrian Christianuntil the destructions of Tamerlane, an Islamic conqueror of Turco-Mongoldescent, at the end of the 14th century. [ [http://www.geocities.com/somasushma/Timur4.html The annihilation of Iraq] ]
* Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the
Vietnameseexpanded southward in a process known as _vi. nam tiến ("southward expansion"). In 1471 the kingdom of Champasuffered a massive defeat by the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 Cham peoplewere either captured or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near Nha Trang. [ [http://www.cpamedia.com/history/cham_survivors/ The Chams: Survivors of a Lost Civilisation] ] [ [http://countrystudies.us/vietnam/11.htm The Le Dynasty and Southward Expansion] ]
Spain's large Muslim and Jewish minorities, inherited from that country's former Islamic kingdoms, were expelled following a Alhambra decreein 1492, while converts to Catholicism, called Moriscos or Marranos, were expelled between 1609 and 1614. [ Rezun, Miron, "Europe's Nightmare: The Struggle for Kosovo", (p. 6), Praeger/Greenwood (2001) ISBN 0-275-97072-8; Parker, Geoffrey, "Europe in Crisis", (p. 18), Blackwell Publishing (1979, 2000) ISBN 0-631-22028-3; Gadalla, Moustafa, "Egyptian Romany: The Essence of Hispania" (pp. 28-9), Tehuti Research Foundation (2004) ISBN 1-931446-19-9 ]
* The deportations of the
Armeniansby Persian Safavids, which begun in the 1530s under Tahmasp I. Between 1604 and 1605 Shah Abbas relocated some 150,000 Armenians to an area of Isfahancalled New Julfa.
* In 1622, the tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now
Virginiain the United Statesplanned the destruction of the English settlers. During the Jamestown Massacre, the Powhatanskilled 347 English settlers throughout the Virginia colony, almost one-third of the English population of first permanent English colony in the New World. [ [http://www.bookrags.com/Indian_massacre_of_1622 Around 347 people were massacred in the attack] ] However, according to international law this would not be ethnic cleansing but a legitimate attack on illegal settlers, since all civilians on occupied land are legitimate military targets, unless there was a treaty in place.
* Hundreds of thousands of
Polesand Jews had been wiped out or driven from the lands of present-day Ukraine by Zaporozhian Cossacksduring the Khmelnytsky Uprising(1648-1654). [ [http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=808&letter=C JewishEncyclopedia.com - "Cossacks' Uprising", by Herman Rosenthal] ] As a result of events during The Deluge, population of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthdropped by one-third.
* After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and Act of Settlement in 1652,
Irish Catholicshad most of their lands confiscated and were banned from living in towns for a short period. As many as 100,000 Irish men, women and children were forcibly taken to the colonies in the West Indiesand North Americaas indentured servantsor slaves. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/ashorthistory/archive/intro99.shtml BBC The curse of Cromwell] ] The contemporary commentator Prendergast reported that four fifths of Ireland's population was removed or killed and that whole counties were empty. The remaining native Irish were confined to Connachtonly and were immediately killed if found east of the River Shannon. Several thousand Irish soldiers were sold to the King of Spain, the Dutch and a Polish Privateer. The death toll could have been over 1 million.
August 10, 1680, the Pueblo Indians rose in revolt against Spanish rule. By the time the Pueblo Revoltsucceeded, the Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers and drove the surviving Europeans from New Mexico. By 1690s, certain Pueblo groups wanted the Spanish to come back to protect them against Apacheand Navajo raiders. [ [http://www.hfac.uh.edu/gl/mav1.htm Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico] ]
Kosovowas taken temporarily by the Austrian forces during the Great Turkish Warwith help of Serbian soldiers who lived in the Krajina within the Monarchy. After the Austrians retreated in 1690, hundreds of thousands of Serbs from Kosovo had to flee to Bosnia and Vojvodinato evade Ottoman reprisals.
* Conflict between Miao groups and newly arrived Han settlers increased during the 18th century under repressive economic and cultural reforms imposed by the
Qing Dynasty. This led to armed conflict and large-scale migrations continuing into the late 19th century, the period during which most Hmong peopleemigrated to Southeast Asia. [Culas & Michaud, 68–74.] [ [http://www.north-by-north-east.com/articles/04_04_1.asp The Hmong] ]
* In the
Great Expulsionof 1755, around 4000 to 5000 French Acadianswere deported from Acadia by the British; many later settled in Louisiana, where they became known as Cajuns.
* In 18th century, the
Dzungarswere annihilated by Qianlong Emperorin several campaigns. About 80% of the Dzungar population, or around 500.000 to 800.000 people, were killed during or after the Chinese conquest in 1755-1757. [ [http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20061121.163131/public/02Whole.pdf Michael Edmund Clarke, "In the Eye of Power" (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37] ] The Qing Dynastyfilled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire, but a century later the Muslim Rebellionravaged the same region.
* Expulsion and ethnic cleansing of the
St. Domingue’s 40,000 white French settlers during the Haitian Revolutionfrom 1791 to 1804. Jean-Jacques Dessalines, first ruler of an independent Haiti, declared Haiti an all black nation, slaughtered all the remaining whites on the island and forbade Caucasians from ever again owning property or land there. [http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h34-np2.html]
* Expulsion of more than a million
Crimean Tatars, Crimean Gothsand Nogaisof the Kubanand Budjaksteppes to Ottoman Empireafter the Crimean Khanatewas annexed by Russia in 1783.
* When the
Venezuelan War of Independencestarted, the Spanish enlisted the Llaneros, playing on their dislike of the "criollos" of the independence movement. José Tomás Bovesled an army of llaneros which routinely killed white Venezuelans. After several more years of war, which killed half of Venezuela's white population, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821. [ [http://www.globalpr.org/knowledge/businessguides/prlandscape-venezuela.pdf Venezuela] ] [ [http://www.venezuelanalysis.com/analysis/1491 A First-Hand Impression of the Venezuelan Opposition] ]
* In the immediate aftermath of Dom Pedro’s abdication in 1831, the poor people of color, including slaves, staged anti-Portuguese riots in the streets of
Brazil's larger cities. [ [http://isc.temple.edu/evanson/brazilhistory/Bahia.htm Rebelions in Bahia] ]
November 19 1835, the Chatham Islandswere invaded by mainland Māori. Some 300 Moriorimen, women and children were massacred and the remaining 1,300 survivors were enslaved. By 1862, only 101 Morioris were left alive. Modern inhabitants are descendants of those who invaded and conquered the archipelago in 1835. [ [http://www.newzealandatoz.com/index.php?pageid=607&PHPSESSID=1c2fab7979e45ccc7c3e7336e8636142 New Zealand A to Z | Chatham Islands] ]
* The ethnic cleansing of the light-skinned Spanish and
Mestizopeople by the Mayas from the eastern Yucatanand the territory of Quintana Rooduring the Caste War of Yucatán. The greatest success of the Maya revolt was reached in the spring of 1848, with the Europeans and Mestizos driven from most of the peninsula other than the walled cities of Campeche and Mérida and the south-west coast.
* In the United States in the 19th century there were numerous instances of relocation of Native American peoples from their traditional areas to often remote reservations elsewhere in the country, particularly in the
Indian Removalpolicy of the 1830s. The Trail of Tears, which led to the deaths of about 2,000 to 8,000 Cherokeesfrom disease, and the Long Walk of the Navajoare well-known examples. [Perdue, Theda, "Cherokee Women and the Trail of Tears" in "American Encounters: Natives and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 1500-1850", p. 526, (Routledge (UK), 2000)] [Committee on Indian Affairs, US Senate, "Cherokee Settlement and Accommodation Agreements Concerning the Navajo and Hopi Land Dispute", (US General Printing Office, 1996)] [http://www.marionkentucky.us/Marion-Kentucky-trailoftears.htm]
* The Tasmanians, estimated at 8,000 people in 1803, were reduced to a population of around 300 by 1833, although much of this has been attributed to the effect of
diseases to which they had no natural immunity (including smallpoxand syphilis) and alcoholism. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/pm/stories/s746130.htm Historian dismisses Tasmanian aboriginal genocide "myth"] ] Estimates of the total number of Tasmanian deaths at the hands of European settlers vary, with some controversial estimates ranging as low as 118 in the period from 1803 until 1847. [ [http://www.adelaideinstitute.org/Dissenters/windschuttle.htm Our history not rewritten but put right. Accusations of genocide have been based on guesswork and blatant ideology. SMH, 24 November 2002] ] This conflict is a subject of the Australian history wars.
Ainu peopleare an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern Honshū, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. As Japanese settlement expanded, the Ainu were pushed northward, until by the Meiji periodthey were confined by the government to a small area in Hokkaidō, in a manner similar to the placing of Native Americans on reservations.
* Expulsion of Turkish, Muslim, and Jewish populations from
Balkans following the independence of Balkan countries (e.g., Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria) from Ottoman Empirefrom early 1800s to early 1900. [Justin McCarthy, "Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922", (Princeton, N.J: Darwin Press, c1995]
*Expulsion of Muslim populations in
Northern Caucasusby imperial Russiathroughout 19th century. Particularly, expulsion of Circassians to Anatoliain 1864. [McCarthy, "ibid."] (see Muhajir (Caucasus)for more details)
* During the mid-19th century, the
Muslims of Chinarevolted against the Qing Dynasty, most notably in the Dungan revolt(1862-1877) and the Panthay rebellion1856-1873) in Yunnan. The Manchu government committed genocide to suppress these little known revolts. [Levene, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. I.B.Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1845110579, page 288] [Giersch, Charles Patterson. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 1845110579, page 219] [Dillon, Michael. [http://www.hsais.org/2essay0405_4.htm China’s Muslim Hui Community] . Curzon, 1999. ISBN 0700710264, page xix] killing a million people in the Panthay rebellion, [Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig,Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. LonelyPlanet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1740596870] Gernet,Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1996.ISBN 0521497124 ] and several million in the Dungan revolt. A "washing off the Muslims"(洗回 (xi Hui)) policy had been long advocated by officials in the Manchu government. [Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0295976446.]
Treaty of Neuilly(1919); Greece and Bulgaria exchange populations, with some exceptions.
* Massacres of the Turkish population by the Greek army of occupation and Greek scorched earth policy by Greek troops after their defeat in the Greco Turkish War. Massacre of Greek population and sack of Smyrna by Turkish troops.
Population exchange between Greece and Turkeyof Greeks from Turkey and of Turks from Greece after the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)as a consequence of the Treaty of Lausannein 1923.
Bolshevikregime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 Don Cossacksduring the Russian Civil War, in 1919-1920. [Kort, Michael (2001). "The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath", p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9.]
* Deportation of Poles by the
Soviet Unionfrom Belarus, Ukraineand European Russia to Kazakhstanin 1934-1938.
* Deportation of Koreans by the
Soviet Unionfrom the Russian Far Eastto Soviet Central Asiafrom September to October 1937. More than 172,000 Koreans were deported.
* The Great Repatriation of an estimated half million
Mexican Americansfrom the Southwestern United Statesto Mexicoby American INS officials during the Great Depression. Approximately 60% of those hastenily deported are naturalized citizens who lived in the US for over 10 years, and their families, including US-born children of Mexican parents. Mexican-Americans whose ancestry dated back to the 19th century pre-annexation period are racially and ethnically harassed by INS officials out of nativismand fears of a "Mexican takeover" of the American Southwest.
* Forced displacement of 150,000
Czechsafter October 1, 1938, when the German army entered the border regions of Czechoslovakiasurrendered in accordance with the Munich Agreement. [ [http://www.radio.cz/en/article/46238 Forced displacement of Czech population under Nazis in 1938 and 1943] , Radio Prague]
* The persecutions and expulsions of
Jewsin Germany, Austriaand other Nazi-controlled areas prior to the initiation of mass genocide in which 6 million Jews were killed. [Naimark, "op. cit."]
* During the Finnish occupation of
East Kareliaduring World War IIthe Russian speaking population of the city of Petrozavodskwas held in an concentration camp.
Expulsion of Poles by Germany. During World War II, Nazis planned to ethnically cleanse the whole Polish population. Eventually during Nazi occupation up to 1.6 to 2 million Poleswere expelled, not counting millions of slave labourers deported from Poland. [ [http://www.ushmm.org/education/resource/poles/poles.php?menu=/export/home/www/doc_root/education/foreducators/include/menu.txt&bgcolor=CD9544 Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era] ]
* More than 250,000
Serbswere expelled from Croatiaby the extreme nationalist Ustasheregime during the Serbian Genocide, in 1941-1945. [ [http://www1.yadvashem.org/about_yad/press_room/press_releases/croatian_president.html Ustasa, Croatian nationalist, fascist, terrorist movement created in 1930.] ]
* During WWII, in
Kosovo & Metohija, some 10,000 Serbs lost their livesSerge Krizman, Maps of Yugoslavia at War, Washington 1943.] ISBN 86-17-09287-4: Kosta Nikolić, Nikola Žutić, Momčilo Pavlović, Zorica Špadijer: Историја за трећи разред гимназије природно-математичког смера и четврти разред гимназије општег и друштвено-језичког смера, Belgrade, 2002, pg. 182] , and about 80 to 100,000 [http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199900/cmselect/cmfaff/28/28ap42.htm Annexe I] , by the Serbian Information Centre-London to a report of the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.] or more were ethnically cleansed. Hundreds of thousands more Serbs would be ethnically cleansed from Kosovo by coercion in the decades from 1945 to 1991.
* Deportation of
Volga Germans by Soviet Unionto Kazakhstan, Altai Krai, Siberia, and other remote areas, in 1941-1942.
* Deportation of
Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, and Meskhetian Turksby Soviet Unionto Central Asiaand Siberia, 1943-1944. [ [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2005/05/1350f316-420a-4a90-b42e-b59fe9fcc8e5.html 60 Years After: For Victims Of Stalin's Deportations, War Lives On] ]
* The ethnic cleansing of
Hungarians, or the massacres in Bačka by titoistpartisans during the winter of 1944-45, about 40.000 massacred. [" [http://www.hungarian-history.hu/lib/cseres/ Tibor Cseres: Serbian vendetta in Bacska] ] Afterwards, between 45-48, internation camps were set which led directly to the death of 70.000 more, of famine, frost, plagues, tortures and executions.
* The ethnic cleansing and
massacres of Poles in Volhyniaby nationalist UPA which took place in 1943 and 1944, with the bulk of victims reported for summer and autumn 1944.
* The ethnic cleansing of
Cham Albaniansfrom Southern Epirusby Greeks which took place in 1944 and 1945, circa 18,000-35000 [ Victor Roudometof, Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question, p.181-182 The figure of 30,000 is adopted from the Cham associations without checking the other sources used in the discussion in this chapter.] fled to Albania, and from several hundred to 2,800 killed.
Expulsion of Germans after World War II. From 1944 until 1948, between 13.5 and 16.5 million Germanswere expelled, evacuated or fled from Central and Eastern Europe, making this the largest single instance of ethnic cleansing in recorded history. Estimated number of those who died in the process is being debated by historians and estimated between 500,000 and 3,000,000. [" [http://cadmus.iue.it/dspace/bitstream/1814/2599/1/HEC04-01.pdf The Expulsion of 'German' Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War] ", European University Institute, Florense. EUI Working Paper HEC No. 2004/1, Edited by Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees pp. 4]
* Manchuria, under Soviet occupation following
World War IIand soon to become a battlefield between the Chinese communist forces and the Nationalist forces was home to hundreds of thousands of Japanese citizens. Koreaand Taiwan, now free from Japanese rule, and Sakhalin, under Soviet military occupation, were Japanese territories before World War II and had millions of Japanese residents. All these were now to be expelled.
* The mass deportation of Ukrainian speaking ethnic minorities from the territory of
Polandafter World War II, culminating in 1947 with the start of Operation Wisla. Millions of Poleswere simultaneously deported from the eastern territories annexed by the Soviet Union into the western territories, which Soviets transferred from Germany to Poland. By 1950, 5 million Poles had been settled in what the government called the Regained Territories.
Communistregime in Romaniabegins evictions of the Greek community, approx. 75,000 migrate.
* Mass expulsions of
Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistanto India, and of Muslimsfrom India to Pakistan. The controversy surrounding the partition of British India in 1947 [ Talbot, Ian: "India and Pakistan", (pp. 198-99), Oxford University Press (2000) ISBN 0-340-70632-5 ] , resulted in the killings of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs in riots. Well over 10 million people were violently displaced, and up to 500,000 lost their lives. However, unlike most other instances, "no government agencies" actively took part in the bloodshed, although reportedly a limited number of Indian and Pakistani troops and police posted along the border were partisan in their sympathies and abetted the rioters. Those that did not (as well as the last remaining British officers) were simply overwhelmed by the magnitude of the violence and could do little to stop it.
* After the annexation of the Muslim-ruled state of Hyderabad by India in 1948, about 7,000 Hadrami
Arabswere interned and deported from India. [ [http://www.al-bab.com/bys/articles/freitag99.htm British-Yemeni Society: Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries] ]
Palestinian exodus, in which the substantial majority of Arab Palestinians(approximately 700,000) in the areas of British Mandate of Palestinethat became part of Israelleft following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. In some instances they were forced to leave, in some they were encouraged to leave and in some they fled because of the war. [ Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. (2004) ISBN 0-521-00967-7 ] [Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948: War, Escape and the Emergence of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press. (2005) ISBN 1-84519-075-0 ] [ Ilan Pappe, Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld. (2006) ISBN 1-85168-467-0 ] . Sixty years later there are still millions of Palestinian refugees living in refugee camps in neighboring countries.
Jewish exodus from Arab lands, in which 99 percent of Jews(approximately 800,000) from Arab countries left, mostly voluntary or due to pressure from the Israeli government and international Zionist organizations, between the 1948 Arab-Israeli Warand the Six Day Warin 1967. The major populations affected were in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco. [ Itamar Levin, Locked Doors: The Seizure of Jewish Property in Arab Countries. Praeger/Greenwood. (2001) ISBN 0-275-97134-1 ] [Shohat, Ella: "Sephardim in Israel: Zionism from the Standpoint of Its Jewish Victims", Social Text, No. 19/20, (Autumn, 1988), (pp. 1-35), Duke University Press] [ Maurice Roumani, The Case of the Jews from Arab Countries: A Neglected Issue, Tel Aviv: World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries. (1977) ASIN B0006EGL5I] [ Malka Hillel Schulewitz, The Forgotten Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus from Arab Lands. London. (2001) ISBN 0-8264-4764-3] [Ran HaCohen, [http://www.antiwar.com/hacohen/h011303.html "Ethnic Cleansing: Some Common Reactions"] ]
Indonesiareceived independence from the Netherlandsin 1949, around 300.000 people, predominantly Indos or Dutch Indonesians (people of mixed Indonesian and European descent), fled or were expulsed from Indonesia. [ [http://www.dutchmalaysia.net/press/Easternization.html Easternization of the West: Children of the VOC] ]
* Displacement of
Kashmiri's who have fled the Indian military action in Kashmir, most have fled to Pakistan as well as to Britain, Canada and the USA. [ [http://www.jammu-kashmir.com/archives/archives2008/kashmir20080407b.html Kashmiri refugees denied property ownership rights in Pakistan] ] Kashmiri Hindus living in Kashmirdue to the ongoing and anti-Indian insurgency. Some 300,000 Hindus have been internally displaced from Kashmir due to the violence. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html India] , "The World Factbook". Retrieved 20 May 2006.]
*In the aftermath of the 1949 Durban Riots (an inter-racial conflict between
Zulus and Asians in South Africa), hundreds of Indians fled Cato Manor. [ [http://www.theindianstar.com/index.php?uan=5786 Current Africa race riots like 1949 anti-Indian riots: minister] , TheIndianStar.com]
* On 5 and 6 September 1955 the
Istanbul Pogromor "Septembrianá"/"Σεπτεμβριανά" was launched against the Greek population of Constantinople, it was secretly backed by the Turkish government ,some Jews and Armenians of the city were also attacked by the mob, the event contributed greatly to the gradual extinction of the Greek minority in the city and country which numbered 100,000 in 1924 after the Turko-Greek population exchange treaty and only 5000 in 2007 and was followed by the Turkish government planned expulsion of the Greek minority in the Imbrosand Tenedosislands in the period 1923-1993 ( source needed).
* On 5 July 1960, five days after the Congo gained independence from Belgium, the
Force Publiquegarrison near Léopoldvillemutinied against its white officers and attacked numerous European targets. This caused the fear amongst the approximately 100,000 whites still resident in the Congo and mass exodus from the country. [ [http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/united_nations_congo.htm ::UN:: History Learning Site] ]
*Ne Win's rise to power in 1962 and his relentless persecution of "resident aliens" (immigrant groups not recognised as citizens of the
Union of Burma) led to an exodus of some 300,000 Burmese Indiansfrom racial discrimination and particularly after wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964. [cite book|author=Martin Smith|year=1991|title=Burma - Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity|publisher=Zed Books|location=London,New Jersey|pages=43-44,98,56-57,176] [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,875949,00.html Asians v. Asians] , TIME]
*The creation of the
apartheidsystem in South Africa, which began in 1948 but reached full flower in the 1960s and 1970s, involved some ethnic cleansing, including the separation of blacks, Coloureds, and whites, as well as the creation of Bantustans, which involved forced removals of non-white populations. [ Bell, Terry: "Unfinished Business: South Africa, Apartheid and Truth", (pp. 63-4), Verso, (2001, 2003) ISBN 1-85984-545-2 ] [ Valentino, Benjamin A., "Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century", (p. 189), Cornell University Press, (2004) ISBN 0-8014-3965-5. ]
* Mass expulsion of the
pied-noirpopulation of European descent and Jews from Algeriato France. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 of these Europeans and native Jewish people left the country. [ [http://marketplace.publicradio.org/shows/2006/08/01/PM200608016.html Marketplace: Pied-noirs breathe life back into Algerian tourism] ] [ [http://lexicorient.com/e.o/pied-noir.htm Pied-Noir] ]
Blockbustingand redliningin American cities in the mid-to-late 20th century led to white flight: whites moving from inner cityAmerica to the suburbs, being replaced by African Americans.
* The ethnic cleansing of the
Arabsand Indians from Zanzibarin 1964. [ [http://channel4.empireschildren.co.uk/category/chapters/index.php?chapter=472&cat=3 Country Histories - Empire's Children] ] [ [http://whosfaultisit.blogspot.com/2006/09/homemade-genocide-arab-world-is.html Who's Fault Is It?] ]
* Some 150,000 Italians settled in
Libya, constituting about 18% of the total population. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-46562/Libya Libya - Italian colonization] ] All of Libya's Italianswere expelled from the North African country in 1970, a year after Muammar al-Gaddafiseized power (a "day of vengeance" on 7 October, 1970). [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/4380360.stm Libya cuts ties to mark Italy era ] ]
* By 1969, more than 350,000
Salvadorans were living in Honduras. In 1969, Honduras enacted a new land reform law. This law took land away from Salvadoran immigrants and redistributed this land to native-born Honduran peoples. Thousands of Salvadorans were displaced by this law (see Football War).
* During the
Bangladesh War of Independenceof 1971 around 10 million Bengalisfled the country to escape the killings and atrocities committed by the PakistanArmy.
* The forced expulsion of
Uganda's entire Asian population by Idi Amin's regime. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/7/newsid_2492000/2492333.stm 1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda] ]
*The ethnic cleansing between 1963–1974 of
Turkish Cypriotsby Greek Cypriots and Greek military forces. [ [http://www.mediaprof.org/tcvoices/trnchist/trnccr74.html TRNC: Chronology - 1963-1974 ] ]
* The ethnic cleansing in 1974-76 of the Greek population of the areas under Turkish military occupation in
Cyprusduring and after the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus[ [http://www.lobbyforcyprus.org/press/press1998-1940/suntimes230177.htm Turkish invasion of Cyprus ] ] .
* Following the U.S. withdrawal from
Vietnamin 1975, the Lao kingdom was overthrown by the communists and the Hmong peoplebecame targets of retaliation and persecution. Thousands made the trek to and across the Mekong Riverinto Thailand, often under attack. This marked the beginning of a mass exodus of Hmong people from Laos.
Khmer Rougeregime in Cambodiadisproportionately targeted ethnic minority groups. These included ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai. In the late 1960s, an estimated 425,000 ethnic Chinese lived in Cambodia, but by 1984, as a result of Khmer Rouge genocideand emigration, only about 61,400 Chinese remained in the country. The Cham Muslims suffered serious purges with as much as half of their population exterminated. A Khmer Rouge order stated that henceforth “The Cham nation no longer exists on Kampuchean soil belonging to the Khmers” (U.N. Doc. A.34/569 at 9). [ [http://www.ppu.org.uk/genocide/g_cambodia1.html Genocide - Cambodia] ] [ [http://www.genocidewatch.org/aboutgenocide/stantoncambodianlaw.htm The Cambodian Genocide and International Law] ] [ [http://www.country-studies.com/cambodia/the-chinese.html Cambodia the Chinese] ]
* Subsequent waves of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya fled
Burmaand many refugees inundated neighbouring Bangladesh including 250,000 in 1978 as a result of the King Dragon operation in Arakan.
Sino-Vietnamese Warresulted in the discrimination and consequent migration of Vietnam's ethnic Chinese. Many of these people fled as " boat people". In 1978-79, some 450,000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees (many officially encouraged and assisted) or were expelled across the land border with China.
* Aftermath of
Indira Gandhiassassination in 1984 Oct 31, the ruling party Indian National Congresssupporters formed large mobs and killed around 3000 Sikhsaround Delhi which is known as the Anti Sikh Riotsduring the next four days. The mobs using the support of ruling party leaders used the Election voting list to identify Sikhs and kill them.
* At least one million Iraqi
Kurdswere displaced and an estimated 100,000-200,000 killed during the Al-Anfal Campaign(1986-1989).
Nagorno Karabakhconflict has resulted in the displacement of population from both sides. 528,000 Azerbaijanisfrom Nagorno Karabakh Armenian controlled territories including Nagorno-Karabakh, and 185,000Building Security in Europe's New Borderlands, Renata Dwan, M.E. Sharpe (1999) p. 148] to 220,000 Azeris, 18,000 Kurds and 3,500 Russians fled from Armeniato Azerbaijan from 1988 to 1989. [De Waal, "Black Garden", p. 285] 280,000 to 304,000 persons—virtually all ethnic Armenians—fled Azerbaijanduring the 1988–1993 war over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh. [ [http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/usazerb/refugees.htm Refugees and displaced persons in Azerbaijan] ]
* Since April 1989, some 70,000 black Mauritanians -- members of the
Peul, Wolof, Soninkeand Bambaraethnic groups -- have been expelled from Mauritaniaby the Mauritanian government. [ [http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?ReportId=70522 Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance] ]
* In 1989, after bloody pogroms against the
Meskhetian Turksby Uzbeksin Central Asia's Ferghana Valley, nearly 90,000 Meskhetian Turks left Uzbekistan. [ [http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=28663 Focus on Mesketian Turks] ] [ [http://www.cal.org/co/pdffiles/mturks.pdf Meskhetian Turk Communities around the World] ]
* In 1991, following a crackdown on Rohingya Muslims in
Myanmar, 250,000 refugees took shelter in the Cox's Bazardistrict of neighbouring Bangladesh. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7019882.stm Burmese exiles in desperate conditions] , BBC News]
* As a result of
1991–1992 South Ossetia War, about 100,000 ethnic Ossetiansfled South Ossetiaand Georgia proper, most across the border into North Ossetia. A further 23,000 ethnic Georgiansfled South Ossetia and settled in other parts of Georgia. [ Human Rights Watch/Helsinki, [http://hrw.org/reports/1996/Russia.htm RUSSIA. THE INGUSH-OSSETIAN CONFLICT IN THE PRIGORODNYI REGION] , May 1996.] According to Helsinki Watch, the campaign of ethnic-cleansing was orchestrated by the Ossetian militants, during the events of Ossetian–Ingush conflict, which resulted in expulsionof approximately 60,000 Ingushinhabitants from Prigorodny District. [Russia: The Ingush-Ossetian Conflict in the Prigorodnyi Region (Paperback) by Human Rights Watch Helsinki Human Rights Watch (April 1996) ISBN 1564321657]
* The widespread ethnic cleansing accompanying the
Yugoslav warsfrom 1991 to 1999, of which the most significant examples occurred in eastern Croatiaand self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina(1991-1995) (see Operation Storm), in most of Bosnia (1992-1995), and in the Albanian-dominated breakaway Kosovoprovince (of Serbia) (1999). Large numbers of Serbs, Croats, Bosniaksand Albanianswere forced to flee their homes and expelled. [Committee on Foreign Relations, US Senate, "The Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnia-Hercegovina", (US General Printing Office, 1992)] Beginning in 1991, political upheavals in the Balkansdisplaced about 2,700,000 people by mid-1992, of which over 700,000 of them sought asylum in Europe. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/specials/bosnia/context/dayton.html Bosnia: Dayton Accords] ] [ [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C07E3D61339F937A15752C1A963958260&n=Top/Reference/Times%20Topics/Subjects/I/Immigration%20and%20Refugees Resettling Refugees: U.N. Facing New Burden] ]
* The forced displacement and ethnic-cleansing of more than 250,000 people, mostly
Georgiansbut some others too, from Abkhaziaduring the conflict and after in 1993 and 1998. [ Bookman, Milica Zarkovic, "The Demographic Struggle for Power", (p. 131), Frank Cass and Co. Ltd. (UK), (1997) ISBN 0-7146-4732-2 ]
* The 1994 massacres of nearly 1,000,000
Tutsisby Hutus, known as the Rwandan Genocide[ Leeder, Elaine J., "The Family in Global Perspective: A Gendered Journey", (p. 164-65), Sage Publications, (2004) ISBN 0-7619-2837-5 ] [better citation needed]
* The mass expulsion of southern
Lhotshampas (Bhutanese of Nepalese origin) by the northern Drukmajority of Bhutanin 1990. [ [http://www.voanews.com/uspolicy/2006-10-19-voa1.cfm Voice of America (18 October 2006)] ] The number of refugees is approximately 103,000. [ [http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/publ/opendoc.htm?tbl=PUBL&id=4444d3c93e UNHCR Publication (State of the world refugees)] ]
* An estimated 1,000
Tamil peoplewere killed, tens of thousands of houses were destroyed by the Sinhalese-dominated government of Sri Lankain what is commonly known as Black July.The murder, looting and general destruction of property was well organized. Mobs armed with petrol were seen stopping passing motorists at critical street junctions and, after ascertaining the ethnic identity of the driver and passengers, setting alight the vehicle with the driver and passengers trapped within it. Mobs were also seen stopping buses to identify Tamil passengers and subsequently these passengers were knifed, clubbed to death or burned alive.
* Displacement of more than 500,000 Chechen and ethnic Russian civilians living in
Chechnyaduring the First Chechen Warin 1994-1996. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/chechnya1.htm First Chechnya War] ] [ [http://www.jamestown.org/edm/article.php?article_id=2369902 Ethnic Russians in the North of Caucasus - Eurasia Daily Monitor] ] [ [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/0/bb82d320aa527436c1256c560037d0a6?OpenDocument&Click= Chechen census fiasco] ]
Jakarta riots of May 1998targeted many Chinese Indonesians. Suffering from lootings and arsons, many Chinese Indonesians fled from Indonesia. [ [http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/asiapcf/9808/29/indonesia.riot/ Anti-Chinese riots continue in Indonesia] , August 29, 1998, CNN] [ [http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_41/b3702149.htm Wages of Hatred] , Business Week]
* More than 800,000 Kosovar
Albaniansfled their homes in Kosovoduring the Kosovo Warin 1998-9, after being expelled. Although on the contrary over 200,000 Serbsand other non-Albanian minorities were forced out of Kosovo during and after the war while most Albaniansreturned. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/serbia/article/0,,1713498,00.html Serbia threatens to resist Kosovo independence plan] ] [ [http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/03/18/serbia8129.htm Kosovo/Serbia: Protect Minorities from Ethnic Violence (Human Rights Watch)] ]
* There have been serious outbreaks of inter-ethnic
violenceon the island of Kalimantan since 1997, involving the indigenous Dayak peoples and immigrants from the island of Madura. In 2001 in the Central Kalimantantown of Sampit, at least 500 Madurese were killed and up to 100,000 Madurese were forced to flee. Some Madurese bodies were decapitated in a ritual reminiscent of the headhuntingtradition of the Dayaks of old. [ [http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/natres/timber/2001/0301brno.htm Behind Ethnic War, Indonesia's Old Migration Policy] ]
* In 2003, Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of
Mbuti Pygmies, told the UN's Indigenous People's Forum that during the Congo Civil War, his people were hunted down and eaten as though they were game animals. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. Makelo asked the UN Security Councilto recognise cannibalismas a crime against humanity and an act of genocide. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3869489.stm DR Congo pygmies 'exterminated'] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/2933524.stm DR Congo Pygmies appeal to UN] ]
* In the late-1990s and early 2000s,
paramilitariesorganized and armed by the Indonesian military and police forces murdered large numbers of civilians in East Timor. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/1999/04/29/edjose.2.t.php Yes to Kosovo, No to East Timor? - International Herald Tribune ] ] [ [http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/stories/s50444.htm 7.30 Report - 8/9/1999: Ethnic cleansing will empty East Timor if no aid comes: Belo ] ] [ [http://www.alternet.org/columnists/story/1096/ U.S. Fiddles While East Timor Burns | AlterNet ] ] [James M. Lutz, Brenda J. Lutz, " [http://books.google.com/books?id=1gW12Wdr1QsC&pg=RA1-PA209&lpg=RA1-PA209&dq=east+timor+ethnic+cleansing&source=web&ots=H6lg4hL9Du&sig=Ha2vDTPiYCdc2iNMl4oKGYjzoiI Global Terrorism] "] [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/1999/09/990908-timor7.htm Outrage Over East Timor ] ] [ [http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3476806.html Hoover Institution - Hoover Digest - Why East Timor Matters ] ] [ [http://media.www.westernherald.com/media/storage/paper881/news/2004/05/10/Opinion/We.Cannot.Look.The.Other.Way.On.Ethnic.Cleansing-2124595.shtml We cannot look the other way on ethnic cleansing - Opinion ] ]
* Since the mid-1990s the central government of
Botswanahas been trying to move Bushmenout of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. As of October 2005, the government has resumed its policy of forcing all Bushmen off their lands in the Game Reserve, using armed police and threats of violence or death.cite web |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/10/29/wbot29.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/10/29/ixworld.html
title=Bushmen forced out of desert after living off land for thousands of years |publisher=The Daily Telegraph |accessdate=2005-10-29] Many of the involuntarily displaced Bushmen live in squalid resettlement camps and some have resorted to
prostitutionand alcoholism, while about 250 others remain or have surreptitiously returned to the Kalaharito resume their independent lifestyle. [ [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/09/0914_040914_labushmen_2.html African Bushmen Tour U.S. to Fund Fight for Land] ] “How can we continue to have Stone Agecreatures in an age of computers?“ asked Botswana’s president Festus Mogae. [ [http://www.motherjones.com/news/dispatch/2005/01/01_800.html Exiles of the Kalahari] ] [ [http://www.survival-international.org/news/1454 UN condemns Botswana government over Bushman evictions] ]
* Expulsion of white farmers by the Mugabe regime in
Zimbabwein 2000. There were 270,000 whites in Zimbabwe(when the country was known as Rhodesia) in 1970. There are only a few thousand whites left in Zimbabwe today.
* The removal of around 8,500 Jews (including the forced removal of about half of them) [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4159958.stm 'Israel evicts Gaza Strip settlers'] , BBC News Online,
17 August, 2005.] from the Gaza Strip, and around 660 from four small settlements in the West Bank, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4172694.stm 'Settlers and army clash in W Bank'] , BBC News Online, 22 August, 2005.] in 2005 through the implementation of Israel's unilateral disengagement plan. [Robinson, Eugene. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/08/18/AR2005081801642.html "Betrayed in Gaza"] , " Washington Post", August 19, 2005.] [Klein, Morton A. [http://www.jewishjournal.com/home/preview.php?id=11876 "Gaza Withdrawal Rewards Terrorism"] , " The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles" February 27, 2004.] [Jacoby, Jeff. [http://www.jewishworldreview.com/jeff/jacoby_2005_04_01.php3 "Sharon's retreat is a victory for terrorists"] , "Jewish World Review", April 1, 2005.] [Gross, Tom. [http://www.tomgrossmedia.com/ExodusFromGaza.html Exodus From Gaza] Tom Gross Mid-East Media Analysis. Retrieved November 4, 2006.]
* Attacks by the
Janjaweed, militias of Sudanon the Africanpopulation of Darfur, a region of western Sudan. [ Collins, Robert O., "Civil Wars and Revolution in the Sudan: Essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan, and Darfur, 1962-2004", (p. 156), Tsehai Publishers (US), (2005) ISBN 0-9748198-7-5 .] [Power, Samantha "Dying in Darfur: Can the ethnic cleansing in Sudan be stopped?" [http://www.newyorker.com/fact/content/?040830fa_fact1] , "The New Yorker", 30 August 2004.Human Rights Watch, [http://hrw.org/english/docs/2004/05/05/darfur8536.htm "Q & A: Crisis in Darfur"] (web site, retrieved 24 May 2006).Hilary Andersson, [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/3752871.stm "Ethnic cleansing blights Sudan"] , "BBC News", 27 May 2004.] A July 14 2007article notes that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chadand Nigercrossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by the Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. Some 2.5 million have now been forced to flee their homes after attacks by Sudanese troops and Janjaweed militia. [ [http://news.independent.co.uk/world/africa/article2768232.ece Arabs pile into Darfur to take land 'cleansed' by janjaweed] ]
*Currently in the
Iraq Civil War(2003 to present), entire neighborhoods in Baghdadare being ethnically cleansed by Shiaand SunniMilitias. [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/iraq-is-disintegrating-as-ethnic-cleansing-takes-hold-478937.html Iraq is disintegrating as ethnic cleansing takes hold] ] [ [http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/784/sc4.htm "There is ethnic cleansing"] ] Some areas are being evacuated by every member of a particular secular group due to lack of security, moving into new areas because of fear of reprisal killings. As of June 21 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugeesestimated that 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 2 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/meast/06/20/damon.iraqrefugees/index.html Iraq refugees chased from home, struggle to cope] ] [ [http://www.boston.com/news/world/middleeast/articles/2006/11/03/un_nearly_100000_flee_iraq_monthly/ U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly] . Alexander G. Higgins, " Boston Globe," November 3, 2006] [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/05/30/world/middleeast/30mosul.html?hp In North Iraq, Sunni Arabs Drive Out Kurds] ]
Iraqi Christiansrepresent less than 5% of the total Iraqi population, they make up 40% of the refugeesnow living in nearby countries, according to UNHCR. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2007-03-22-christians-iraq_N.htm Christians, targeted and suffering, flee Iraq] ] [ [http://www.asianews.it/index.php?l=en&art=7410 IRAQ Terror campaign targets Chaldean church in Iraq - Asia News ] ] In the 16th century, Christians constituted half of Iraq's population. [ [http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/iraq?page=news&id=461e5a644 UNHCR | Iraq] ] In 1987, the last Iraqi census counted 1.4 million Christians. [ [http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=61897 Christians live in fear of death squads] ] But as the 2003 invasion has reawakened Islamic sensibilities, Christians' total numbers slumped to about 500,000, of whom 250,000 live in Baghdad. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/pope/story/0,,1961207,00.html Jonathan Steele: While the Pope tries to build bridges in Turkey, the precarious plight of Iraq's Christians gets only worse | World news | guardian.co.uk ] ] Furthermore, the Mandaean and Yazidicommunities are at the risk of elimination due to the ongoing atrocities by Islamic extremists. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6412453.stm Iraq's Mandaeans 'face extinction'] ] [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20294868/ Iraq's Yazidis fear annihilation] ] A May 25 2007article notes that in the past 7 months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States. [Ann McFeatters: [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/317322_mcfeatters27.html Iraq refugees find no refuge in America] . " Seattle Post-Intelligencer" May 25, 2007]
* The ethnic cleansing of
African Americanpopulation of some racially mixed Los Angelesneighborhoods by Mexican street gangs. According to gang experts and law enforcement agents the Mexican Mafialeaders, or shot callers, have issued a "green light" on all blacks. [ [http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/opinion/la-op-hernandez7jan07,1,414328.story?coll=la-news-comment&ctrack=1&cset=true Roots of Latino/black anger] ] [ [http://www.alternet.org/story/46855/ Ethnic Cleansing in L.A.] ] [ [http://www.blackamericaweb.com/site.aspx/bawnews/stateof/hutchinson105 Thanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter] ] [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/01/23/wgangs23.xml FBI called to deal with 'race' gang violence] ] [ [http://observer.guardian.co.uk/world/story/0,,2036580,00.html A bloody conflict between Hispanic and black gangs is spreading across Los Angeles] ]
*In October 2006,
Nigerannounced that it would deport the Arabsliving in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6087048.stm Niger starts mass Arab expulsions] ] This population numbered about 150,000. [ [http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L25138454.htm Reuters Niger's Arabs say expulsions will fuel race hate] ] While the government was rounding Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government had eventually suspended a controversial decision to deport Arabs. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6081416.stm Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion] ] [ [http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/refworld/rwmain?docid=469638881e UNHCR | Refworld - The Leader in Refugee Decision Support] ]
*In 1950, the Karen had become the largest of 20 minority groups participating in an insurgency against the
military dictatorshipin Burma. The conflict continues as of 2008. In 2004, the BBC, citing aid agencies, estimates that up to 200,000 Karen have been driven from their homes during decades of war, with 120,000 more refugees from Burma, mostly Karen, living in refugee camps on the Thai side of the border. Many accuse the military government of Burma of ethnic cleansing. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4987224.stm Burma Karen families 'on the run'] , BBC News] As a result of the ongoing war in minority group areas more than two million people have fled Burma to Thailand. [ [http://www.refugeesinternational.org/content/article/detail/1142/?PHPSESSID=3fc64258eda9d44c2 " Human Rights in Burma: Fifteen Years Post Military Coup "] , Refugees International]
*Civil unrest in Kenya erupted in December 2007. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2008-01-30-kenya-violence_N.htm U.S. envoy calls violence in Kenya 'ethnic cleansing'] ] By
January 28, 2008, the death toll from the violence was at around 800. [ [http://english.aljazeera.net/NR/exeres/CA34AA32-041D-497D-BE2B-A463562C6FFF.htm Al Jazeera English - News - Kenya Ethnic Clashes Intensify ] ] The United Nations estimated that as many as 600,000 people have been displaced. [ [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/02/11/world/main3815702.shtml U.N.: 600,000 Displaced In Kenya Unrest] ] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7174670.stm BBC NEWS | Africa | Kenya opposition cancels protests ] ] A government spokesman claimed that Odinga's supporters were "engaging in ethnic cleansing". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7167363.stm BBC NEWS | Africa | Kenya diplomatic push for peace ] ]
2008 attacks on North Indians in Maharashtrabegan on February 3, 2008. Incidences of violence against North Indians and their property were reported in Bombay, Pune, Aurangabad, Beed, Nashik, Amravati, Jalna and Latur. Nearly 25,000 North Indian workers fled Pune,cite news|url=http://www.expressindia.com/latest-news/25-000-North-Indian-workers-leave-Pune/276576/3/|accessdate=2008-04-06|title=25000 North Indian workers leave Pune|publisher=" Indian Express"] cite news|title=25000 North Indians leave, Pune realty projects hit|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/25000_North_Indians_leave_Pune_realty_projects_hit_/articleshow/2809937.cms|accessdate=2008-04-04|publisher=" Times of India"] and another 15,000 fled Nashik in the wake of the attacks.cite news|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/2780795.cms|accessdate=2008-04-06|publisher=" Times of India"|date=2008-02-14|title=Maha exodus: 10,000 north Indians flee in fear] cite news|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/feb/13nasik1.htm|accessdate=2008-04-06|title=MNS violence: North Indians flee Nashik, industries hit|date=2008-02-13|publisher= Rediff]
*South Africa Ethnic Cleansing erupted on 11 May 2008 within three weeks [http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=78458 80 000 were displaced] the death toll was [http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/Xenophobia/0,,2-7-2382_2332419,00.html 62,] with 670 injured by the violence when South Africans ejected non-nationals in a nationwide ethnic cleansing / Xenophobic outburst ejecting the "makwerekwere" [http://www.thoughtleader.co.za/mandelarhodesscholars/2008/05/15/on-makwerekwere/ BLACKer Africans] . The most affected have been Zimbabweans (30 000), Mozambiqueans (20 000 have returned to Mozambique), Somalians, Ethiopians, Congolese, Angolans. Local South Africans have also been caught up in the violence and so have other non-African nationals. [http://www.iol.co.za/index.php?set_id=1&click_id=13&art_id=vn20080528060919101C395802 Refugee camps a mistake] Arvin Gupta, a senior UNHCR protection officer, said the UNHCR did not agree with the City of Cape Town that those displaced by the violence should be held at camps across the city.
In the book, the
Telmarinestrying to wipe out the Narniansis a form of ethnic cleansing.
Forced settlements in the Soviet Union
Civilian casualties, civilian, non-combatant persons killed or injured by direct military action
Crime against humanity
* Ethnic Cleansing, a computer game.
German exodus from Eastern Europe
World War II evacuation and expulsion
List of events named massacres
List of wars and disasters by death toll
Caste War of Yucatán
* 1989 events
* Partition of India
1971 Bangladesh atrocities
Persecution of Hindus
Persecution of Muslims
Expulsion of Asians in Uganda in 1972
Population transfer in the Soviet Union
Polish minority in the Soviet Union
Refugees of Iraq
* [http://www.warcrimes.info/ Documents and Resources on War, War Crimes and Genocide]
* [http://www.ryanspencerreed.com/ Photojournalist's Account] - Images of ethnic cleansing in Sudan
* [http://law.bepress.com/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4600&context=expresso Timothy V. Waters, "On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing"] , Paper 951, 2006,
University of MississippiSchool of Law (PDF)
* [http://learning.lib.vt.edu/slav/genocide.html Genocides and Ethnic Cleansings of Central and East Europe, the Former USSR, the Caucasus and Adjacent Middle East -- 1890 - 2007]
* [http://www.koteka.net/ Ethnic Cleansing in West Papua]
* [http://www.world-science.net/exclusives/070525_ethnic-cleansing.htm "Dump the “ethnic cleansing” jargon, group implores"]
May 31 2007, World Science
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