Promotional image from the 2011 crossover event
"X-Men Regenesis". Pictured, the various X-books and parts of their respective line-ups going into the event.
Art by Nick Bradshaw (Gold) and Dale Keown (Blue).
Publication information Publisher Marvel Comics First appearance The X-Men #1 (Sept. 1963) Created by Stan Lee
In-story information Base(s) Utopia
Jean Grey School for Higher Learning
Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters
Xavier Institute for Higher Learning
Namor the Sub-Mariner
Dr. Cecilia Reyes
Roster See:List of X-Men members
The X-Men are a superhero team in the Marvel Comics Universe. They were created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, and first appeared in The X-Men #1 (September 1963). The basic concept of the X-Men is that under a cloud of increasing anti-mutant sentiment, Professor Xavier created a haven at his Westchester mansion to train young mutants to use their powers for the benefit of humanity, and to prove mutants can be heroes. Xavier recruited Cyclops, Iceman, Angel, Beast, and Marvel Girl, calling them "X-Men" because they possess special powers due to their possession of the "X-gene," a gene which normal humans lack and which gives mutants their abilities. Early on, however, the "X" in X-Men stood for "extra" power which normal humans lacked. It was also alluded to that mutations occurred as a result of radiation exposure.
The first issue also introduced the team's archenemy, Magneto, who would continue to battle the X-Men for decades throughout the comic's history, both on his own and with his Brotherhood of Mutants (introduced in issue #4). The X-Men universe also includes such notable heroes as Wolverine, Storm, Emma Frost, Colossus, Nightcrawler, Shadowcat, Rogue and Gambit. Besides the Brotherhood of Mutants, other villains that the X-Men have fought include the Sentinels, Apocalypse, Mister Sinister, and the Hellfire Club.
Creator Stan Lee devised the series title after Marvel publisher Martin Goodman turned down the initial name, "The Mutants", stating that readers would not know what a "mutant" was. Within the Marvel Universe, the X-Men are widely regarded to have been named after Professor Xavier himself. Xavier however claims that the name "X-Men" was never chosen to be a self-tribute. The name is also linked to the "X-Gene," an unknown gene that causes the mutant evolution.
Early X-Men issues introduced the team's archenemy Magneto and his Brotherhood of Evil Mutants featuring Mastermind, Quicksilver, Scarlet Witch, and Toad. The comic focused on a common human theme of good versus evil and later included storylines and themes about prejudice and racism, all of which have persisted throughout the series in one form or another. The evil side in the fight was shown in human form and under some sympathetic beginnings via Magneto, a character who was later revealed to have survived Nazi concentration camps only to pursue a hatred for normal humanity. His key followers, Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch, were Roma (gypsies). Only one new member of the X-Men was added, Mimic/Calvin Rankin, but soon left due to his temporary loss of power.
The title lagged in sales behind Marvel's other comic franchises. In 1969, writer Roy Thomas and illustrator Neal Adams rejuvenated the comic book and gave regular roles to two recently introduced characters: Havok/Alex Summers (who had been introduced by Roy Thomas before Adams began work on the comic) and Lorna Dane, later called Polaris (created by Arnold Drake and Jim Steranko). However, these later X-Men issues failed to attract sales and Marvel stopped producing new stories with issue #66, later reprinting a number of the older comics as issues #67–93.
In Giant-Size X-Men #1 (1975), writer Len Wein and artist Dave Cockrum introduced a new team that then starred in a revival of The X-Men, beginning with issue #94. This new team, however, differed greatly from the original. Unlike in the early issues of the original series, the new team was not made up of teenagers and they also had a more diverse background. Each was from a different country with varying cultural and philosophical beliefs, and all were already well-versed in using their mutant powers, several being experienced in combat. The "all-new, all-different X-Men" were led by Cyclops from the original team and consisted of the newly created Colossus (from the Soviet Union), Nightcrawler (from West Germany), Storm (from Kenya), and Thunderbird (a Native American from the Apache nation), along with three previously introduced characters, Banshee (from Ireland), Sunfire (from Japan), and Wolverine (from Canada), who eventually became the breakout character on the team and, in terms of comic sales and appearances, the most popular X-Men character. A revamped Jean Grey soon rejoined the X-Men as the popular Phoenix; Angel, Beast, Havok, and Polaris also made significant guest appearances.
The revived series was illustrated by Cockrum, and later by John Byrne, and written by Chris Claremont. Claremont became the series' longest-running contributor. The run met with critical acclaim and produced such early storylines as the death of Thunderbird, the return of the Sentinels and the emergence of Phoenix, the saga of the Starjammers and the fight for control of the M'Kraan Crystal, the resurrection of Garokk the Petrified Man, the introduction of Alpha Flight and the Proteus saga. Other characters introduced during this time include Amanda Sefton, Multiple Man, Mystique, and Moira MacTaggert with her genetic research facility on Muir Island.
The 1980s began with the comic's best-known story arc, the Dark Phoenix Saga, which saw Phoenix manipulated by the illusionist Mastermind and becoming corrupted with an overwhelming lust for power and destruction as the evil Dark Phoenix. Other important storylines included Days of Future Past, the saga of Deathbird and the Brood, the discovery of the Morlocks, the invasion of the Dire Wraiths and The Trial of Magneto, as well as X-Men: God Loves, Man Kills, the partial inspiration for the 2003 movie X2: X-Men United.
By the early 1980s, X-Men was Marvel's top-selling comic title. The growing popularity of Uncanny X-Men and the rise of comic book specialty stores led to the introduction of a number of ongoing spin-off series nicknamed "X-Books." The first of these was The New Mutants, soon followed by Alpha Flight, X-Factor, Excalibur, and a solo Wolverine title. This plethora of X-Men-related titles led to the rise of crossovers (sometimes called "X-Overs"); story lines which would overlap into several X-Books. Notable crossovers of the time included the Mutant Massacre, Fall of the Mutants, and Inferno.
Throughout the decade, Uncanny X-Men was written solely by Chris Claremont, and illustrated for long runs by John Byrne, Dave Cockrum, Paul Smith, John Romita, Jr., and Marc Silvestri. Additions to the X-Men during this time were Kitty Pryde/Shadowcat, Dazzler, Forge, Longshot, Psylocke, Rogue, Rachel Summers/Phoenix, and Jubilee. In a controversial move, Professor X relocated to outer space to be with Lilandra, Majestrix of the Shi'ar Empire, in 1986. Magneto then joined the X-Men in Xavier's place and became the director of the New Mutants. This period also included the emergence of the Hellfire Club, the arrival of the mysterious Madelyne Pryor, and the villains Apocalypse, Mister Sinister, Mojo, and Sabretooth.
In 1991, Marvel revised the entire lineup of X-Books, centered on the launch of a second X-Men series, simply titled X-Men. With the return of Xavier and the original X-Men to the team, the roster was split into two strike forces: Cyclops' "Blue Team" (chronicled in X-Men) and Storm's "Gold Team" (in Uncanny X-Men).
Its first issues were written by longstanding X-Men writer Chris Claremont and drawn and co-plotted by Jim Lee. Retailers pre-ordered this book at 8 million copies, but probably sold closer to 3 million copies. Another new X-book released at the time was X-Force, featuring the characters from The New Mutants, led by Cable; it was written by Rob Liefeld and Fabian Nicieza. Internal friction soon split the X-books' creative teams. In a controversial move, X-Men editor Bob Harras sided with Lee (and Uncanny X-Men artist Whilce Portacio) over Claremont in a dispute over plotting. Claremont left after only three issues of X-Men, ending his 16-year run as X-Men writer. Marvel replaced Claremont briefly with John Byrne, who scripted both books for a few issues. Byrne was then replaced by Nicieza and Scott Lobdell, who would take over the majority of writing duties for the X-Men until Lee's own departure months later when he and several other popular artists (including former X-title artists Liefeld, Portacio, and Marc Silvestri) would leave Marvel to form Image Comics. Jim Lee's X-Men designs would be the basis for much of the X-Men animated series and action figure line as well as several Capcom video games.
The 1990s saw an even greater number of X-books with numerous ongoing series and miniseries running concurrently. Notable story arcs of this time are "The X-Tinction Agenda" in 1990, "The Muir Island Saga" in 1991, "X-Cutioner's Song" in 1992, "Fatal Attractions" in 1993, "Phalanx Covenant" in 1994, "Legion Quest"/"Age of Apocalypse" in 1995, "Onslaught" in 1996, and "Operation: Zero Tolerance" in 1997. There were many new popular additions to the X-Men including Cable, Bishop, and Gambit — who became one of the most popular X-Men (rivaling even Wolverine in size of fanbase), but many of the later additions to the team came and went (Joseph, Maggott, Marrow, Cecilia Reyes, and a new Thunderbird). Xavier's New Mutants grew up and became X-Force, and the next generation of students began with Generation X, featuring Jubilee and other teenage mutants led and schooled by Banshee and former villainess Emma Frost at her Massachusetts Academy. In 1998, Excalibur and X-Factor ended and the latter was replaced with Mutant X, starring Havok stranded in a parallel universe. Marvel launched a number of solo series, including Deadpool, Cable, Bishop, X-Man, and Gambit, but few of the series would survive the decade.
In the 2000s, Claremont returned to Marvel and was put back on the primary X-Men titles during the Revolution event. He was soon removed from the two flagship titles in early 2001 and created his own spin-off series, X-Treme X-Men, which debuted a few months after his departure.
X-Men had its title changed at this time to New X-Men and new writer Grant Morrison took over. This era is often referred to as the Morrison-era, due to the drastic changes he made to the series, beginning with "E Is For Extinction," where a new villainess, Cassandra Nova, destroys Genosha, killing sixteen million mutants. Morrison also brought reformed ex-villainess Emma Frost into the primary X-Men team, and opened the doors of the school by having Xavier "out" himself to the public about being a mutant. The bright spandex costumes that had become iconic over the previous decades were also gone, replaced by black leather street clothes reminiscent of the uniforms of the X-Men movies. Morrison also added a new character, Xorn, who would figure prominently in the climax of the writer's run. In the meantime, Ultimate X-Men was launched, set in Marvel's revised imprint. Chuck Austen also began his controversial run on Uncanny X-Men.
Notable additions to the X-Men have been Chamber, Emma Frost, Husk, Northstar, Armor, Pixie, and Warpath. During this decade former villains such as Juggernaut, Lady Mastermind, Mystique, and Sabretooth became members of the X-Men for various lengths of time. Several short-lived spin-offs and miniseries started featuring several X-Men in solo series, such as Emma Frost, Gambit, Mystique, Nightcrawler, and Rogue. Another book, Exiles, started at the same time and concluded in December 2007 but with a new book in January 2008, "New Exiles" written by Chris Claremont. Cable and Deadpool's books were also rolled into one book, called Cable & Deadpool. A third core X-Men title was also introduced called Astonishing X-Men, written by Buffy the Vampire Slayer creator Joss Whedon, following Morrison's departure. Another X-Book titled New X-Men: Academy X took its place focusing on the lives of the new young mutants at the Institute.
This period included the resurrections of Colossus and Psylocke, a new death for Jean Grey, who later returned temporarily in the X-Men: Phoenix - Endsong miniseries, as well as Emma Frost becoming the new headmistress of the Institute, a position that was formerly Jean Grey's before her death. The Institute formerly ran as a large-scale school, until the depowering of most of the mutant population. It now serves as a safe haven to those mutants who are still powered, and as the home of the X-Men.
The 2007–2008 Messiah Complex crossover saw the destruction of the Xavier Institute and the disbanding of the X-Men. Out of the crossover spun the new volumes of X-Force, following the team led by Wolverine, and Cable, following Cable's attempts at protecting the Messiah child. X-Men vol.2 was renamed into X-Men: Legacy and will focus on Professor Xavier, Rogue and Gambit. The main team later reformed in Uncanny X-Men #500, with the X-Men now operating out of a new base in San Francisco under Cyclops's leadership. Uncanny X-Men returned to its roots as the flagship title for the X-Franchise and served as the umbrella under which the various X-Books coexist.
A crossover between X-Force and Cable series entitled Messiah War, written by Craig Kyle and Chris Yost, commenced in March 2009 and served as a second part in the trilogy that began with Messiah Complex. Matt Fraction also wrote a Dark Avengers/Uncanny X-Men crossover, Utopia, running through summer 2009, as a part of the larger Dark Reign storyline. 2009 also saw the beginning of the new New Mutants volume written by Zeb Wells, with the limited series X-Infernus serving as prologue. The new volume saw some of the more prominent members of the original team reunited.
The end of 2009 and the Nation X storyline saw the X-Men's longtime archnemesis, Magneto, renouncing his villainous ways and joining the X-Men, which Cyclops allowed. This was much to the dismay of other members of the X-Men, such as Beast, who left the team in disgust. Magneto began to work with Namor to transform Utopia into a homeland for both mutants and Atlanteans.
Starting with issue #226, Rogue became the main character of X-Men: Legacy. The new series direction began in the X-Men: Legacy Annual after the conclusion of Utopia. X-Force, New Mutants, and X-Men: Legacy were also involved in Necrosha, a crossover in which Selene resurrected all the mutants killed in the Genosha massacre. X-Force contained the main storyline, while the other series handled the consequences of the prologue one-shot.
Notable story arcs of this decade are "Revolution" (2000), "Eve of Destruction," "E Is For Extinction" (2001), "Planet X," "Here Comes Tomorrow," "Gifted," (2004) X-Men: Phoenix - Endsong, "House of M," "Decimation" (2005), Deadly Genesis (2005–2006), "Endangered Species" (2007), "Messiah Complex" (2007–2008), "Divided We Stand" (2008), "Manifest Destiny" (2008–2009), X-Infernus, "Messiah War," "Utopia," "Nation X" and "Necrosha" (2009). The X-Men were also involved in the "Secret Invasion" storyline.
In the aftermath of the Schism series, the fallout between Wolverine and Cyclops will lead to the revival and rebuilding of the original X-Mansion by Wolverine, with support from Kitty Pryde, Iceman and Beast. Enrollment in The Jean Grey School for Higher Learning will begin in October 2011, in "Wolverine and the X-Men #1".
World of the X-Men
The X-Men exist in the Marvel Universe with other characters portrayed in Marvel Comics series. As such, it is unsurprising that they often meet characters from other series, and the global nature of the mutant concept means the scale of stories can be highly varied.
The X-Men fight everything ranging from mutant thieves to galactic threats. Historically, the X-Men have been based in the Xavier Institute, near Salem Center, in north-east Westchester County, NY, and are often depicted as a family. The X-Mansion is often depicted with three floors and two underground levels. To the outside world, it had acted as a higher learning institute until the 2000s, when Xavier was publicly exposed as a mutant at which point it became a full mutant boarding school. Xavier funds a corporation aimed at reaching mutants worldwide, though it ceased to exist following the "Decimation."
The X-Men benefit greatly from state-of-the-art technology. For example, Xavier is depicted tracking down mutants with a device called Cerebro which amplifies his powers; the X-Men train within the Danger Room, first depicted as a room full of weapons and booby traps, now as generating holographic simulations; and the X-Men travel in their widely recognized and iconic Blackbird jet.
The X-Men introduced several fictional locations which are regarded as important within the shared universe in which Marvel Comics characters exist:
- Asteroid M, an asteroid made by Magneto, a mutant utopia and training facility off of the Earth's surface.
- Genosha, an island near Madagascar and a longtime apartheid regime against mutants. Given control by the U.N. to Magneto until the E Is for Extinction story.
- Madripoor, an island in South East Asia, near Singapore. Its location is shown to be in the southern portion of the Strait of Malacca, south west of Singapore.
- Muir Island, a remote island off the coast of Scotland. This is primarily known in the X-Men universe as the home of Moira MacTaggert's laboratory.
- Mutant Town (also known as District X), an area in Alphabet City, Manhattan, populated largely by mutants and beset by poverty and crime.
- Savage Land, a preserved location in Antarctica which is home to a number of extinct species, most notably dinosaurs.
- Utopia, Cyclops has Asteroid M risen from the Pacific Ocean off the coast of the San Francisco as a response to the rise of anti-mutant sentiment to form a new Mutant Nation.
- Age of Apocalypse – In a world where Professor Xavier is killed before he can form the X-Men, Magneto leads the X-Men in a dystopian world ruled by Apocalypse. Created and reverted via time travel.
- Days of Future Past – Sentinels have either killed or placed into concentration camps almost all mutants. Prevented by the time-traveling Kate Pryde (the adult Kitty Pryde/Shadowcat).
- House of M – Reality is altered by Scarlet Witch, with her father Magneto as the world's ruler. 2005's crossover event, it concludes with a reversion to the normal Marvel Universe, albeit with most mutants depowered.
- Marvel 1602 – Mutants are known as the "Witchbreed" in this alternate reality set during the time of The Inquisition. Carlos Javier creates a "school for the children of gentlefolk" to serve as a safe haven and training ground.
- Marvel 2099 – Set in a dystopian world with new characters looking to the original X-Men as history, becoming X-Men 2099 and X-Nation 2099.
- Mutant X – Set in a world where Scott Summers was captured along with his parents by the Shi'ar and only Alex escaped, allowing him to be the eventual leader of this Universe's X-Factor ("The Six"). The Mutant X universe reimagines Mr. Fantastic, Nick Fury, and Professor X as villains and Doctor Doom and Apocalypse as heroes.
- Ultimate X-Men – Set in the reimagined Ultimate Marvel universe.
- X-Men Forever – An alternate continuity diverging from X-Men vol. 2, #3, continuing as though writer Chris Claremont had never left writing the series.
- X-Men Noir – Set in the 1930s, with the X-Men as a mysterious criminal gang and the Brotherhood as a secret society of corrupt cops.
- X-Men: The End – A possible ending to the X-Men's early 2005 status quo.
The conflict between mutants and normal humans is often compared to conflicts experienced by minority groups in America such as African Americans, Jews, Communists, the LGBT community, etc. Also on an individual level, a number of X-Men serve a metaphorical function as their powers illustrate points about the nature of the outsider.
- Racism: Although this was not initially the case, Professor X has come to be compared to civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. and Magneto to the more militant Malcolm X. The X-Men’s purpose is sometimes referred to as achieving "Xavier’s dream," perhaps a reference to King’s historic "I Have a Dream" speech. Magneto, in the first film, quotes Malcolm X with the line "By any means necessary." X-Men comic books have often portrayed mutants as victims of mob violence, evoking images of the lynching of African Americans in the age before the American civil rights movement. Sentinels and anti-mutant hate groups such as Friends of Humanity, Humanity's Last Stand, the Church of Humanity and Stryker's Purifiers are thought to often represent oppressive forces like the Ku Klux Klan giving a form to denial of civil rights and amendments. In the 1980s, the comic featured a plot involving the fictional island nation of Genosha, where mutants were segregated and enslaved by an apartheid state. This is widely interpreted as having been a reference to the situation in South Africa at the time.
- Anti-Semitism: Explicitly referenced in recent decades is the comparison between anti-mutant sentiment and anti-Semitism. Magneto, a Holocaust survivor, sees the situation of mutants as similar to those of Jews in Nazi Germany. At one point he even utters the words "never again" in a 1992 episode of the X-Men animated series. The mutant slave labor camps on the island of Genosha, in which numbers were burned into mutant's foreheads, show much in common with Nazi concentration camps, as do the internment camps of the classic "Days of Future Past" storyline. Another notable reference is in the third X-Men film, when asked by Callisto: "If you're so proud of being a mutant, then where's your mark?" Magneto shows his concentration camp tattoo, while mentioning that he will never let another needle touch his skin.
- Diversity: Characters within the X-Men mythos hail from a wide variety of nationalities. These characters also reflect religious, ethnic or sexual minorities. Examples include Shadowcat, Sabra and Magneto who are Jewish, Dust who is a devout Muslim, Nightcrawler who is a devout Catholic, and Neal Shaara/Thunderbird who is Hindu. Storm (Ororo Munroe) represents two aspects of the African diaspora as her father was African American and her mother was Kenyan. Karma was portrayed as a devout Catholic from Vietnam, who regularly attended Mass and confession when she was introduced as a founding member of the New Mutants. This team also included Wolfsbane (a devout Scots Presbyterian), Danielle Moonstar (a Cheyenne Native American) and Cannonball, and was later joined by Magma (a devout Greco-Roman classical religionist). Different nationalities included Wolverine, Aurora and Northstar as Canadians, Colossus from Russia, Banshee from Ireland, Gambit who is a Cajun, the original Thunderbird who was an Apache Native American, Psylocke and Chamber from the U.K., Armor and Surge from Japan, Nightcrawler from Germany, Legion from Israel, Omega Sentinel, Neal Shaara, Kavita Rao and Indra from India, etc.
- LGBT themes: Another metaphor that has been applied by some to the X-Men is that of LGBT. Some commentators have noted the similarities between the struggles of mutants and the LGBT community, noting the onset of special powers around puberty and the parallels between being closeted and the mutants' concealment of their powers. In the comics series, gay and bisexual characters include Anole, Bling!, Destiny, Karma, Mystique, Courier, Northstar, Graymalkin, Rictor, Shatterstar and the Ultimate version of Colossus. Transgender issues also come up with shapechangers like Mystique, Copycat, and Courier who can change gender at will. It has been said that the comic books and the X-Men animated series delved into the AIDS epidemic with a long-running plot line about the Legacy Virus, a seemingly incurable disease thought at first to attack only mutants (similar to the AIDS virus which at first was spread through the gay community).
- Red Scare: Occasionally, undercurrents of the "Red Scare" are present. Senator Robert Kelly's proposal of a Mutant Registration Act is similar to the efforts of United States Congress to try to ban Communism in the United States. In the 2000 X-Men film, Kelly exclaims, "We must know who these mutants are and what they can do," even brandishing a "list" of known mutants (a reference to Senator Joseph McCarthy's list of Communist Party USA members who were working in the government).
- Religion: Religion is an integral part of several X-Men storylines. It is presented as both a positive and negative force, sometimes in the same story. The comics explore religious fundamentalism through the person of William Stryker and his Purifiers, an anti-mutant group that emerged in the 1982 graphic novel God Loves, Man Kills. The Purifiers believe that mutants are not human beings but children of the devil, and have attempted to exterminate them several times, most recently in the "Childhood's End" storyline. By contrast, religion is also central to the lives of several X-Men, such as Nightcrawler, a devout Catholic, and Dust, a devout Sunni Muslim who observes Islamic Hijab.
- Subculture: In some cases, the mutants of the X-Men universe sought to create a subculture of the typical mutant society portrayed. The X-Men comics first introduced a band of mutants called the Morlocks. This group, though mutants like those attending Xavier's school, sought to hide away from society within the tunnels of New York. These Morlock tunnels served as the backdrop for several X-Men stories, most notably The Mutant Massacre crossover. This band of mutants illustrates another dimension to the comic, that of a group that further needs to isolate itself because society won't accept it. In Grant Morrison’s stories of the early 2000s, mutants are portrayed as a distinct subculture with "mutant bands," mutant use of code-names as their primary form of self identity (rather than their given birth names), and a popular mutant fashion designer who created outfits tailored to mutant physiology. The series District X takes place in an area of New York City called "Mutant Town." These instances can also serve as analogies for the way that minority groups establish subcultures and neighborhoods of their own that distinguish them from the broader general culture. Director Bryan Singer has remarked that the X-Men franchise has served as a metaphor for acceptance of all people for their special and unique gifts. The mutant condition that is often kept secret from the world can be analogous to feelings of difference and fear usually developed in everyone during adolescence.
The insecurity and anxieties in Marvel's early 1960s comic books such as The Amazing Spider-Man, The Incredible Hulk, and X-Men ushered in a new type of superhero, very different from the certain and all-powerful superheroes before them, and changed the public's perception of them.
In other media
- ^ Claremont, Chris (w), Cockrum, Dave, Hilary Barta (a). "A Day Like Any Other" Special Edition X-Men 1: 3 (Feb. 1983). Kitty Pryde describes the team this way: "Who are the X-Men, you ask? A group of super-powered mutants, gathered by Professor Charles Xavier for the twofold purpose of seeking out others like themselves and helping them learn to utilize their abilities for the good of society. And, also, to protect society from the threat of evil mutants."
- ^ Lee, Stan; Jack Kirby (August 2005). Son of Origins of Marvel Comics. 1. John Buscema, Don Heck, Bill Everett, Gene Colan. Marvel Comics. p. 448. ISBN 0-6712-2166-3.
- ^ Tacopina, Robert. "Uncanny X-Men #309: ...When the Tigers Come at Night!". UncannyX-Men.net. http://www.uncannyxmen.net/db/issues/showquestion.asp?fldAuto=1064. Retrieved 2009-04-07.
- ^ The X-Men #1 (Sept. 1963)
- ^ X-Men (1st series) #27
- ^ X-Men (1st series) #29
- ^ http://www.uncannyxmen.net/db/article/showquestion.asp?faq=4&fldAuto=289
- ^ Giant-Size X-Men #1
- ^ http://nymag.com/nymetro/arts/features/3522/
- ^ Uncanny X-Men #120
- ^ Brown, Scott (May 9, 2003). "The NeXt Level". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,449160,00.html. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- ^ "My Monthly Curse by Phill Hall #9 – Taking Apart a Guinness World Record". Bleeding Cool. May 9, 2011. http://www.bleedingcool.com/?p=77678.
- ^ O'Neill, Patrick Daniel (October 1991). "X Marks the Spot: Chris Claremont and Marvel's Mutants". Wizard (2). http://www.comixfan.com/xfan/forums/showthread.php?s=478b767126648d6da12d3950a8ca18f8&t=45721. Retrieved 2009-04-20.
- ^ "State of the Art: The X-Men Post-Messiah CompleX". The Independent Comics Site. http://independentcomicssite.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=313&Itemid=33. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- ^ Uncanny X-Men #516
- ^ Uncanny X-Men #519
- ^ Uncanny X-Men #520
- ^ "X-Writers Prepare for the "Second Coming"". Comic Book Resources. October 12, 2009. http://www.comicbookresources.com/?page=article&id=23289. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
- ^ "Second Coming: Prepare #1". Comic Vine. February 24, 2010. http://www.comicvine.com/second-coming-prepare-second-coming-prepare/37-198355/. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
- ^ "NYCC '09: Claremont and the X-Men: With a Twist". Newsarama. February 6, 2009. http://www.newsarama.com/comics/020906-X-Men-Forever.html. Retrieved 2010-08-14.
- ^ Hall, Kelley J.; Lucal, Betsy (January 1999). "Tapping into parallel universes: using superhero comic books in sociology courses". Teaching Sociology 27 (1): 60–66. doi:10.2307/1319247. JSTOR 1319247.
- ^ Shuckburgh, Emily (2008). Survival: the survival of the human race. Cambridge University Press. p. 69. ISBN 9780521710206. http://books.google.com/books?id=t1Gsqgt8GoQC. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Darius, Julan (Sept 25, 2002). "X-Men is Not an Allegory of Racial Tolerance". Sequart Research & Literacy Organization. http://www.sequart.org/magazine/3201/x-men-is-not-an-allegory-of-racial-tolerance/. Retrieved 1 Aug 2011.
- ^ a b Baron, Lawrence (2003). "X-Men as J Men: The Jewish Subtext of a Comic Book Movie". Shofar: an Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies (University of Nebraska Press) 22 (1): 44–52. doi:10.1353/sho.2003.0075. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/shofar/v022/22.1baron02.html. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Sen, Raja (May 26, 2006). "Mutants aren't what they used to be". Rediff.com. http://inhome.rediff.com/movies/2006/may/26xmen.htm. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- ^ Godwin, Garrett (January 14, 2009). "Dr. King's 80th Birthday". NewsBlaze. http://newsblaze.com/story/20090114162849garr.nb/topstory.html. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Dalton, Russell (2011). Marvelous Myths: Marvel Superheroes and Everyday Faith. Chalice Press. p. 89. ISBN 9780827223387. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fh-BGBfea9EC&pg=PA89#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ a b Lyubansky, Mikhail (2008). "Prejudice lessons from the Xavier Institute". The Psychology of Superheroes: An Unauthorized Exploration. Benbella Books. pp. 75–90. ISBN 9781933771311. http://books.google.com/books?id=RdXhjmRFCIwC. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ a b Booker, M. Keith (2010). Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels. ABC-CLIO. p. 430. ISBN 9780313357466. http://books.google.com/books?id=K2J7DpUItEMC&pg=PA430#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ a b Housel, Rebecca; Wisnewski, Jeremy (2009). X-Men and philosophy: astonishing insight and uncanny argument in the mutant .... John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 9780470413401. http://books.google.com/books?id=bK-ax5Ttj3wC. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Weiner, Robert G. (2008). Marvel graphic novels and related publications: an annotated guide to comics, prose novels, children's books, articles, criticism and reference works, 1965-2005. McFarland. p. 309. ISBN 9780786425006. http://books.google.com/books?id=npIsZV7grboC. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ a b Raafat, Ahmed; Nasser, Ali (May 2006). "Spotlight X-Men". TeenStuff (99). http://books.google.com/books?id=VfLEhSj1FSUC&pg=PT31#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Powell, John (July 14, 2000). "The X-Men slay Batman". Jam!. http://jam.canoe.ca/Movies/Reviews/X/X_Men/2000/07/14/754792.html. Retrieved 14 July 2011.
- ^ a b Jim Beckerman (July 5, 2006). "Comic-book characters defy stereotypes: Writers stretch appeal through diverse heroes". Chron. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/life/4023836.html. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Trushell, John M. (August 2004). "American Dreams of Mutants: The X-Men—"Pulp" Fiction, Science Fiction, and Superheroes". The Journal of Popular Culture (John Wiley & Sons) 38 (1): 149–168. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.2004.00104.x.
- ^ Hartl, John (May 25, 2006). "The X-Men Come Out". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12956661. Retrieved June 2, 2007.
- ^ Wenz, John (June 5, 2006). "Lesbian Batwoman in danger of becoming stereotype". Daily Nebraskan. http://www.dailynebraskan.com/opinion/lesbian-batwoman-in-danger-of-becoming-stereotype-1.303198. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ "X-Men 3: The Last Stand (2006) Movie Review - 3.0 out of 4.0 stars". The Movie Insider. http://www.themovieinsider.com/reviews/read.php?rid=700. Retrieved August 14, 2010.
- ^ Zimmerman, David A. (2004). Comic book character: unleashing the hero in us all. InterVarsity Press. p. 78. ISBN 9780830832606. http://books.google.com/books?id=dgplI1AbfycC&pg=PA78#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Weiner, Robert G. (2008). Marvel graphic novels and related publications: an annotated guide to comics, prose novels, children's books, articles, criticism and reference works, 1965-2005. McFarland. p. 111. ISBN 9780786425006. http://books.google.com/books?id=npIsZV7grboC&pg=PA111#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved July 14, 2011.
- ^ Fingeroth, Danny (2006). "Review of Superman on the Couch: What Superheroes Really Tell Us About Ourselves and Our Society". ImageText (University of Florida). ISSN 1549-6732. http://www.english.ufl.edu/imagetext/archives/v2_2/reviews/fleming.shtml.
- Fecteau, Lydia (July 12, 2004). "Mutant and Cyborg Images of the Disabled Body in the Landscape of Science Fiction" (DOC). http://caxton.stockton.edu/files/disability/FinalProjectLF.doc. Retrieved 2005-09-29.
- Morrison, Grant (August 10, 2000). "The Geek Shall Inherit the Earth". The Evening Standard. http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/films/articles/560266. Retrieved 2005-09-29.
- Weinstein, Simcha (2006). Up, Up, and Oy Vey: How Jewish History, Culture and Values Shaped the Comic Book Superhero. Baltimore: Leviathan. Note: Contains a chapter on the X-Men, with special emphasis on Jewish characters Magneto and Shadowcat.
- Montgomery, Mitch (October 21, 2006). X-traordinary "People: Mary Tyler Moore and the Mutants Explore Pop Psychology". Silver Bullet Comics. http://www.silverbulletcomics.com/news/story.php?a=2894 X-traordinary.
- X-Men at the Marvel Universe wiki
- X-Men at the Open Directory Project
- X-Men at the Comic Book DB
- X-Men at the Grand Comics Database
- X-Men at the Marvel Directory
- X-Men at the X-Men Wikia
- X-Men at UncannyXmen.net
Ultimate X-Men X-Men Brotherhood of Mutant Supremacy Opponents and Villains Frost's Academy of Tomorrow Supporting characters Locations Technology Related Books Miscellaneous X-Men comic books ComicsCore Titles: Astonishing X-Men • Generation Hope • New Mutants • Uncanny X-Men • Wolverine and the X-Men • Uncanny X-Force • X-Factor • X-Men • X-Men: Legacy
Secondary Titles: Daken: Dark Wolverine • Deadpool • Wolverine • X-23
Past Titles: Alpha Flight • Cable • Cable & Deadpool • Captain Britain and MI13 • Classic X-Men • Dazzler • District X • Excalibur • Generation X • Namor: The First Mutant • New X-Men • S.W.O.R.D. • Wolverine: First Class • Wolverine: Origins • Wolverine: Weapon X • X-Man • X-Men: First Class • X-Men: The Hidden Years • X-Men Unlimited • X-Statix • X-Treme X-Men • Young X-Men
Alternative Universe Titles: Ultimate Comics: X-Men
Past Alternative Universe Titles: Exiles • Mutant X • Ultimate X-Men • Ultimate X • X-Men 2099 • X-Men Forever
Storylines"The Dark Phoenix Saga" • "Days of Future Past" • "God Loves, Man Kills" • "Mutant Massacre" • "Fall of the Mutants" • "Inferno" • "Days of Future Present" • "X-Tinction Agenda" • "Muir Island Saga" • "X-Cutioner's Song" • "Fatal Attractions" • "Phalanx Covenant" • "Age of Apocalypse" • "Onslaught" • "Operation: Zero Tolerance" • "The Twelve" • "Eve of Destruction" • "E Is for Extinction" • "Planet X" • "Here Comes Tomorrow" • "House of M" • "Decimation" • "Deadly Genesis" • "Endangered Species" • "Messiah Complex" • "Divided We Stand" • "Manifest Destiny" • "X-Infernus" • "Messiah War" • "Utopia" • "Nation X" • "Necrosha" • "Second Coming" • "Curse of the Mutants" • "Age of X" • "Regenesis" OtherSee also: X-Men · X-Men in other media Wolverine Creators Teams Supporting characters EnemiesBloodscream · Chimera · Abraham Cornelius · Cyber · Daken · Genesis · The Gorgon · Lady Deathstrike · Malcolm Colcord · Matsu'o Tsurayaba · Mister X · Mystique · Nitro · Nuke · Ogun · Omega Red · Romulus · Roughouse · Sabretooth · Shiva · Silver Samurai · Taskmaster · William Stryker · Shingen Yashida · Wendigo · Wild Child Comic books5 Ronin · Astonishing Spider-Man & Wolverine · Before the Fantastic Four: Ben Grimm and Logan · Kitty Pryde and Wolverine · Logan · Marvel Comics Presents ("Weapon X") · "Old Man Logan" · Origin · Ultimate Wolverine vs. Hulk · Wolverine · Wolverine: Manifest Destiny · Wolverine: Origins · Wolverine: Snikt! · Wolverine: Weapon X In other media Related articles
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.