Buffy the Vampire Slayer (TV series)

Buffy the Vampire Slayer (TV series)

Infobox Television
show_name = Buffy the Vampire Slayer

caption =
format = Supernatural, Fantasy, Horror, Action, Comedy-drama
runtime = approx. 42 min.
rating = TV-14
creator = Joss Whedon
starring = Sarah Michelle Gellar
Nicholas Brendon
Alyson Hannigan
Anthony Stewart Head
"complete cast and crew"
country = USA
network = The WB (1997–2001)
UPN (2001–2003)
picture_format = 480i (SDTV)
first_aired = March 10, 1997
last_aired = May 20, 2003
opentheme = Composed by Nerf Herder
num_seasons = 7
num_episodes = 144
list_episodes = List of Buffy the Vampire Slayer episodes
website = http://www.foxhome.com/buffysplash/index_frames.html
imdb_id = 0118276
tv_com_id = 10
related = "Angel"|

"Buffy the Vampire Slayer" is an Emmy Award-winning and Golden Globe-nominated American cult television series that aired from March 10 1997 until May 20, 2003. The series was created in 1997 by writer-director Joss Whedon under his production tag, Mutant Enemy Productions with later co-executive producers being Jane Espenson, David Fury, and Marti Noxon. The series narrative follows Buffy Summers (played by Sarah Michelle Gellar), the latest in a line of young women chosen by fate to battle against vampires, demons, and the forces of darkness as the Slayer. Like previous Slayers, Buffy is aided by a Watcher, who guides and trains her. Unlike her predecessors, Buffy surrounds herself with a circle of loyal friends who become known as the "Scooby Gang".

The series usually reached between four and six million viewers on original airings.Wahoske, Matthew J., " [http://home.insightbb.com/~wahoskem/buffy.html Nielsen Ratings For Buffy The Vampire Slayer, Angel, And Firefly] ", "Insightbb.com" (2004).] Although such ratings are lower than successful shows on the "big four" networks (ABC, NBC, CBS and Fox), [" [http://www.fcc.gov/Bureaus/Mass_Media/Orders/2001/fcc01133.txt The Dual Network Rule.] ", "Federal Communications Commission" (May 15 2001): "the four major broadcast networks are unique among the media in their ability to reach a wide audience"] they were a success for the relatively new and smaller WB Television Network. [Kaiser Family Foundation", [http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/Speaker-Biographies-Generation-M-Media-in-the-Lives-of-8-18-Year-olds.pdf#search=%22%20Dawson's%20Creek%2C%20Buffy%20is%20often%20associated%20with%20the%20early%20success%20of%20the%20Warner%20Brothers%20Network.%22 Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8–18 Year Olds] ", "Kff.org" (March 9 2005). The article says that "Mr. Levin was a key player in establishing The WB's distinct brand and youth appeal through programming such as “Dawson's Creek,” “Buffy the Vampire Slayer,” “7th Heaven,” “Charmed,” “Felicity,” “Smallville,” “Gilmore Girls,” “Everwood” and “One Tree Hill.”"] Reviews for the show were positive, [For example: Various DVD reviewers, "Buffy": " [http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/buffy_the_vampire_slayer_season_one/ First season reviews] ", " [http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/buffy_the_vampire_slayer_season_three/ Third season reviews] ", " [http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/buffy_the_vampire_slayer_season_four/?critic=columns Fourth season reviews] ", " [http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/buffy_the_vampire_slayer_season_five/ Fifth season reviews] ", " [http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/buffy_the_vampire_slayer_season_six/ Sixth season reviews] ", " [http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/buffy_the_vampire_slayer_season_seven/ Seventh season reviews] ", "Rotten Tomatoes" (updated 2006). The series has positive reviews from numerous reviewers.] and it was ranked #41 on the list of TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time as well as #2 on Empire's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time. Buffy was also voted #3 in "TV Guide"'s Top 25 Cult TV Shows of All Time and included in "TIME" Magazine's 100 Best TV Shows of All Time.cite web | title= TIME Magazine's 100 Best TV Shows of All Time | publisher= "TIME" | accessdate=2007-09-29 | url=http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1651341_1659188_1652063,00.html] It was nominated for Emmy and Golden Globe awards. The WB network ceased operation on September 17, 2006 after airing an "homage" to its "most memorable series", including the pilot episodes of "Buffy" and its spin-off "Angel". [Schneider, Michael & Adalian, Josef, " [http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117946199?cs=1&s=h&p=0 WB revisits glory days] ", "Variety.com" (June 30 2006).]

"Buffy"'s success has led to hundreds of tie-in products, including novels, comics, and video games. The series has received attention in fandom (including fan films), parody, and academia, and has influenced the direction of other television series. [For example: Dillard, Brian J., " [http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=A174873 Buffy the Vampire Slayer [TV Series] ] ", "All Movie Guide" (2003 or after): "wildly influential cult hit". Harrington, Richard, " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/29/AR2005092900594.html Joss Whedon's New Frontier] ", "The Washington Post" (September 30 2005): "One of the best, most influential, genre-defining television series in decades".]

In 2007 actress Sarah Michelle Gellar who starred as Buffy Summers, said in a interview "For eight years I had the pleasure of portraying a character that was the very definition of a powerful woman. In my opinion, one of the greatest examples in history of entertainment."



Writer Joss Whedon says that "Rhonda the Immortal Waitress" was really the first incarnation of the "Buffy" concept, just the idea of some woman who seems to be completely insignificant who turns out to be extraordinary." ["Buffy: Television with Bite" "Buffy sixth season DVD set", Disc six (2003), two minutes, fifteen seconds onwards.] This early, unproduced idea evolved into "Buffy", which Whedon developed to invert the Hollywood formula of "the little blonde girl who goes into a dark alley and gets killed in every horror movie."Billson, Anne, "Buffy the Vampire Slayer (BFI TV Classics S.)". British Film Institute (December 5 2005), pp24–25.] Whedon wanted "to subvert that idea and create someone who was a hero." He explained: "The very first mission statement of the show was the joy of female power: having it, using it, sharing it." [Gottlieb, Allie, " [http://www.metroactive.com/papers/metro/09.26.02/buffy1-0239.html Buffy's Angels] ", "Metroactive.com" (September 26 2002).]

The concept was first visited through Whedon's script for the 1992 movie "Buffy the Vampire Slayer", which featured Kristy Swanson in the title role. The director, Fran Rubel Kuzui, saw it as a "pop culture comedy about what people think about vampires." [Havens, Candace, ' Benbella Books (May 1, 2003), p51. Fran Kuzui also discussed "Buffy" in Golden, Christopher, & Holder, Nancy, "Watcher's Guide Vol. 1". Simon & Schuster (October 1 1998), pp247–248.] Whedon disagreed: "I had written this scary film about an empowered woman, and they turned it into a broad comedy. It was crushing." [Havens, Candace, ' Benbella Books (May 1, 2003), p23.] The script was praised within the industry, [Brundage, James, [http://www.filmcritic.com/misc/emporium.nsf/ddb5490109a79f598625623d0015f1e4/d9787709f4d8f3e9882567bd0002949e?OpenDocument "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" film review] . "Filmcritic.com" (1999). An example of the praise given to the script and dialogue behind the "Buffy" movie.] but the movie was not. [cite web|url=http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/buffy_the_vampire_slayer/|title="Buffy the Vampire Slayer" at "Rottentomatoes.com"]

Several years later, Gail Berman, a Sandollar Productions executive, approached Whedon to develop his "Buffy" concept into a television series. [Golden, Christopher, and Holder, Nancy, "Watcher's Guide Vol. 1". Simon & Schuster (October 1 1998), pp249–250] Whedon explained that "They said, 'Do you want to do a show?' And I thought, 'High school as a horror movie.' And so the metaphor became the central concept behind "Buffy", and that's how I sold it." ['Said, SF', " [http://www.shebytches.com/SFSaidgb.html Interview with Joss Whedon by SF Said] ", "Shebytches.com" (2005).] The supernatural elements in the series stood as metaphors for personal anxieties associated with adolescence and young adulthood.cite book
author = Wilcox, Rhonda V.
coauthors = David Lavery
title = Fighting the Forces: What's at Stake in Buffy the Vampire Slayer
chapter = Introduction
publisher = Rowman & Littlefield
date= April 2002
url= http://books.google.com/books?id=amKx_wH-PDYC&pg=PR17&dq=buffy+forces+introduction&lr=&sig=ACfU3U29AhiamtriAbyjIHUVAduDIqqOaw
pages = page xix
] Whedon went on to write and partly fund a twenty five minute non-broadcast pilot [Topping, Keith "Slayer". Virgin Publishing, (December 1 2004), p7] that was shown to networks and eventually sold to the WB Network. The latter promoted the premiere with a series of "History of the Slayer" clips, [" [http://www.tvobscurities.com/articles/btvs_lostrailer.php Buffy, The Vampire Slayer, Forgotten Premiere Trailer] " "Tvobscurities.com" (July 16, 2003).] and the first episode aired on March 10, 1997.

Executive producers

Joss Whedon was credited as executive producer throughout the run of the series, and for the first five seasons (1997–2001) he was also the show runner, a role that involves serving as head writer and being responsible for every aspect of production. Marti Noxon took on the role for seasons six and seven (2001–2003), but Whedon continued to be involved with writing and directing "Buffy" alongside projects such as "Angel", "Fray", and "Firefly". Fran Rubel Kuzui and her husband, Kaz Kuzui, were credited as executive producers [Various authors, " [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0476900/ Fran Kuzui] " and " [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0476901/ Kaz Kuzui] ", "Internet Movie Database" (updated 2006).] but were not involved in the show. Their credit, rights, and royalties over the franchise relate to their funding, producing, and directing of the original movie version of "Buffy". [Morgan, David, " [http://members.aol.com/morgands1/closeup/text/kuzui.htm Wide Angel Closeup: Director, Producer and Film Distributor Fran Rubel Kuzui] " "AOL.com" (June 10, 1992); "Buffy" was a film that I owned, this was the first time I owned a film". Also see Golden, Christopher, and Holder, Nancy, "Watcher's Guide Vol. 1". Simon & Schuster (October 1 1998), "Gail Berman and Fran Kuzui came to [Whedon] to ask if he wanted to do the TV series" (p241). Also see "Watcher's Guide Vol. 1", pp246–249.]


Script-writing was done by Mutant Enemy,Variety, " [http://www.variety.com/profiles/Company/role/Production%20Company/2014915/Mutant+Enemy.html?dataSet=1 Mutant Enemy Filmography] ", "Variety".] a production company created by Whedon in 1997. The writers with the most writing creditsBBC " [http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/indetail/ Buffy Episode Guide] ", "BBC" .] include: Steven S. DeKnight, Jane Espenson, David Fury, Drew Goddard, Drew Greenberg, Rebecca Rand Kirshner, Marti Noxon and Doug Petrie. Other authors with writing credits include: Howard Gordon, David Greenwalt, Joss Whedon, Matt Kiene, Joe Reinkemeyer, Ty King, Tracey Forbes, Thomas A. Swyden, Rob Des Hotel, Dana Reston, Dan Vebber, Carl Ellsworth, Ashley Gable, Elin Hampton and Dean Batali.TV.com " [http://www.tv.com/buffy-the-vampire-slayer/show/10/cast.html?
] ", "TV.com" .]

Jane Espenson has explained how scripts came together.Espenson, Jane, " [http://www.fireflyfans.net/firefly/espenson.htm The Writing Process] ", "Fireflyfans.net" (2003).] First, the writers talked about the emotional issues facing Buffy Summers and how she would confront them through her battle against evil supernatural forces. Then the episode's story was "broken" into acts and scenes. Act breaks were designed as key moments to intrigue viewers so that they would stay with the episode following advertisements. The writers collectively filled in scenes surrounding these act breaks for a more fleshed-out story. A whiteboard marked their progress by mapping brief descriptions of each scene. Once "breaking" was done, the credited author wrote an outline for the episode, which was checked by Whedon or Noxon. The writer then wrote a full script, which went through a series of drafts, and finally a quick rewrite from the show runner. The final article was used as the shooting script.


The title role went to Sarah Michelle Gellar, who had appeared as Sydney Rutledge on "Swans Crossing" and Kendall Hart on "All My Children". At age eighteen in 1995, Gellar had already won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Younger Leading Actress in a Drama Series.Various authors, " [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001264/awards Awards for Sarah Michelle Gellar] " "Internet Movie Database" (updated 2006).] In 1996, she was initially cast as Cordelia Chase during a week of auditioning. She decided to keep trying for the role of Buffy, and after several more auditions, landed the lead.Havens, Candace, "" Benbella Books (May 1 2003), p35–36.]

Anthony Stewart Head had already led a prolific acting and singing careerVarious authors, " [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0372117/ Anthony Head] " "Internet Movie Database" (updated 2006).] but remained best known in the United States for a series of twelve coffee commercials with Sharon Maughan for Taster's Choice. [Golden, Christopher, & Holder, Nancy "Watcher's Guide Vol. 1". Simon & Schuster (October 1 1998), "His long-lasting fame as the romantic and intriguing coffee guy is gradually being replaced by his new image as librarian in "Buffy", p210 (October 1 1998).] He accepted the role of Rupert Giles.

Unlike other "Buffy" regulars, Nicholas Brendon had little acting experience, instead working various jobs — including production assistant, plumber's assistant, veterinary janitor, food delivery, script delivery, day care counselor, and waiter — before deciding to break into acting to help him overcome a stutter. [Anonymous, " [http://www.nickbrendon.com/bio.html NickBrendon.com; biography] " "Nickbrendon.com" (updated 2006).] [Kappes, Serena," [http://www.nickbrendon.com/archives/000021.html Xander Slays His Demon] ", "Nickbrendon.com", originally from "People.com", (May 2001).] He landed his Xander Harris role following only four days of auditioning. [Golden, Christopher, and Holder, Nancy, "Watcher's Guide Vol. 1". Simon & Schuster (October 1, 1998), Brendon said "Four days. That's fast.", p199.]

Alyson Hannigan was the last of the original four to be cast. Following her role in "My Stepmother Is an Alien",Various authors, " [http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0004989/ Alyson Hannigan] " "Internet Movie Database" (updated 2006).] she appeared in commercials and supporting roles on television shows throughout the early 1990s. In 1996 the role of Willow Rosenberg was initially given to Riff Regan for the unaired "Buffy" pilot, but Hannigan auditioned when the role was recast for the series proper. She described her approach to auditions in an interview through her treatment of a particular moment: Willow tells Buffy that her Barbie doll was taken from her as a child, and Buffy asks if she ever got the Barbie back. "Willow's line was 'Most of it.' And so I thought I'm gonna make that a really happy thing. I was so proud that she got most of it back. That clued in on how I was going to play the rest of the scene. It defines the character." [Golden, Christopher, and Holder, Nancy, "Watcher's Guide Vol. 1". Simon & Schuster (October 1 1998), p202.] Her approach subsequently helped her win the role.

Broadcast history

"Buffy the Vampire Slayer" first aired on March 10 1997 on the WB network, and played a key role in the growth of the Warner Bros. television network in its early years. [See: Kaiser Family Foundation " [http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/Speaker-Biographies-Generation-M-Media-in-the-Lives-of-8-18-Year-olds.pdf Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8–18 Year Olds] ", "Kff.org" (March 9 2005), Schneider, Michael & Adalian, Josef, " [http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117946199?cs=1&s=h&p=0 WB revisits glory days] ", "Variety.com" (June 30, 2006).] After five seasons, it transferred to the United Paramount Network (UPN) for its final two seasons. The show went into syndication in the United States on local stations and on cable channel FX; the local airings ended in 2005; the FX airings lasted until 2008, Buffy is currently not shown in the U.S. In the United Kingdom, the entire series aired on Sky1 and BBC2. The BBC gave the show two time slots: the early-evening slot for a family-friendly version with violence, objectionable language and other stronger material cut out, and a late-night uncut version. [Burr, Vivien, " [http://slayageonline.com/essays/slayage8/Burr.htm Buffy vs the BBC: Moral Questions and How to Avoid Them] " "Slayageonline.com" (March 2003), p1.] Sky One had a similar method, in which the show would be edited for an afternoon encore presentation besides the uncut prime-time slot. From the fourth season onwards, the BBC aired the show in anamorphic 16:9 widescreen format, but Whedon later said that "Buffy" was never intended to be viewed this way. Despite his claims, Sky One and FX (UK) now air repeat showings in the widescreen format. [" [http://www.videostoremag.com/news/html/breaking_article.cfm?sec_id=2&article_ID=5243 Angel Creator Joss Whedon Sees Evolution of TV Shows on DVD] " "Video Store Mag" (August 28, 2003).]

While the seventh season was still being broadcast, Sarah Michelle Gellar told "Entertainment Weekly" she was not going to sign on for an eighth year, "When we started to have such a strong year this year, I thought: 'This is how I want to go out, on top, at our best." [" [http://www.ew.com/ew/report/0,6115,426799~10~0~gellarexplainswhybuffy,00.html Stake Out] ", "Entertainment Weekly" (February 26 2003).] Whedon and UPN gave some considerations to production of a spin-off series that would not require Gellar, including a rumored Faith series, but nothing became of those plans. [Haberman, Lia, " [http://www.eonline.com/news/article/index.jsp?uuid=3b3f51ef-3052-4b92-bed3-9b9ff8fd15eb A Buffy-less "Buffy"? Have Faith] ", "E! Online" (February 11 2003).] The "Buffy" canon is continuing outside the television medium in the "Dark Horse Comics" series, "Buffy" Season Eight. This has produced since March 2007 by Whedon, who has also written the first story arc, "The Long Way Home". [See Brown, Scott, " [http://popwatch.ew.com/popwatch/2006/07/the_new_buffy_c.html First Look: The new 'Buffy' comic] ", "Entertainment Weekly" (July 18 2006), " [http://www.comicscontinuum.com/stories/0609/18/index.htm Buffy the Vampire Slayer Update] " "Comics Continuum" (September 18 2006).]

As of July 15, 2008, Buffy the Vampire Slayer episodes are available to download for PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable video game consoles via the PlayStation Network. [" [http://store.playstation.com/video/index.vm#category/PN.PC.US-PN.PC.VIDEO.US-ACTION_BUFFY/PN.PC.US-PN.PC.VIDEO.US-TV_GENRE_ACTION] " "PlayStation Store" (July 15 2008)]

Opening sequence

The "Buffy" opening sequence provides credits early in each show. The music was performed by the punk rock band Nerf Herder. The song includes a similar melody to a German pop song from the 1980s called "Codo" by DÖF, but Nerf Herder have said that they had "never heard of DÖF", and that the similarity was coincidental. [" [http://whedonesque.com/comments/11527 Before Nerf Herder, the original Buffy theme: "Codo" by 1980s Austrian band, DÖF.] " "Whedonesque.com" (October 2006).] In the DVD commentary for the first "Buffy" episode, Whedon said his decision to go with Nerf Herder's theme was influenced by cast member Alyson Hannigan, who had made him listen to the band's music. ["Buffy the Vampire Slayer" first season DVD set. "20th Century Fox" (region 2, 2000), disc one.] Janet Halfyard, in her essay "Music, Gender, and Identity in "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" and "Angel", describes the opening:

But the theme changes: " [The opening sequence] removes itself from the sphere of 1960s and '70s horror by replaying the same motif, the organ now supplanted by an aggressively strummed electric guitar, relocating itself in modern youth culture." This music is heard over images of a young cast involved in the action and turbulence of adolescence. The sequence provides a post-modern twist on the horror genre.

The brief clips of characters and events which compose the opening sequence are updated from season to season. The only shots that persists across all seven seasons are those of a book titled "Vampyr" and of the cross given to Buffy by Angel in the first episode. Each sequence ends with a long shot of Buffy, which changes between seasons. The only exception was in the Season Four episode "Superstar", which featured a long shot of Jonathan Levinson, and frequent other clips of Jonathan, in reference to the episode.


"Buffy" features a mix of original, indie, rock and pop music. The composers spent around seven days scoring between fourteen to thirty minutes of music for each episode. Christophe Beck revealed that the "Buffy" composers used computers and synthesizers and were limited to recording one or two "real" samples. Despite this, their goal was to produce "dramatic" orchestration that would stand up to film scores.

Alongside the score, most episodes featured indie rock music, usually at the characters' venue of choice, The Bronze. "Buffy" Music Supervisor John King explained that "we like to use unsigned bands" that "you would believe would play in this place"."Buffy: Inside the Music" from "Buffy the Vampire Slayer Complete Fourth Season DVD set "20th Century Fox" (May 13 2002), disc three.] For example, the fictional group Dingoes Ate My Baby were portrayed on screen by front group Four Star Mary.cite web|url=http://www.fourstarmary.com/bioscontent.html|title=Four Star Mary Bios|publisher=Four Star Mary|accessdate=2008-07-22] Pop songs by famous artists were rarely featured prominently, but several episodes spotlighted the sounds of more famous artists such as Sarah McLachlan,cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/indetail/becomingtwo/trivia.shtml|title=BBC Cult Buffy Trivia - 'Becoming, Part Two'|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-07-22] cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/indetail/grave/trivia.shtml|title=BBC Cult Buffy Trivia - 'Grave'|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-07-22] Blink 182,cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/indetail/somethingblue/trivia.shtml|title=BBC Cult Buffy Trivia - 'Something Blue'|publisher=BBC Cult Buffy Trivia|accessdate=2008-07-22] Third Eye Blind,cite web|url=http://www.buffyguide.com/episodes/faithhope.shtml|title='Faith, Hope, and Trick' at BuffyGuide|publisher=BuffyGuide|accessdate=2008-07-22] Aimee Manncite web|url=http://media.putfile.com/Aimee-Mann-on-Buffy|title=Putfile Video of Aimee Mann on Buffy|publisher=Putfile|accessdate=2008-07-22] cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/indetail/sleeper/trivia.shtml|title=BBC Cult Buffy Trivia - 'Sleeper'|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-07-22] (who also had a line of dialogue), The Dandy Warhols,cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/indetail/triangle/trivia.shtml|title=BBC Cult Buffy Trivia - 'Triangle'|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-07-22] Cibo Matto,cite web|url=http://www.wbr.com/laramie/laramie_press.html|title=Cibo Matto Press Release|publisher=Cibo Matto Official Website|accessdate=2008-07-22] and Michelle Branch.cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/indetail/tabularasa/trivia.shtml|title=BBC Cult Buffy Trivia - 'Tabula Rasa'|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-07-22] The popularity of music used in "Buffy" has led to three soundtrack albums: ',cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/Vampire-Slayer-Television-Original-Soundtrack/dp/B00001R3O2/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1216753892&sr=1-1|title='Buffy the Vampire Slayer: The Album' at Amazon|publisher=Amazon|accessdate=2008-07-22] 'cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/Buffy-Vampire-Slayer-Radio-Sunnydale/dp/B0000E6EFX/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1216753440&sr=1-1|title='Radio Sunnydale' Album at Amazon|publisher=Amazon|accessdate=2008-07-22] and ""Once More, with Feeling" Soundtrack".cite web|url=http://www.amazon.com/Buffy-Vampire-Slayer-Once-Feeling/dp/B00006J3WH/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=music&qid=1216753731&sr=1-1|title='Once More With Feeling' Album at Amazon|publisher=Amazon|accessdate=2008-07-22] cite web|url=http://www.buffyworld.com/buffy/music.php|title=List of Buffy Albums at Buffy World|publisher=BuffyWorld|accessdate=2008-07-22] cite web|url=http://www.buffyguide.com/merchandise/soundtrack.shtml|title=Buffy Albums List at BuffyGuide|publisher=BuffyGuide|accessdate=2008-07-22]

etting and storylines

etting and filming locations

:"Main articles: Sunnydale, Hellmouth and Filming locations"

Most of "Buffy" was shot on location in Los Angeles, California. The main exterior set of the town of Sunnydale, including the infamous "sun sign", was located in Santa Monica, California in a lot on Olympic Boulevard.Various authors, " [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118276/locations Sets and Locations] ", "The Ultimate Buffy and Angel Trivia Guide" (updated 2007). ] The show is set in the fictional California town of Sunnydale, whose suburban Sunnydale High School sits on top of a "Hellmouth", a gateway to demon realms. The Hellmouth serves as a for a wide variety of evil creatures and supernatural phenomena, and lies beneath the school library. In addition to being an open-ended plot device, Joss Whedon has cited the Hellmouth and "High school as Hell" as one of the primary metaphors in creating the series. [Yovanovich, Linda, " [http://www.smgfan.com/articles/b22.htm Young Blood] ", "Smgfan.com", originally from "OnSat" (July 14 1997), Whedon said: " [High school as hell] was always the basis of the show. W hen they said, 'Do you want to turn it into a show?' The character was not enough alone to sustain it. But you know when I thought of the idea of the horror movies as a metaphor for high school, [I said] okay this is something that will work week to week."]

The high school used in the first three seasons is actually Torrance High School, in Torrance, California. This school was used until the residents of Torrance complained about loud sounds at night.Various authors, " [http://imdb.com/List?endings=on&&locations=Torrance%20High%20School,%20Torrance,%20California,%20USA&&heading=18;with+locations+including;Torrance%20High%20School,%20Torrance,%20California,%20USA Titles with locations including Torrance High School] ", "Internet Movie Database" (updated 2006).] The school exterior has been used in other television shows and movies, most notably "Beverly Hills 90210", "Bring It On", "She's All That" and the spoof "Not Another Teen Movie". In addition to the high school and its library, scenes take place in the town's cemeteries, a local nightclub (The Bronze), and Buffy's home (located in Torrance), where many of the characters live at various points in the series.

Some of the exterior shots of the college Buffy attends, UC Sunnydale, were filmed at UCLA.


"Buffy" is told in a serialized format, with each episode involving a self-contained story while contributing to a larger storyline,. which is broken down into season-long narratives marked by the rise and defeat of a powerful antagonist, commonly referred to as the "Big Bad". The show blends different genres, including horror, martial arts, romance, melodrama, farce, comedy, and even, in one episode, musical comedy.

The series' narrative revolves around Buffy and her friends, collectively dubbed the "Scooby Gang", who struggle to balance the fight against supernatural evils with their complex social lives. The show mixes complex, season-long storylines with a villain-of-the-week format; a typical episode contains one or more villains, or supernatural phenomena, that are thwarted or defeated by the end of the episode. Though elements and relationships are explored and ongoing subplots are included, the show focuses primarily on Buffy and her role as an archetypal heroine.

In the first seasons, the most prominent monsters in the "Buffy" bestiary are vampires, which are based on traditional myths, lore, and literary conventions. As the series continues, Buffy and her companions fight an increasing variety of demons, as well as ghosts, werewolves, zombies, and unscrupulous humans. They frequently save the world from annihilation by a combination of physical combat, magic, and detective-style investigation, and are guided by an extensive collection of ancient and mystical reference books. Hand-to-hand combat is chiefly undertaken by Buffy and Angel, later by Spike, and to a far lesser degree by Giles and Xander. Willow eventually becomes an adept witch, while Giles contributes his extensive knowledge of demonology and supernatural lore.

Inspirations and metaphors

During the first year of the series, Whedon described the show as "My So-Called Life" meets "The X-Files"." [" [http://www.cityofangel.com/council/joss.html Joss Whedon: Executive Producer of Angel] ", "Cityofangel.com" (2006). Also see Flowers, Phoebe, " [http://www.tvshows.nu/article.php3?id_article=4984 Sixth season was last great one for Buffy - Dvd Review] ", "Tvshows.nu" (June 16 2004). Executive Producer Marti Noxon stated: "I'm basically trying to write "My So-Called Life" with vampires".] "My So-Called Life" gave a sympathetic portrayal of teen anxieties; in contrast, "The X-Files" delivered a supernatural "monster of the week" storyline. Alongside these series, Whedon has cited cult film "Night of the Comet" as a "big influence", [P., Ken, " [http://uk.tv.ign.com/articles/425/425492p6.html An Interview with Joss Whedon] ", "Ign.com" (June 23 2003), web-page 6.] and credited the "X-Men" character Kitty Pryde as a significant influence on the character of Buffy. [Whedon, Joss " [http://whedonesque.com/comments/3095 Kitty Pryde influenced Buffy] " "Whedonesque.com" (February 27 2004).] The authors of the unofficial guidebook "Dusted" point out that the series was often a pastiche, borrowing elements from previous horror novels, movies, and short stories and from such common literary stock as folklore and mythology. [Miles, Lawrence, "Dusted", "Mad Norwegian Press" (November 2003).] Nevitt and Smith describe "Buffy"'s use of pastiche as "post modern Gothic". [Nevitt, Lucy, & Smith, Andy William, " [http://www.refractory.unimelb.edu.au/journalissues/vol2/nevSmith.pdf#search=%22buffy%20postmodern%20spin%20pastiche%20-wikipedia%20-encyclopedia%22 Family Blood is always the Sweetest: The Gothic Transgressions of Angel/Angelusby] ", "Refractory: a Journal of Entertainment Media" Vol. II (March, 2003): Nevitt and Smith bring attention to "Buffy"'s use of pastiche: "Multiple pastiche without enabling commentary is doubtless self-canceling, yet, at the same time, each element of pastiche calls into temporary being what and why it imitates."] For example, the Adam character parallels the "Frankenstein" monster, the episode "Bad Eggs" parallels "Invasion of the Body Snatchers", and so on.

"Buffy" episodes often include a deeper meaning or metaphor as well. Whedon explained, "We think very carefully about what we're trying to say emotionally, politically, and even philosophically while we're writing it... it really is, apart from being a pop-culture phenomenon, something that is deeply layered textually episode by episode." [Shuttleworth, Ian, " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040202205347/http://news.ft.com/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=FT.com/StoryFT/FullStory&c=StoryFT&cid=1059479741556 Bite me, professor] " "Financial Times", citing interview from "The New York Times" (September 11 2003)] Academics Wilcox and Lavery provide examples of how a few episodes deal with real life issues turned into supernatural metaphors:

The love affair between the vampire Angel and Buffy was fraught with metaphors. For example, their night of passion cost the vampire his soul. Sarah Michelle Gellar said: "That's the ultimate metaphor. You sleep with a guy and he turns bad on you." [" [http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/05/20/entertainment/main554813.shtml Bye-Bye Buffy] ", "CBSnews.com" (May 20, 2003).]

The feminist issue comes out especially when facing misogynist characters; the most misogynistic characters, Warren and Caleb, both die in gruesome ways (the first tortured and skinned alive by Willow, the second eviscerated and cut in two by Buffy).

Plot summary

Season One exemplifies the "high school as hell" concept. Buffy Summers has just moved to Sunnydale after burning her old school's gym and hopes to escape her Slayer duties. Her plans are complicated by Rupert Giles, her new Watcher, who reminds her of the inescapable presence of evil. Sunnydale High is built atop a Hellmouth, a portal to demon dimensions that attracts supernatural phenomena to the area. Buffy meets two schoolmates, Xander Harris and Willow Rosenberg, who will help fight evil through the series, but they must first prevent an ancient and especially threatening vampire from opening the Hellmouth and unleashing Hell on Earth.

The emotional stakes are raised in Season Two. New vampires, Spike and a weakened Drusilla, come to town along with the new Slayer, who was activated as a result of Buffy's brief death in the Season One finale. Xander becomes involved with Cordelia, while Willow becomes involved with witchcraft and a young werewolf named Daniel "Oz" Osbourne, both of which make her more confident. Buffy sleeps with her vampire lover Angel. Consequently, she unwittingly removes his cursed soul as a result. He once more becomes Angelus, a sadistic killer. Buffy is forced to kill him, and leaves Sunnydale, emotionally shattered.

After attempting to start a new life in Los Angeles, Buffy returns to town in Season Three. Angel is resurrected, but leaves Sunnydale (at the end of the season) so Buffy will have a normal life. Giles is fired from the Watcher's Council because of his "father's love" for Buffy, and (at the end of the season) Buffy announces that she will no longer be working for the Council either. She is soon confronted with an unstable Slayer, Faith Lehane, as well as Richard Wilkins, an often affable but definitely evil mayor who has sinister plans for Graduation Day. After accidentally killing a human, Faith becomes irrational and sides with Mayor Wilkins against Buffy and friends.

Season Four sees Buffy and Willow enroll at UC Sunnydale while Xander joins the workforce and begins dating Anya, a former vengeance demon. Spike returns as a series regular and is abducted by a covert military force; they implant a microchip in his head which prevents him from harming humans. Oz leaves town after deciding he's too dangerous and Willow falls in love with Tara Maclay, another witch, while Buffy begins dating a grad student who is a member of The Initiative, a top-secret military installation based beneath the UC Sunnydale campus. It appears to be a well-meaning anti-demon operation, but its secret project goes horribly wrong. The season also marked the first year in which Joss Whedon oversaw other TV series.

During Season Five, a younger sister suddenly yet seamlessly appears in Buffy's life and an exiled Hell-God searches for a "key" that will allow her to return to her home dimension. The "Key" has been turned into human form as Buffy's younger sister Dawn. The Watcher's Council aides in Buffy's research of the Hell-God, and she and Giles are both reinstated by the Council. The Hell-God eventually discovers the truth and kidnaps Dawn; Buffy sacrifices herself to save Dawn and prevent Hell from spreading on Earth. During the season, Xander and Anya become engaged, and Spike realizes he is in love with Buffy.

Buffy's friends resurrect her through a powerful spell in Season Six. Buffy returns from Heaven deeply depressed and finds a job at a fast food restaurant while conducting a secret, mutually abusive affair with Spike that later leads to him attempting to rape her. Plagued with remorse, he undergoes a series of trials and is awarded with a soul so he can "give her what she deserves". Her friends are unaware of her inner turmoils as they face their own troubles: Dawn becomes a kleptomaniac, Xander leaves Anya at the altar, and Willow becomes addicted to magic. When Tara is killed by an unhinged Warren Mears, Willow descends into darkness and begins a rampage that nearly causes the end of the world. In the end, it is Xander who reaches through her pain and stops her from destroying the world.

The instability caused by Buffy's revival enables the First Evil and a sinister preacher to amass an army of powerful vampires against humankind during Season Seven, while simultaneously seeking out and killing every currently-unactivated Potential Slayer. Willow invokes a spell that activates all the "Potentials" in the world. After an epic battle, an amulet worn by Spike channels solar energy through the battlefield, killing all of the Turok-Han and apparently incinerating Spike. As the Scoobies flee Sunnydale, the town collapses into a crater, its Hellmouth destroyed.


Main characters

Buffy Anne Summers (played by Sarah Michelle Gellar) is "the Slayer", one in a long line of young women chosen by fate to battle evil forces. This mystic calling endows her with dramatically increased physical strength, as well as endurance, agility, accelerated healing, intuition, and a limited degree of clairvoyance, usually in the form of prophetic dreams.

Buffy receives guidance from her Watcher, Rupert Giles (played by Anthony Stewart Head). Giles, rarely referred to by his first name, is a member of the Watchers' Council, whose job is to train and assist the Slayers. Giles researches the supernatural creatures that Buffy must face, offering insights into their origins and advice on how to kill them.

Buffy is also helped by friends she meets at Sunnydale High: Willow Rosenberg (Alyson Hannigan) and Xander Harris (Nicholas Brendon). Willow is originally a bookish wallflower; she provides a contrast to Buffy's outgoing personality, but shares the social isolation Buffy suffers after becoming a Slayer. As the series progresses, Willow becomes a more assertive character, a powerful witch, and comes out as a lesbian. In contrast, Xander, with no supernatural skills, provides comic relief and a grounded perspective. It is Xander who often provides the heart to the series, and in Season Six, becomes the hero in place of Buffy who defeats the "Big Bad". Buffy and Willow are the only characters who appear in all 144 episodes; Xander is missing in only one.


:"Main articles: List of "Buffy" characters and "Buffy" minor charactersThe cast of characters grew over the course of the series. Buffy first arrives in Sunnydale with her mother, Joyce Summers (portrayed by Kristine Sutherland), who functions as an anchor of normality in the Scoobies' lives even after she learns of Buffy's role in the supernatural world ("Becoming, Part Two"). Buffy's teenage sister Dawn Summers (Michelle Trachtenberg) does not appear until Season Five.

The vampire with a soul, Angel (portrayed by David Boreanaz), is Buffy's love interest throughout the first three seasons. He leaves Buffy to make amends for his sins and search for redemption in his own spin-off, "Angel".

At Sunnydale High, Buffy meets several other students willing to join her fight for good (alongside her friends Willow and Xander). Cordelia Chase (Charisma Carpenter), the archetypal shallow cheerleader, reluctantly becomes involved, and Daniel "Oz" Osbourne (Seth Green), a fellow student, rock guitarist and werewolf, joins the Scooby Gang through his relationship with Willow. Anya (Emma Caulfield), a former vengeance demon (Anyanka) who specialized in avenging scorned women, becomes Xander's lover after losing her powers, and joins the Scooby Gang in Season Four.

In Buffy's senior year at school, she meets Faith (Eliza Dushku), the second current-Slayer who was brought forth when Slayer Kendra (Bianca Lawson) was killed by vampire Drusilla (Juliet Landau), in Season Two. Although she initially fights on the side of good with Buffy and the rest of the Scooby Gang, she comes to stand against them and sides with Mayor Richard Wilkins (Harry Groener) after accidentally killing a human in Season Three. She reappears briefly in the fourth season, looking for vengeance, and moves to "Angel" where she goes to jail for her murders. Faith reappears in Season Seven of "Buffy", having helped Angel and crew, and fights with Buffy against The First Evil.

Buffy gathers other allies: Spike (James Marsters), a vampire, is an old companion of Angelus and one of Buffy's major enemies in early seasons, although they later become allies and lovers. Later Spike, like Angel, regains his soul. Spike is known for his Billy Idol-style peroxide blond hair and his black leather duster, stolen from a previous Slayer, Nikki Wood; her son, Robin Wood (D. B. Woodside), joined the Scoobies in the final season. Tara Maclay (Amber Benson) is a fellow member of Willow's Wicca group during Season Four, and their friendship eventually turns into a romantic relationship. Buffy became involved personally and professionally with Riley Finn (Marc Blucas), a military operative in "the Initiative", which hunts demons using science and technology. The final season sees geeky wannabe-villain Andrew Wells (Tom Lenk) come to side with the Scoobies, who initially regard him more as a nuisance than an ally.

"Buffy" featured dozens of recurring characters, both major and minor. For example the "Big Bad" (villain) characters were featured for at least one season (e.g. Glorificus was a character that appeared in 13 episodes, spanning much of Season Five). Similarly, characters that allied themselves to the Scooby Gang and characters which attended the same institutions were sometimes featured in multiple episodes.


"Buffy" has inspired a range of official and unofficial works, including television shows, books, comics and games. This expansion of the series encouraged use of the term "Buffyverse" to describe the fictional universe in which "Buffy" and related stories take place. [Walton, Andy, " [http://www.cnn.com/2003/SHOWBIZ/TV/05/19/buffy.sidebar/ S _ag. official "Buffy/Angel" magazines] ] and "Buffy" companion books. Eden Studios has published a "Buffy" role-playing game, while Score Entertainment has released a "Buffy" Collectible Card Game.

Possible film or series continuation

While it has merely been entertained, at the 2008 Paley Festival, Joss Whedon remarked that he would be enthusiastic to reunite the cast to continue the story in the form of a movie or another show. The festival featured a reunion of the major cast and contributors to the show, who all seemed excited at the idea.

"On that note Joss said that Oz will definitely appear in future issues and while the comic stories are currently "canon", he would gladly throw that out the window if the cast were to reunite in one form or another to make another show or movie. As to the possibility of that, the cast all seemed to dance around that throughout the evening, even when asked the question by the panel moderator." [ PaleyFest 2008: Buffy The Vampire Slayer Reunion http://brendoman.com/index.php/2008/03/25/paleyfest-2008-buffy-the-vampire-slayer-]
Prior to this, Sarah Michelle Gellar has said that she personally did not feel a Buffy movie would work but that she would be willing to do a film depending on the script. [Citation |date=22-JANUARY-08 |first=Mike |title=Gellar: Buffy Film Wouldn't Work |last=Szymanski|url=http://www.scifi.com/scifiwire/index.php?id=47513 |publisher=Sci-Fi Wire ]


The spin-off "Angel" was introduced in October 1999, at the start of "Buffy" Season Four. The series was created by "Buffy"'s creator Joss Whedon in collaboration with David Greenwalt. Like "Buffy", it was produced by the production company Mutant Enemy. At times, it performed better in the Nielsen Ratings than its parent series did.

The series was given a darker tone focusing on the ongoing trials of Angel in Los Angeles. His character is tormented by guilt following the return of his soul, punishment for more than a century of murder and torture. During the first four seasons of the show, he works as a private detective in a fictionalized version of Los Angeles, California, where he and his associates work to "help the helpless" and to restore the faith and "save the souls" of those who have lost their way. Typically, this mission involves doing battle with evil demons or demonically-allied humans (primarily the law firm Wolfram & Hart), while Angel must also contend with his own violent nature. In Season Five, the Senior Partners of Wolfram and Hart take a bold gamble in their campaign to corrupt Angel, giving him control of their Los Angeles office. Angel accepts the deal as an opportunity to fight evil from the inside.

In addition to Boreanaz, "Angel" inherited "Buffy" regular Charisma Carpenter (Cordelia Chase). When Glenn Quinn (Allen Francis Doyle) left the series during its first season, Alexis Denisof (Wesley Wyndam-Pryce), who had been a recurring character in the last nine episodes of season three of "Buffy", took his place. Carpenter and Denisof were followed later by Mercedes McNab (Harmony Kendall) and James Marsters (Spike). Several actors who played "Buffy" characters made guest appearances on "Angel", including Seth Green (Daniel "Oz" Osbourne), Sarah Michelle Gellar (Buffy), Eliza Dushku (Faith Lehane), Tom Lenk (Andrew Wells), and Alyson Hannigan (Willow Rosenberg). Angel also continued to appear occasionally on "Buffy".

Expanded universe

Outside of the TV series, the Buffyverse has been officially expanded and elaborated on by authors and artists in the so-called "Buffyverse Expanded Universe". The creators of these works may or may not keep to established continuity. Similarly, writers for the TV series were under no obligation to use information which had been established by the Expanded Universe, and sometimes contradicted such continuity.

Dark Horse has published the "Buffy" comics since 1998. [Anonymous, " [http://www.darkhorse.com/profile/profile.php?sku=98-372+a Buffy the Vampire Slayer#1] " "Dark Horse Comics" ("Buffy the Vampire Slayer #1" released September 23, 1998).] In 2003, Whedon wrote an eight-issue miniseries for Dark Horse Comics entitled "Fray", about a Slayer in the future. Following the publication of "Tales of the Vampires" in 2004, "Dark Horse Comics" halted publication on Buffyverse-related comics and graphic novels. The company is currently producing Whedon's Buffy the Vampire Slayer season eight with forty issues beginning in March 2007, to pick up where the television show left off — taking the place of an eighth canonical season. [See Brown, Scott, " [http://popwatch.ew.com/popwatch/2006/07/the_new_buffy_c.html First Look: The new 'Buffy' comic] ", "Entertainment Weekly" (July 18 2006), " [http://www.comicscontinuum.com/stories/0609/18/index.htm Buffy the Vampire Slayer Update] " "Comics Continuum" (September 18, 2006).] The first story arc is also written by Whedon, and is called "The Long Way Home" which has been widely well-received, with circulation rivalling industry leaders DC and Marvel's top-selling titles. [cite web |url=http://pwbeat.publishersweekly.com/blog/2007/06/05/dc-comics-month-to-month-sales-april-2007/ |title= DC Comics Month-to-month Sales: April 2007 (Other Publishers: Dark Horse) |accessdate=2007-06-04 |format= |work= The Beat ] Also after "The Long Way Home" came other story arcs like Faith's return in "No Future for You".

Pocket Books hold the license to produce "Buffy" novels, of which they have published more than sixty since 1998. These sometimes flesh out background information on characters; for example, "Go Ask Malice" provides lots of information about Faith Lehane. The most recent novels include "Carnival of Souls", "Blackout", "Portal Through Time", "Bad Bargain", and "The Deathless".

Five official "Buffy" video games have been released on portable and home consoles.cite web|url=http://uk.gamespot.com/search.html?type=11&stype=all&tag=search%3Bbutton&om_act=convert&om_clk=search&qs=Buffy+the+Vampire+Slayer&x=10&y=12|title=Gamespot List of Buffy Games|publisher=Gamespot|accessdate=2008-07-22] The most recent, "", was released in 2003 for Gamecube, Xbox and
PlayStation 2.cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/buffy/buffystuff/videogame/chaosbleeds.shtml|title=BBC - Buffy: Chaos Bleeds|publisher=BBC|accessdate=2008-07-22] On July 11 2008, 505 Games announced that they were working on a Buffy game for the Nintendo DS, entitled .cite web|url=http://kotaku.com/5024259/buffy-the-vampire-slayer-prowls-the-ds|title='Buffy The Vampire Slayer Prowls The DS'|publisher=Kotaku|accessdate=2008-07-22] [cite web | url=http://uk.ds.ign.com/articles/888/888192p1.html | title=IGN: Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Sacrifice Announced | author=Martin Robinson |date=2008-07-11 | accessdate=2008-07-11]

Undeveloped spinoffs

The popularity of "Buffy" and "Angel" has led to attempts to develop more on-screen ventures in the fictional 'Buffyverse'. These projects remain undeveloped and may never be greenlighted. In 2002, two potential spinoffs were in discussion: "Buffy the Animated Series" and "Ripper". "Buffy the Animated Series" was a proposed animated TV show based on "Buffy"; Whedon and Jeph Loeb were to be executive producers for the show, and most of the cast from "Buffy" were to return to voice their characters. 20th Century Fox showed an interest in developing and selling the show to another network. A three-minute pilot was completed in 2004, but was never picked up. Whedon revealed to "The Hollywood Reporter": "We just could not find a home for it. We had six or seven hilarious scripts from our own staff — and nobody wanted it." [Hockensmith, Steve, " [http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/h/search/index_form.jsp Dialogue with 'Buffy' creator Joss Whedon] ", "Hollywoodreporter.com", requires subscription, (May 16, 2003)] Neither the pilot nor the scripts have been seen outside of the entertainment industry, though writer Jane Espenson has teasingly revealed small extracts from some of her scripts for the show. [Espenson, Jane, " [http://www.janeespenson.com/archives/00000095.php Reading what's been written to sound written as it's spoken] ", "Janeespenson.com" (May 9 2006) & " [http://www.janeespenson.com/archives/00000097.php Sorry, JVC, but it's simply true] ", "Janeespenson.com" (May 11, 2006).]

"Ripper" was originally a proposed television show based upon the character of Rupert Giles portrayed by Anthony Stewart Head. More recent information has suggested that if "Ripper" were ever made, it would be a TV movie or a DVD movie. ["UK Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Angel Magazine". Titan Magazines, Issue 80, (December 2005), p19.] There was little heard about the series until 2007 when Joss Whedon confirmed that talks were almost completed for a 90 minute "Ripper" special on the BBC [http://www.tvsquad.com/2007/07/28/comic-con-joss-whedon-panel-report/] with both Head and the BBC completely on board.

In 2003, a year after the first public discussions on "Buffy the Animated Series" and "Ripper", "Buffy" was nearing its end. Espenson has said that during this time spinoffs were discussed, "I think Marti talked with Joss about "Slayer School" and Tim Minear talked with him about Faith on a motorcycle. I assume there was some back-and-forth pitching." [" [http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/news/buffy/2003/07/03/5522.shtml Dear Jane] ", "BBC.co.uk" (July 3, 2003).] Espenson has revealed that "Slayer School" might have used new slayers and potentially included Willow Rosenberg, but Whedon did not think that such a spinoff felt right. ['Hercules', " [http://www.aintitcool.com/display.cgi?id=14787 Way Interesting Buffy Bits (Courtesy Jane E & Others)] ", "Aintitcool.com" (March 21 2003). Also see " [http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/news/buffy/2003/03/24/3421.shtml Spin-offs stop spinning] ", "BBC.co.uk" (March 24, 2003).]

Dushku declined the pitch for a Buffyverse TV series based on Faith and instead agreed to a deal to produce "Tru Calling". Dushku explained to "IGN": "It would have been a really hard thing to do, and not that I would not have been up for a challenge, but with it coming on immediately following "Buffy", I think that those would have been really big boots to fill." [Kuhn, Sarah, " [http://uk.tv.ign.com/articles/421/421047p2.html An Interview with Eliza Dushku] ", "Ign.com" (May 28 2003), web-page 2.] Tim Minear explained some of the ideas behind the aborted series: "The show was basically going to be Faith meets Kung Fu. It would have been Faith, probably on a motorcycle, crossing the earth, trying to find her place in the world." ["Femme Fatales", (May–June 2003). Details archived online: Matt (transcriber), " [http://spoiledrotten.tvheaven.com/buffy.html Eliza Talks Faith Spinoff] ", "Spoiledrotten.tvheaven.com" (April 11 2003). Also see " [http://www.bbc.co.uk/cult/news/buffy/2003/04/14/3812.shtml Kung Fu Faith] ", "BBC.co.uk" (April 14 2003) and [http://whedonesque.com/comments/1131 "Whedonesque.com"] .]

Finally, during the summer of 2004 after the end of "Angel", a movie about Spike was proposed. [ [http://whedonesque.com/comments/3877 Spike TV movie on the cards?] , "Whedonesque.com" (May 9 2004). Marsters is indirectly quoted about the possibility of a Spike movie in May 2004.] The movie would have been directed by Tim Minear and starred Marsters and Amy Acker and featured Alyson Hannigan. [Saney, Daniel, " [http://www.digitalspy.co.uk/article/ds24796.html Whedon eyes Willow for Spike movie] ", "Digitalspy.co.uk" (September 28 2005). Originally reported by "Tvguide.com".] ] Outside the 2006 Saturn Awards, Whedon announced that he had pitched the concept to various bodies but had yet to receive any feedback. [" [http://whedonesque.com/comments/10310 Video interview with Joss from the Saturn Awards] ", "Whedonesque.com" (February 15 2006). Originally reported by "Iesb.net".]

New sparks to the Buffy the Vampire Slayer movie have been lit by an interview Sarah Michelle Gellar gave to Sci-Fi Wire in which she says she would not rule out returning to her most iconic role: "Never say never," she said. "One of the reasons the original "Buffy" movie did not really work on the big screen–and people blamed Kristy, but that's not what it was–the story was better told over a long arc," Gellar said. "And I worry about Buffy as a 'beginning, middle and end' so quickly. ... You show me a script; you show me that it works, and you show me that the audience can accept that, and I had probably be there. Those are what my hesitations are." [Citation |date=22-JANUARY-08 |first=Mike |title=Gellar: Buffy Film Would not Work |last=Szymanski|url=http://www.scifi.com/scifiwire/index.php?id=47513 |publisher=Sci-Fi Wire ]

Cultural impact

"Buffy" has had a cultural impact on a number of media. It has impacted television studies and inspired fan-made films, it has been parodied and referenced, and has even influenced other television series.


"Buffy" is notable for attracting the interest of scholars of popular culture as a subset of popular culture studies. Academic settings increasingly include the show as a topic of literary study and analysis. [ [http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20040529/scholars_buffy_040529?s_name=&no_ads= Scholars lecture on 'Buffy the Vampire Slayer'] , "Ctv.ca" (May 29 2004).] [" [http://www.metro.co.uk/weird/article.html?in_article_id=13473&in_page_id=2 Study Buffy at university] ", "Metro.co.uk" (May 16 2006) MA course at Brunel University, West London.] National Public Radio describes "Buffy" as having a "special following among academics, some of whom have staked a claim in what they call 'Buffy Studies.'" [ [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3850482 Ulaby, Neda] , ' [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1262180 - 'Buffy Studies'] ", "National Public Radio" (May 13, 2003)] Though not widely recognized as a distinct discipline, the term "Buffy studies" is commonly used amongst the peer-reviewed academic "Buffy"-related writings. [Lavery, David, & Wilcox, Rhonda V., [http://slayageonline.com/ "Slayageonline.com"] (2001-). The term is in use from the full title of "Slayage": "Slayage: The Online International Journal of Buffy Studies", and thus has become used in essays by those who contribute to scholarship relating to "Buffy".] The response to this attention has had its critics. For example, Jes Battis, who authored "", admits that study of the Buffyverse "invokes an uneasy combination of enthusiasm and ire", and meets "a certain amount of disdain from within the halls of the academy". [Battis, Jes, , "McFarland & Company" (June 2005), page 9.] Nonetheless "Buffy" (1997–2003) eventually led to the publication of around twenty books and hundreds of articles examining the themes of the show from a wide range of disciplinary perspectives including sociology, Speech Communication, psychology, philosophy, and women's studies. [See:Hornick, Alysa, " [http://www.alysa316.com/Buffyology "Buffyology" an Academic Buffy Studies and Whedonesque Bibliography] ", "Alysa316.com" (updated 2006). See Buffy studies published books.]

Fandom and fan films

:"See also: Unofficial Buffy the Vampire Slayer productions"

The popularity of "Buffy" has led to websites, online discussion forums, works of "Buffy" fan fiction and several unofficial fan-made productions.

Buffy in popular culture

The series, which employed pop culture references as a frequent humorous device, has itself become a frequent pop culture reference in video games, comics and television shows, and has been frequently parodied and spoofed. Sarah Michelle Gellar has participated in several parody sketches, including a "Saturday Night Live" sketch in which the Slayer is relocated to the "Seinfeld" universe, [SNL (aired Jan. 17, 1998) see 'doggans' (transcriber) [http://snltranscripts.jt.org/97/97kbuffy.phtml SNL Transcripts: "Buffy the Vampire Slayer"] , "Snltranscripts.jt.org" (1997).] and adding her voice to an episode of "Robot Chicken" that parodied a would-be eighth season of "Buffy". ["Buffy Season 8" from "Robot Chicken" Season 1, episode 4 (aired March 13 2005). See: [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0687782/ "IMDb" entry] , [http://whedonesque.com/comments/6038 "Whedonesque.com"] .] There are also several adult parodies of "Buffy", web comics, and music.

U.S. ratings

"Buffy" helped put The WB on the ratings map, but by the time the series landed at UPN in 2001, viewing figures had fallen. "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" had a series high during the third season with 5.3 million viewers, this probably due to the fact that both Gellar and Hannigan had hit movies out during the season ("Cruel Intentions" and "American Pie" respectively), and a series low with 3.7 million during the first season. During Season Seven, the show rarely reached above 4 million viewers. The show's series final "Chosen" pulled in a season high of 4.9 million viewers on the UPN network.

Buffy did not compete with shows on the big four networks (CBS, ABC, NBC, and FOX), but The WB were impressed with the young audience that the show was bringing in. Because of this, The WB ordered a full season of 22 episodes for the series' second season. After the episode "Surprise", "Buffy" was moved from Monday at 9 p.m. to launch The WB's new night of programming on Tuesday. The first episode aired, "Innocence", became the highest rated episode of the entire series, attracting over 8.2 million viewersFact|date=July 2008. Due to its large success in that time slot, it remained on Tuesdays at 8 p.m. for the remainder of its original run. With its new timeslot on The WB, the show quickly climbed to the top of The WB ratings and became one of their highest-rated shows for the remainder of its time on the network. The show always placed in the top 3, usually only coming in behind "7th Heaven". Between Seasons Three and Five, "Buffy" flip-flopped with "Dawson's Creek" and "Charmed" as the network's second highest-rated show.

In the 2001-2002 season, the show had moved to the UPN Network after a negotiation dispute with The WB. While it was still one of their highest rated shows on their network, the WB felt that the show had already peaked and was not worth giving a salary increase to the cast and crew. UPN on the other hand, had strong faith in the series and quickly grabbed it along with "Roswell". The UPN Network dedicated a 2 hour premiere to the series to help re-launch it. The premiere episode on UPN, "Bargaining", attracted over 7.7 million viewers, making it the 2nd highest rated ratings of the entire series run. The remainder of the series' run on the network saw the show actually outperform its old sister shows "Dawson's Creek" and "Charmed", which were still on the WB.

Impact on television

Commentators of the entertainment industry including "All Movie Guide", "The Hollywood Reporter" and "The Washington Post" have cited "Buffy" as "influential". [For example: Dillard, Brian J., " [http://www.allmovie.com/cg/avg.dll?p=avg&sql=A174873 Buffy the Vampire Slayer [TV Series] ] ", "All Movie Guide" (2003 or after): "wildly influential cult hit". Harrington, Richard, " [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/29/AR2005092900594.html Joss Whedon's New Frontier] ", "The Washington Post" (September 30 2005): "One of the best, most influential, genre-defining television series in decades". Kit, Borys, " [http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/h/search/index_form.jsp Whedon lassos 'Wonder' helm for Warners] ", "The Hollywood Reporter", requires subscription (March 17, 2005): "the influential WB Network/UPN drama series"] Autumn 2003 saw several new shows going into production in the U.S. that featured strong females who are forced to come to terms with supernatural power or destiny while trying to maintain a normal life.Salem, Rob, " [http://www.whedon.info/article.php3?id_article=1319&
] ", "Thestar.com", transcribed to "Whedon.info" (August 25, 2003)] These post-"Buffy" shows include "Dead Like Me" and "Joan of Arcadia". Bryan Fuller, the creator of "Dead Like Me", said that ""Buffy" showed that young women could be in situations that were both fantastic and relatable, and instead of shunting women off to the side, it put them at the center." "Buffy", while itself taking certain elements from the classic series of "Doctor Who" (1963–1989) (even referencing it in one episode), became a blueprint for the revived series (2005-), [B, KJ, " [http://uk.tv.ign.com/articles/595/595354p1.html Doctor Who Report: New Theme Music?; Buffy a Template for New Doctor Who?] ", "Ign.com" (March 11 2005): "Producer Steve Moffat admits that the blueprint for the new series was "Buffy the Vampire Slayer"] and executive producer Russell T Davies has said

As well as influencing "Doctor Who", "Buffy" influenced its spinoff series "Torchwood", and more generally, BBC itself, who still refer to the 7 p.m. slot on BBC Two as "the "Buffy" slot". [cite journal |last=Stokes |first=Richard |authorlink=Richard Stokes |coauthors=Hugo, Simon |year=2008 |month=March |title=Like a Kid in a Candy Store |journal=Torchwood Magazine |issue=2 |pages=64–65 |accessdate= 2008-02-29 |publisher=Titan Magazines

In addition, "Buffy" alumni have gone on to write for or create other shows, some of which bear a notable resemblance to the style and concepts of "Buffy". Such endeavors include "Tru Calling" (Douglas Petrie, Jane Espenson and even lead actress Eliza Dushku), "Wonderfalls" (Tim Minear), "Point Pleasant" (Marti Noxon), "Jake 2.0" (David Greenwalt), "The Inside" (Tim Minear), "Smallville" (Steven S. DeKnight) and "Lost" (Drew Goddard, David Fury)

Meanwhile, the Parents Television Council complained of efforts to "deluge their young viewing audiences with adult themes." [" [http://www.parentstv.org/PTC/publications/reports/top10bestandworst/2002/main.asp The 2001–2002 Top 10 Best and Worst Shows on Network TV] " & " [http://www.parentstv.org/PTC/publications/reports/stateindustryviolence/main.asp TV Bloodbath: Violence on Prime Time Broadcast TV] " "Parentstv.org" (2002 & 2003 respectively).] The FCC, however, rejected the Council's indecency complaint concerning the violent sex scene between Buffy and Spike in "Smashed" [ [http://www.fcc.gov/eb/Orders/2004/FCC-04-196A1.html FCC, In the Matter of Complaints Against Various Broadcast Licensees Regarding Their Airing of the UPN Network Program "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" on November 20, 2001] .] The BBC, however, chose to censor some of the more controversial sexual content. [ [http://slayageonline.com/essays/slayage8/Burr.htm Vivien Burr, Buffy vs. the BBC: Moral Questions and How to Avoid Them] .]

eries information

The first season was introduced as a mid-season replacement for the short-lived night-time soap opera "Savannah", and therefore was made up of only 12 episodes. Each subsequent season was built up of 22 episodes. Discounting the unaired "Buffy" pilot, the seven seasons make up a total of 144 "Buffy" episodes aired between 1997 and 2003.

Awards and nominations

"Buffy" has gathered a number of awards and nominations which include an Emmy Award nomination for the 2000 episode "Hush", which featured an extended sequence with no character dialogue.Various authors, [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0118276/awards "Awards for "Buffy the Vampire Slayer"] ", "Internet Movie Database" (updated 2005)] The 2001 episode "The Body" revolved around the death of Buffy's mother. It was filmed with no musical score, only diegetic music; it was nominated for a Nebula Award in 2002. The fall 2001 musical episode "Once More, with Feeling" received plaudits, but was omitted from Emmy nomination ballots by "accident". It has since been featured on "Channel 4's "100 Greatest Musicals"." [" [http://www.channel4.com/film/newsfeatures/microsites/M/musicals/results_15to11.html 100 Greatest Musicals: The Results] ", "Channel4.com" (Autumn 2003)] In 2001, Sarah Michelle Gellar received a Golden Globe-nomination for Best Actress in a TV Series-Drama. Recently, the series was both nominated and won in the Drama Category for Television's Most Memorable Moment at the 60th Primetime Emmy Awards beating The X Files, Grey's Anatomy, Brian's Song and Dallas although the sequence for this award was not aired.

DVD releases

ee also

* List of women warriors in folklore, literature, and popular culture

Footnotes and references

:"All links retrieved and checked as of March 9, 2007.

External links

* [http://www.foxhome.com/buffysplash/index_frames.html 20th Century Fox — "Buffy" section]
* [http://buffy.wikia.com/wiki/Buffyverse_Wiki The Buffyverse Wiki]
*imdb title|id=0118276|title=Buffy the Vampire Slayer
* [http://www.unreliablenarrator.net/buffy_scripts.asp "Buffy the Vampire Slayer" shooting scripts]
* [http://www.metroactive.com/papers/cruz/02.09.00/buffy1-0006.html Mary Spicuzza, Lady and the Vamps, Metro Silicon Valley]

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