An archetype (pronounced: /IPA|ˈɑːkɪtaɪp/ (Brit.) or /IPA|ˈɑrkɪtaɪp/ (Amer.)) is an original model of a person, object, or concept from which similar instances are derived, copied, patterned, or emulated. In psychology, an archetype is a model of a person, personality, or behavior. This article is about personality as described in literature analysis and the study of the psyche.
In the analysis of personality, the term "archetype" is often broadly used to refer to
stereotype—personality type observed multiple times, especially an oversimplification of such a type; or
epitome—personality type exemplified, especially the "greatest" such example.
# a literary term to express details.
However, in a strict linguistic sense, an archetype is merely a defining "example" of a personality type. The accepted use of archetype is to refer to a generic version of a personality. In this sense "mother figure" can be considered an archetype and instances can be found in various female characters with distinct (non-generic) personalities.
Archetypes have been present in
folkloreand literature for thousands of years and appear to be present in prehistoric artwork. The use of archetypes to analyze personality was advanced by Carl Jungearly in the 20th century. The value in using archetypal characters in fictionderives from the fact that a large group of people are able to unconsciously recognize the archetype, and thus the motivations, behind the character's behavior.
Archetypes can be seen in every movie made today. If the movie is good then you will see a well defined layout of a character going through the different archetypes. The hero in a movie will go through different stages. Carol S. Pearson wrote a book that is used in most english classes today. "The Hero Within: Six Archetypes We Live By." Starting with the Orphan. Then the Wanderer. Next will be the Warrior, and finishing with the Lover.
Movies and TV shows are based on the same archetypes.
The word "archetype" appeared in
European texts as early as 1545. [cite web|url=http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=archetype&searchmode=none|title=Online Etymology Dictionary - Archetype|author=Douglas Harper] It derives from the Latinnoun "archetypum" and that from the Greek noun "αρχέτυπον" ("archetypon") and adjective "αρχέτυπος" ("archetypos"), meaning "first-moulded" [ [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0057%3Aentry%3D%2315887 Archetypos, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, "A Greek-English Lexicon", at Perseus] ] . The Greek roots are "arkhe-" ("first" or "original") + "typos" ("model", "type", "blow", "mark of a blow").
Pronunciation note: The "ch" in archetype is a
transliterationof the Greek chi (Polytonic|χ) and is most commonly articulated in English as a "k". [cite web|url=http://www.bartleby.com/64/C007/045.html#CH|title=Pronunciation Challenges: Confusions and Controversy] word
The concept of psychological archetypes was advanced by the Swiss psychiatrist
Carl Jung, c. 1919. In Jung's psychological framework archetypes are innate, universal prototypes for ideas and may be used to interpret observations. A group of memories and interpretations associated with an archetype is a complex, e.g. a mother complex associated with the mother archetype. Jung treated the archetypes as psychological organs, analogous to physical ones in that both are morphological constructs that arose through evolution. [cite web| url = http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/jung.html| title = Carl Jung| first = C. George| last = Boeree| accessdate = 2006-03-09]
Jung outlined four main archetypes:
*The Self, the regulating center of the psyche and facilitator of
*The Shadow, the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonetheless
*The Anima, the feminine image in a man's psyche; or:
*The Animus, the masculine image in a woman's psyche
Persona, how we present to the world.
Although the number of archetypes is limitless, there are a few particularly notable, recurring archetypal
Wise old man
Archetypes in literature
Archetypes can be found in nearly all forms of
literature, with their motifs being predominantly rooted in folklore. William Shakespeareis known for creating many archetypal characters that hold great social importance in his native land, such as Hamlet, the self-doubting hero and the initiation archetype with the three stages of separation, transformation, and return; Falstaff, the bawdy, rotund comic knight; Romeoand Juliet, the ill-fated ("star-crossed") lovers; Richard II, the hero who dies with honor; and many others. Although Shakespeare based many of his characters on existing archetypes from fables and myths (e.g., Romeo and Juliet on" Pyramus and Thisbe"), Shakespeare's characters stand out as original by their contrast against a complex, social literary landscape. For instance, in" The Tempest", Shakespeare borrowed from a manuscript by William Strachey that detailed an actual shipwreck of the Virginia-bound 17th-century English sailing vessel " Sea Venture" in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda. Shakespeare also borrowed heavily from a speech by Medea in Ovid's" Metamorphoses"in writing Prospero's renunciative speech; nevertheless, the unique combination of these elements in the character of Prospero created a new interpretation of the sage magician as that of a carefully plotting hero, quite distinct from the wizard-as-advisor archetype of Merlinor Gandalf. Both of these are likely derived from priesthood authority archetypes, such as Celtic Druids, or perhaps Biblical figures like Abraham, Moses, etc.; or in the case of Gandalf, the Norse figure Odin.
Certain common methods of character depiction employed in dramatic performance rely on the pre-existence of literary archetypes.
Stock characters used in theatre or film are based on highly generic literary archetypes. A pasticheis an imitation of an archetype or prototype in order to pay homageto the original creator. Sheri Tepper's novel" Plague of Angels"contains archetypical villages, essentially human zoos where a wide variety of archetypal people are kept, including heroes, orphans, oracles, ingénues, bastards, young lovers, poets, princesses, martyrs, and fools.
In the superhero genre, two main archetypes are
Spider-Manand Superman. Superman represents the bright and optimistic view of superheroes who are both physically and morally perfect (e.g. they would always do the right thing). Spider-Man represents the more realistic, cynical view where superheroes are simply regular people with extraordinary powers (i.e. they can be selfish and immature at times, while self-sacrificing and noble at others).
The young, flawed, and brooding
antihero[Spider-Man] became the most widely imitated archetype in the superherogenre since the appearance of Superman.
—Bradford W. Wright," Comic Book Nation: The transformation of Youth Culture in America "212
—"Superman on the Couch "by
Archetypal literary criticism
Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism
*Campbell, Joseph, "The Masks of God: Vol. I, Premitive Mythology". (1991 reprint revised ed.), New York: Penguin Group Inc.
*Jung, C. G., (1934–1954). "The Archetypes and The Collective Unconscious". (1981 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol.9 Part 1), Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01833-2
*Arrien, Angeles (1992). "Signs Of Life: The Five Universal Shapes And How To Use Them". Sonoma, CA, USA: Arcus Publishing Company. ISBN 0-916955-10-9
*cite book |author=Pearson, Carol |title=The hero within: six archetypes we live by |publisher=Harper & Row |location=San Francisco |year=1989 |pages= |isbn=0-06-254862-x |oclc= |doi=
* [http://aras.org/ Archive for Research in Archetypal Symbolism website]
* [http://search.aras.org/record.aspx?ARASNUM=1Cb.501 Sample image with scholarly commentary: Hall of the Bulls at Lascaux]
* [http://knol.google.com/k/suresh-emre/sound-archetypes/35vsnxisjn2mw/3# Sound Archetypes]
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