- Gothic fiction
Gothic fiction (sometimes referred to as Gothic horror) is a genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. As a genre, it is generally believed to have been invented by the English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel "
The Castle of Otranto".
The effect of Gothic fiction depends on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of essentially Romantic literacy pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole's novel.
Melodramaand parody (including self-parody) were other long-standing features of the Gothic initiated by Walpole.Gothic literature is intimately associated with the Gothic Revival architectureof the same era. In a way similar to the gothic revivalists' rejection of the clarity and rationalism of the neoclassical style of the Enlightened Establishment, the literary Gothic embodies an appreciation of the joys of extreme emotion, the thrills of fearfulness and awe inherent in the sublime, and a quest for "atmosphere". The ruins of gothic buildings gave rise to multiple linked emotions by representing the inevitable decay and collapse of human creations— thus the urge to add fake ruins as eyecatchers in English landscape parks. English Protestants often associated medieval buildings with what they saw as a dark and terrifying period, characterized by harsh laws enforced by torture, and with mysterious, fantastic and superstitious rituals. In literature such Anti-Catholicismhad a European dimension featuring Roman Catholicexcesses such as the Inquisition(in southern European countries such as Italy and Spain).
Prominent features of Gothic fiction include terror (both psychological and physical), mystery, the
supernatural, ghosts, haunted houses and Gothic architecture, castles, darkness, death, decay, doubles, madness, secrets and hereditary curses.
stock charactersof Gothic fiction include tyrants, villains, bandits, maniacs, Byronic heroes, persecuted maidens, femmes fatales, madwomen, magicians, vampires, werewolves, monsters, demons, revenants, ghosts, perambulating skeletons, the Wandering Jewand the Devilhimself.
The first gothic romances
The term "Gothic" came to be applied to the literary genre precisely because the genre dealt with emotional extremes and dark themes, and because it found its most natural settings in the buildings of this style — often spelled "Gothick", to highlight their "medievalness" - castles, mansions, and monasteries, often remote, crumbling, and ruined. It was a fascination with this architecture and its related art, poetry (such as
Graveyard Poets), and even landscape gardening that inspired the first wave of gothic novelists. For example, Horace Walpole, whose " The Castle of Otranto" (1764) is often regarded as the first true gothic romance, was obsessed with medieval gothic architecture, and built his own house, Strawberry Hill. In that form, sparking a fashion for gothic revival. Walpole's novel arose out of this obsession with the medieval.
His declared aim was to combine elements of the medieval romance, which he deemed too fanciful, and the modern novel, which he considered to be too confined to strict realism. The basic plot created many other gothic staples, including a threatening mystery and an ancestral curse, as well as countless trappings such as hidden passages and oft-fainting heroines. The first edition was published disguised as an actual medieval romance from Italy discovered and republished by a fictitious translator. When Walpole admitted to his authorship in the second edition, its originally favourable reception by literary reviewers changed into rejection. The romance, usually held in contempt by the educated as a tawdry and debased kind of writing, had only recently been made respectable by the works of Richardson and Fielding. A romance with superstitious elements, and moreover void of didactical intention, was considered a setback and not acceptable as a modern production. Walpole's forgery, together with the blend of history and fiction that was contravening the principles of the
Enlightenment, brought about the Gothic novel's association with fake documentation. Clara Reeve, best known for her work The Old English Baron, set out to take Walpole's plot and adapt it to the demands of the time by balancing fantastic elements with 18th century realism. The question now arose whether supernatural events that were not as evidently absurd as Walpole's would not lead the simpler minds to believe them possible. It was Ann Radcliffe's technique of the "explained supernatural", in which every seemingly supernatural intrusion is eventually traced back to natural causes, and the impeccable conduct of her heroines that finally met with the approval of the reviewers. Radcliffe made the gothic novel socially acceptable, ironically followed by an abrupt degradation of its renown. Her success attracted many imitators, mostly of low quality, which soon led to a general perception of the genre as inferior, formulaic and stereotypical. Among other elements, Radcliffe introduced the brooding figure of the gothic villain, which developed into the Byronic hero. Radcliffe's novels, above all " The Mysteries of Udolpho" (1794), were best-sellers, although along with all novels they were looked down upon by well-educated people as sensationalist women's entertainment (despite some men's enjoyment of them).
"The person, be it gentleman or lady, who has not pleasure in a good novel, must be intolerably stupid. I have read all Mrs. Radcliffe's works, and most of them with great pleasure. "The Mysteries of Udolpho", when I had once begun it, I could not lay down again; I remember finishing it in two days – my hair standing on end the whole time." [said Henry] ... "I am very glad to hear it indeed, and now I shall never be ashamed of liking "Udolpho" myself. " [replied Catherine] — Jane Austen, "
Northanger Abbey" (written 1798)
Radcliffe also provided an aesthetic for the burgeoning genre courtesy of her influential article "On the Supernatural in Poetry" in "The New Monthly Magazine" 7, 1826, pp 145-52, examining the distinction and correlation between horror and terror in Gothic fiction.
Developments in continental Europe, and "The Monk"
Contemporaneously to English Gothic, parallel Romantic literary movements developed in continental Europe: the "roman noir" ("black novel") in
France, by such writers as François Guillaume Ducray-Duminil, Gaston Leroux, Baculard d'Arnaud, and Stéphanie Félicité Ducrest de St-Albin, Madame de Genlis and the "Schauerroman" ("shudder novel") in Germanyby such writers as Friedrich Schiller, author of "The Ghost-Seer" (1789) and Christian Heinrich Spiess, author of "Das Petermännchen" (1791/92). These works were often more horrific and violent than the English gothic novel.
The fruit of this harvest of continental horrors was Matthew Gregory Lewis's lurid tale of monastic debauchery, black magic and diabolism "
The Monk" (1796). Though Lewis' novel could be read as a sly, tongue-in-cheek spoof of the emerging genre, self-parody was a constituent part of the Gothic from the time of the genre's inception with Walpole's "Otranto". Lewis' tale appalled some contemporary readers; however his portrayal of depraved monks, sadistic inquisitors and spectral nuns, and his scurrilous view of the Catholic church was an important development in the genre and influenced established terror-writer Ann Radcliffe in her last novel "The Italian" (1797). In this book the hapless protagonists are ensnared in a web of deceit by a malignant monk called Schedoni and eventually dragged before the tribunals of the Inquisitionin Rome, leading one contemporary to remark that if Radcliffe wished to transcend the horror of these scenes she would have to visit hell itself (Birkhead 1921). The Marquis de Sadeused a gothic framework for some of his fiction, notably " The Misfortunes of Virtue" and "Eugenie de Franval", though the marquis himself never thought of his work as such. Sade critiqued the genre in the preface of his "Reflections on the novel" (1800) which is widely accepted today, stating that the gothic is "the inevitable product of the revolutionary shock with which the whole of Europe resounded". This correlation between the French revolutionary Terror and the "terrorist school" of writing represented by Radcliffe and Lewis was noted by contemporary critics of the genre (Wright 2007: 57-73). Sade considered "The Monk" to be superior to the work of Ann Radcliffe.
Other notable writers in the continental tradition include
Jan Potocki(1761-1815) and E.T.A. Hoffmann(1776–1822).
The excesses, stereotypes and frequent absurdities of the traditional Gothic made it rich territory for satire. The most famous parody of the Gothic is Jane Austen's novel "
Northanger Abbey" (1818) in which the naive protagonist, after reading too much Gothic fiction, conceives herself a heroine of a Radcliffian romance and imagines murder and villainy on every side, though the truth turns out to be much more prosaic. Jane Austen's novel is valuable for including a list of early Gothic works since known as the Northanger Horrid Novels:
The Necromancer; or, The Tale of the Black Forest" (1794) by 'Ludwig Flammenberg' (pseudonym for Carl Friedrich Kahlert; translated by Peter Teuthold)
Horrid Mysteries" (1796) by the Marquis de Grosse(translated by P. Will)
Castle of Wolfenbach" (1793) by Eliza Parsons
* "The Mysterious Warning, a German Tale" (1796) by Eliza Parsons
* "Clermont" (1798) by
Regina Maria Roche
Orphan of the Rhine" (1798) by Eleanor Sleath
The Midnight Bell" (1798) by Francis LathomThese books, with their lurid titles, were once thought to be the creations of Jane Austen's imagination, though later research by Michael Sadleirand Montague Summersconfirmed that they did actually exist and stimulated renewed interest in the Gothic. They are currently all being reprinted by Valancourt Press (Wright 2007: 29-32).
Another example of Gothic parody in a similar vein is
The Heroineby Eaton Stannard Barrett(1813). Cherry Wilkinson, a fatuous female protagonist with a history of novel-reading, fancies herself as the heroine of a Gothic romance. She perceives and models reality according to the stereotypes and typical plot structures of the Gothic novel, leading to a series of absurd events culminating in catastrophe. After her downfall, her affectations and excessive imaginations become eventually subdued by the voice of reason in the form of Stuart, a paternal figure, under whose guidance the protagonist receives a sound education and correction of her misguided taste.
Further contributions to the Gothic genre were provided in the work of the Romantic poets. Prominent examples include Coleridge's "
Rime of the Ancient Mariner" and "Christabel" and Keats's "" which feature mysteriously fey ladies.
The poetry, romantic adventures and character of
Lord Byron, characterised by his spurned lover Lady Caroline Lambas 'mad, bad and dangerous to know' was another inspiration for the Gothic, providing the archetype of the Byronic hero. Byron features, under the codename of ' Lord Ruthven', in Lady Caroline's own Gothic novel: " Glenarvon" (1816).Byron was also the host of the celebrated ghost-story competition involving himself, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Mary Shelleyand John William Polidoriat the Villa Diodati on the banks of Lake Genevain the summer of 1816. This occasion was productive of both Mary Shelley's " Frankenstein" (1818) and Polidori's " The Vampyre" (1819). This latter story revives Lamb's Byronic 'Lord Ruthven', but this time as a vampire. "The Vampyre" has been accounted by cultural critic Christopher Frayling as one of the most influential works of fiction ever written and spawned a craze for vampire fiction and theatre (and latterly film) which has not ceased to this day. Mary Shelley's novel, though clearly influenced by the gothic tradition, is often considered the first science fictionnovel, despite the omission in the novel of any scientific explanation of the monster's animation and the focus instead on the moral issues and consequences of such a creation.
A late example of traditional Gothic is "
Melmoth the Wanderer" (1820) by Charles Robert Maturinwhich combines themes of Anti-Catholicismwith an outcast Byronic hero.
Though it is sometimes asserted that the Gothic had played itself out by the Victorian era and had declined into the cheap horror fiction of the "Penny Blood" or "
penny dreadful" type, exemplified by the serial novel " Varney the Vampire", in many ways Gothic was now entering its most creative phase - even if it was no longer a dominant literary genre (in fact the form's popularity as an established genre had already begun to erode with the success of the historical romance). The Victorians sometimes called their novels 'Gothick' to distinguish them from 'Gothic'. Influential critics, above all John Ruskin, far from denouncing mediaeval obscurantism, praised the imagination and fantasy exemplified by its gothic architecture, influencing the Pre-Raphaelites. Recently readers and critics have also begun to reconsider a number of previously overlooked Penny Blood and Penny Dreadful fictions. Authors such as G.W.M. Reynolds are slowly being accorded an important place in the development of the urban as a particularly Victorian Gothic setting, an area within which interesting links can be made with established readings of the work of Dickens and others. The formal relationship between these fictions, serialised for predominantly working class audiences, and the roughly contemporaneous sensation fictions serialised in middle class periodicals is also an area worthy of inquiry.
An important and innovative re-interpreter of the Gothic in this period was
Edgar Allan Poewho believed 'that terror is not of Germany, but of the soul’. His story " The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839) explores these 'terrors of the soul' whilst revisiting classic Gothic tropes of aristocratic decay, death and madness. The legendary villainy of the Spanish Inquisition, previously explored by Gothicists Radcliffe, Lewis and Maturin, is revisited in " The Pit and the Pendulum" (1842). The influence of Ann Radcliffe is also detectable in Poe's " The Oval Portrait" (1842), including an honorary mention of her name in the text of the story.
The influence of Byronic Romanticism evident in Poe is also apparent in the work of the Brontë sisters.
Emily Brontë's " Wuthering Heights" (1847) transports the Gothic to the forbidding Yorkshire Moors and features ghostly apparitions and a Byronic anti-hero in the person of the demonic Heathcliff whilst Charlotte Brontë's " Jane Eyre" (1847) adds "the madwoman in the attic" ( Sandra Gilbertand Susan Gubar1979) to the cast of gothic fiction. The Brontës' fiction is seen by some feminist critics as prime examples of Female Gothic, exploring woman's entrapment within domestic space and subjection to patriarchal authority and the transgressive and dangerous attempts to subvert and escape such restriction. Charlotte's Jane Eyre and Emily's Cathy are both examples of female protagonists in such a role (Jackson 1981: 123-29). Louisa May Alcott's gothic potboiler, " A Long Fatal Love Chase" (written in 1866, but published in 1995) is also an interesting specimen of this subgenre.
Elizabeth Gaskell's tales "
The Doom of the Griffiths" (1858) " Lois the Witch" and " The Grey Woman" all employ one of the most common themes of Gothic fiction, the power of ancestral sins to curse future generations, or the fear that they will.
The gloomy villain, forbidding mansion and persecuted heroine of Sheridan Le Fanu's "
Uncle Silas" (1864) shows the direct influence of both Walpole's "Otranto" and Radcliffe's "Udolpho". Le Fanu's short story collection " In a Glass Darkly" (1872) includes the superlative vampire tale " Carmilla", which provided fresh blood for that particular strand of the Gothic and influenced Bram Stoker's " Dracula" (1897). According to literary critic Terry Eagleton, Le Fanu, together with his predecessor Maturin and his successor Stoker, form a sub-genre of Irish Gothic, whose stories, featuring castles set in a barren landscape, with a cast of remote aristocrats dominating an atavistic peasantry, represent in allegorical form the political plight of colonial Ireland subjected to the Protestant Ascendancy(Eagleton 1995).
The genre was also a heavy influence on more mainstream writers, such as
Charles Dickens, who read gothic novels as a teenager and incorporated their gloomy atmosphere and melodrama into his own works, shifting them to a more modern period and an urban setting. His most explicitly Gothic work is his last novel " The Mystery of Edwin Drood" (1870). The mood and themes of the gothic novel held a particular fascination for the Victorians, with their morbid obsession with mourning rituals, Mementos, and mortality in general.
The 1880s, saw the revival of the Gothic as a powerful literary form allied to "fin de siecle" decadence. Classic works of this period include Robert Louis Stevenson's "
The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde" (1886), Oscar Wilde's " The Picture of Dorian Gray" (1891), George du Maurier's "Trilby" (1894), Henry James's " The Turn of the Screw" (1898) and the stories of Arthur Machen. The most famous gothic villain ever, Count Draculawas created by Bram Stokerin his novel " Dracula" (1897). Stoker's book also established Transylvania and Eastern Europe as the "locus classicus" of the Gothic.
In America, two notable writers of the end of the 19th century, in the Gothic tradition, were
Ambrose Bierceand Robert W. Chambers. Bierce's short stories were in the horrific and pessimistic tradition of Poe. Chambers, though, indulged in the decadent style of Wilde and Machen (even to the extent of having a character named 'Wilde' in his " The King in Yellow" ).
The Victorian Gothic fictionalized contemporary fears like ethical degeneration and questioned the social structures of the time.
Notable English twentieth century writers in the Gothic tradition include
Algernon Blackwood, William Hope Hodgson, M. R. James, Hugh Walpoleand Marjorie Bowen. In America pulp fiction magazines such as " Weird Tales" reprinted classic Gothic horror tales from the previous century, by such authors as Poe, Arthur Conan-Doyle, Edward Bulwer-Lytton and printed new stories by modern authors featuring both traditional and new horrors. The most significant of these was H. P. Lovecraftwho also wrote an excellent conspectus of the Gothic and supernatural horror tradition in his " Supernatural Horror in Literature" (1936). Lovecraft's protégé, Robert Bloch, contributed to "Weird Tales" and penned "Psycho" (1959), which drew on the classic interests of the genre. From these, the gothic genre "per se" gave way to modern horror fiction, regarded by some literary critics as a branch of the Gothic (Wisker 2005: 232-33) although others use the term to cover the entire genre. Many modern writers of horror (or indeed other types of fiction) exhibit considerable gothic sensibilities -- examples include the works of Anne Rice, as well as some of the sensationalist works of Stephen King. In the twentieth century the Romantic strand of Gothic was taken up in Daphne du Maurier's "Rebecca" (1938) which is in many respects a reworking of Charlotte Brontë's " Jane Eyre". Other books by du Maurier, such as "Jamaica Inn" (1936), also display Gothic tendencies. Du Maurier's work inspired a substantial body of 'Female Gothics,' concerning heroines alternately swooning over or being terrified by scowling Byronic men in possession of acres of prime real estate and the appertaining " droit de seigneur" [http://www.pandora.ca/catalog.php?cat_id=13] . A notable example was Patrick Hamilton's play "Gas Light", made into two equally successful films.
Gothic Romances of this description became popular during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, with authors such as
Joan Aiken, Dorothy Eden, Dorothy Fletcher, Victoria Holt, Barbara Michaels, Mary Stewartand Jill Tattersall. Many featured covers depicting a terror-stricken woman in diaphanous attire in front of a gloomy castle. Many were published under the Paperback LibraryGothic imprint and were marketed to a female audience. Though the authors were mostly women, some men wrote gothic romances under female pseudonyms. For instance the prolific Clarissa Rossand Marilyn Rosswere pseudonyms for the male writer Dan Ross. Outside of companies like Lovespell, who carry Colleen Shannon, very few books seem to be published using the term today.
The genre also influenced American writing to create the
Southern Gothicgenre, which combines some Gothic sensibilities (such as the Grotesque) with the setting and style of the Southern United States. Examples include William Faulkner, Harper Lee, and Flannery O'Connor. Contemporary American writers in this tradition include Joyce Carol Oates, in such novels as " Bellefleur", " A Bloodsmoor Romance" and short story collections such as "Night-Side" and Raymond Kennedyin his novel "Lulu Incognito". The Southern Ontario Gothicapplies a similar sensibility to a Canadian cultural context. Robertson Davies, Alice Munro, Barbara Gowdyand Margaret Atwoodhave all produced works that are notable exemplars of this form.
Another writer in this gothic tradition was
Henry Farrellwhose best-known work was the Hollywood horror novel What Ever Happened to Baby Jane?(1960). Farrel's novels spawned a sub-genre of 'Grande Dame Guignol' in the cinema, dubbed the ' Psycho-biddy' genre. Notable contemporary British writers in the Gothic tradition are Susan Hill, author of " The Woman in Black" (1983), and Patrick McGrath, author of "The Grotesque" (1989).
The themes of the literary Gothic have been translated into other media such as the theatre and had a notable revival in twentieth century gothic horror films such the classic
Universal horrorfilms of the 1930s, Hammer Horrorand Roger Corman's Poe cycle. Twentieth century Rock and Rollmusic also had its gothic side. Black Sabbathcreated a dark sound different at the time. Themes from gothic writers such as H. P. Lovecraftwere also used among Gothic rockand heavy metal bands, especially in black metal, thrash metal( Metallica's " The Call of Ktulu"), death metaland Gothic metal. For example, heavy metal musician King Diamonddelights in telling stories full of horror, theatricality, satanismand anti-Catholicismin his compositions.
The Castle of Otranto" (1764) by Horace Walpole( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/696 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
Vathek, an Arabian Tale" (1786) by William Thomas Beckford( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2060 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Mysteries of Udolpho" (1794) by Ann Radcliffe( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/3268 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
* "Caleb Williams" (1794) by
William Godwin( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/11323 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Monk" (1796) by Matthew Gregory Lewis( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/601 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Castle Spectre" (1797) by Matthew Gregory Lewis( [http://www.horrormasters.com/Text/a2149.pdf Full text] )
* "The Italian" (1797) by
* "Clermont" (1798) by
Regina Maria Roche
* "Wieland" (1798) by
Charles Brockden Brown
The Children of the Abbey" (1800) by Regina Maria Roche
Frankenstein" (1818) by Mary Shelley( at Wikisource)
The Vampyre; a Tale" (1819) by John William Polidori ( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/6087 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
Melmoth the Wanderer" (1820) by Charles Robert Maturin( [http://www.horrormasters.com/Text/a0023.pdf Full text] at HorrorMasters.com)
Confessions of an English Opium-Eater" (1821) by Thomas de Quincey( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2040 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner" (1824) by James Hogg( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/2276 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
* "The Mummy! A Tale of the Twenty-Second Century" (1827) by Jane Webb Loudon
Young Goodman Brown" (1835) by Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Minister's Black Veil" (1836) by Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Phantom Ship" (1839) by Frederick Marryat
The Fall of the House of Usher" (1839) by Edgar Allan Poe( at Wikisource)
The Tell-Tale Heart" (1843) by Edgar Allan Poe( at Wikisource)
The Quaker City; or, the Monks of Monk Hall" (1844) by George Lippard( [http://www.openlibrary.org/details/quakercity00lipparch full text page images] at openlibrary.org - USA best-seller)
Wuthering Heights" (1847) by Emily Brontë
Jane Eyre" (1847) by Charlotte Brontë
The House of the Seven Gables" (1851) by Nathaniel Hawthorne
* " Gothic Tales" (1850-1859) by
Elizabeth Gaskell(Collected by Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-043741-X)
The Mummy's Foot" (1863) by Théophile Gautier( at Wikisource)
Carmilla" (1872) by Joseph Sheridan le Fanu( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/10007 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" (1886) by Robert Louis Stevenson( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/42 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Picture of Dorian Gray" (1891) by Oscar Wilde( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/174 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Horla" (1887) by Guy de Maupassant( at Wikisource)
The Yellow Wallpaper" (1892) by Charlotte Perkins Gilman( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/1952 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
Dracula" (1897) by Bram Stoker( at Wikisource)
The Turn of the Screw" (1898) by Henry James( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/209 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Monkey's Paw" (1902 by W.W. Jacobs( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/12122 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Phantom of the Opera" (1910) by Gaston Leroux( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/175 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Lair of the White Worm" (1911) by Bram Stoker( at Wikisource)
* "Rebecca" (1938) by
Daphne du Maurier
The Iron Gates" (1945) by Margaret Millar
Other Voices, Other Rooms" (1948) by Truman Capote
The Lottery and Others" (1951) by Shirley Jackson
* "Gormenghast" (1946–1959) by
The Haunting of Hill House" (1959) by Shirley Jackson
We Have Always Lived in The Castle" (1963) by Shirley Jackson
The Unicorn" (1963) by Iris Murdoch
Rosemary's Baby" (1967) by Ira Levin
Expensive People" (1968) by Joyce Carol Oates
Last Summer" (1968) by Evan Hunter
Don't Look Now" (1970) by Daphne du Maurier
The Stepford Wives" (1972) by Ira Levin
Triad" (1973) by Mary Leader
* "22 Hallowfield" (1974) by Doris Shannon
'Salem's Lot(1975) by Stephen King
Julia" (1975) by Peter Straub
The House Next Door" (1976) by Anne Rivers Siddons
The Shining" (1977) by Stephen King
The Hour of the Oxrun Dead" (1977) by Charles L. Grant
Ghost Story" (1979) by Peter Straub
Clara Reeve" (1979) by Thomas M. Disch
Bellefleur" (1980) by Joyce Carol Oates
The Land of Laughs" (1980) by Jonathan Carroll
The Nameless" (1981) by Ramsey Campbell
The Elementals" (1981) by Michael McDowell
Familiar Spirit" (1983) by Lisa Tuttle
The Place" (1986) by T.M. Wright
The Bones of the Moon" (1988) by Jonathan Carroll
The Secret History" (1992) by Donna Tartt
Elephantasm" (1993) by Tanith Lee
My Heart Laid Bare" (1998) by Joyce Carol Oates
The Little Friend" (2002) by Donna Tartt
Candles Burning" (2006) by Tabitha King& Michael McDowell
* "Heart-Shaped Box" (2007) by
Northanger Abbey" (1818) by Jane Austen( at Wikisource)
Nightmare Abbey" (1818) by Thomas Love Peacock( [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/9909 Full text] at Project Gutenberg)
The Ingoldsby Legends" (1840) by Thomas Ingoldsby( [http://www.exclassics.com/ingold/ingintro.htm Full text] at The Ex-Classics Website)
Southern Ontario Gothic
Edith Birkhead(1921) "The Tale of Terror".
*Clive Bloom (2007) "Gothic Horror: A Guide for Students and Readers". Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
*Fred Botting (1996) "Gothic", Routledge.
*Clery, E.J. (1995) "The Rise of Supernatural Fiction", Cambridge UP.
Terry Eagleton(1995) "Heathcliff and the Great Hunger". NY: Verso.
*Gamer, Michael (2006) "Romanticism and the Gothic. Genre, Reception and Canon Formation", Cambridge UP.
*Luke Gibbons (2004) "Gaelic Gothic". Galway: Arlen House.
Sandra Gilbertand Susan Gubar(1979) " The Madwoman in the Attic". ISBN 0-300-08458-7
*George Haggerty (2006) "Queer Gothic". Urbana, IL: Illinois UP
*Judith Halberstam (1995) "Skin Shows". Durham, NC: Duke UP.
*Avril Horner & Sue Zlosnik (2005) "Gothic and the Comic Turn". Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
*Rosemary Jackson (1981) "Fantasy: The Literature of Subversion".
*Maggie Kilgour (1995)"The Rise of the Gothic Novel", Routledge.
*Robert Mighall (2003) "A Geography of Victorian Gothic Fiction: Mapping History's Nightmares".
David Punter(1996) "The Literature of Terror" (2 vols).
*Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick (1986) T"he Coherence of Gothic Conventions". NY: Methuen.
*David Stevens (2000) "The Gothic Tradition". ISBN 0-521-77732-1
*Jack Sullivan (ed) (1986) "
The Penguin Encyclopedia of Horror and the Supernatural".
Montague Summers(1938) "Gothic Quest".
*Devandra Varma (1957) "The Gothic Flame".
*Gina Wisker (2005) "Horror Fiction: An Introduction". Continuum: New York.
*Angela Wright (2007) "Gothic Fiction". Basingstoke: Palgrave.
* [http://gothic.english.dal.ca The International Gothic Association]
* [http://www.gothlit.com Gothic Poets and Writers Literary Club]
* [http://www.zittaw.com/gothicliterature.htm The Gothic Literature Page by Zittaw Press]
* [http://www.valancourtbooks.com Valancourt Books: Specialists in rare 18th and 19th century Gothic fiction]
* [http://www.zittaw.com/ Zittaw Press]
* [http://www.gutenberg.org/wiki/Gothic_Fiction_%28Bookshelf%29 Gothic Fiction Bookshelf at Project Gutenberg]
* "" by
H. P. Lovecraftat Wikisource
* [http://www.scepticthomas.com/gothic/gothic.htm Gothic Tradition]
* [http://www.tate.org.uk/tateetc/issue6/gothicnightmares.htm Gothic Nightmares]
* [http://irishgothichorrorjournal.homestead.com/ Irish Journal of Gothic and Horror Studies]
* [http://www.litgothic.com/ Literary Gothic: A Web Guide to Gothic Literature]
* [http://www.mtsu.edu/~saw2z/gothicfictionweb/AmericanGothic.htm "Typical Elements of American Gothic Fiction"]
* [http://www.house-of-pain.com/fictionarchives/index.html House of Pain E-Zine Archives: Modern Gothic Fiction]
* [http://labyrinth13.com/Gothic_Novels.htm In Praise of the Gothic Novel - video clips]
* [http://www.adam-matthew-publications.co.uk/digital_guides/gothic_fiction/Biographies.aspx Gothic Author Biographies]
* [http://thesicklytaper.pagedepot.com/ The Sickly Taper: A Gothic bibliography on the web]
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