John Keats

John Keats

Infobox Writer
name = John Keats

birthdate = birth date|1795|10|31|df=y
birthplace = London, England
deathdate = death date and age|1821|02|23|1795|10|31|df=y
deathplace = Rome, Papal States
occupation = Poet
movement = Romantic

John Keats (IPAEng|ˈkiːts; 31 October 1795 – 23 February 1821) was one of the principal poets of the English Romantic movement. During his short life, his work received constant critical attacks from periodicals of the day, but his posthumous influence on poets such as Alfred Tennyson has been immense. Elaborate word choice and sensual imagery characterize Keats's poetry, including a series of odes that were his masterpieces and which remain among the most popular poems in English literature. Keats's letters, which expound on his aesthetic theory of "negative capability" [ [,M1 The Complete Poetical Works of John Keats edited by Horace Elisha Scudder, Boston: Riverside Press, 1899. p. 277] ] , are among the most celebrated by any writer.


John Keats was born in 1795 at 85 Moorgate in London, where his father, Thomas Keats, was an hostler. The pub is now called 'Keats at the Globe', only a few yards from Moorgate station. Keats was baptised at St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate and lived happily for the first seven years of his life. The beginnings of his troubles occurred in 1804, when his father died of a fractured skull after falling from his horse. A year later, in 1805, Keats' grandfather died. His mother, Frances Jennings Keats, remarried soon afterwards, but quickly left the new husband and moved herself and her four children (a son had died in infancy) to live with Keats's grandmother, Alice Jennings. There, Keats attended a school that first instilled a love of literature in him. In 1810, however, his mother died of tuberculosis, leaving him and his siblings in the custody of their grandmother.

Keats's grandmother appointed two guardians to take care of her new "charges", and these guardians removed Keats from his old school to become a surgeon's apprentice at Thomas Hammond's apothecary shop in Edmonton [ [ Church Street, Edmonton, London] Retrieved 2 April 2008] (now part of the London Borough of Enfield). This continued until 1814, when, after a fight with his master, he left his apprenticeship and became a student at Guy's Hospital (now part of King's College London). During that year, he devoted more and more of his time to the study of literature. Keats traveled to the Isle of Wight in the spring of 1819, where he spent a week. Later that year he stayed in Winchester. It was here that Keats wrote Isabella, St. Agnes' Eve and Lamia. Parts of Hyperion and the five-act poetic tragedy Otho The Great were also written in Winchester.

Following the death of his grandmother, he soon found his brother, Tom Keats, entrusted to his care. Tom was suffering, as his mother had, from tuberculosis. Finishing his epic poem "Endymion", Keats left to work in Scotland and Ireland with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. However, he too began to show signs of tuberculosis infection on that trip, and returned prematurely. When he did, he found that Tom's condition had deteriorated, and that "Endymion" had, as had "Poems" before it, been the target of much abuse from the critics. On 1 December 1818, Tom Keats died of his disease, and John Keats moved again, to live in Brown's house in Hampstead, next to

This relationship was cut short when, by 1820, Keats began showing serious signs of tuberculosis, the disease that had plagued his family. On the suggestion of his doctors, he left the cold airs of London behind and moved to Italy with his friend Joseph Severn. Keats moved into a house, which is now a museum that is dedicated to his life and work, The Keats-Shelley House, on the Spanish Steps, in Rome, where despite attentive care from Severn and Dr. John Clark, the poet's health rapidly deteriorated. He died in 1821 and was buried in the Protestant Cemetery, Rome. His last request was to be buried under a tombstone reading, "Here lies one whose name was writ in water." His name was not to appear on the stone. Despite these requests, however, Severn and Brown also added the epitaph: "This Grave contains all that was mortal, of a YOUNG ENGLISH POET, who on his Death Bed, in the Bitterness of his heart, at the Malicious Power of his enemies, desired these words to be Engraven on his Tomb Stone" along with the image of a lyre with broken strings.

Shelley blamed his death on an article published shortly before in the "Quarterly Review", with a scathing attack on Keats's "Endymion". The offending article was long believed to have been written by William Gifford, though later shown to be the work of John Wilson Croker. Keats's death inspired Shelley to write the poem "Adonais".'; Byron later composed a short poem on this theme using the phrase "snuffed out by an article." However Byron, far less admiring of Keats's poetry than Shelley and generally more cynical in nature, was here probably just as much poking fun at Shelley's interpretation as he was having a dig at his old fencing partners the critics. (see below, Byron's other less than serious poem on the same subject).

The largest collection of Keats's letters, manuscripts, and other papers is in the Houghton Library at Harvard University. Other collections of such material can be found at the British Library; Keats House, Hampstead; The Keats-Shelley House, Rome; and the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York.


* Addressed to Haydon (1816)
* Addressed to the Same (1816)
* After dark vapours have oppressed our plains (1817)
* As from the darkening gloom a silver dove (1814)
* Asleep! O sleep a little while, white pearl!
* Bards of Passion and of Mirth
* Before he went to live with owls and bats (1817?)
* Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art (1819)
* (1816)
* The Day Is Gone, And All Its Sweets Are Gone
* Dedication. To Leigh Hunt, Esq.
* A Dream, After Reading Dante's Episode Of Paolo And Francesca
* A Draught of Sunshine
* (1817)
* Epistle to John Hamilton Reynolds
* Epistle to My Brother George
* The Eve of Saint Mark
* The Eve of St. Agnes (1819)
* (1817)
* Fancy (poem)
* Fill for me a brimming bowl (1814)
* Fragment of an Ode to Maia
* Had I a man's fair form, then might my sighs (1815 or 1816)
* Hadst thou liv’d in days of old (1816)
* Give me women, wine, and snuff (1815 or 1816)
* God of the golden bow (1816 or 1817)
* The Gothic looks solemn (1817)
* Happy is England! I could be content (1816)
* Hither, hither, love (1817 or 1818)
* How many bards gild the lapses of time (1816)
* The Human Seasons
* Hymn To Apollo
* Hyperion (1818)
* I am as brisk (1816)
* I had a dove
* I stood tip-toe upon a little hill (1816)
* If By Dull Rhymes Our English Must Be Chain'd
* Imitation of Spenser (1814)
* In Drear-Nighted December
* Isabella or The Pot of Basil (1818)
* Keen, fitful gusts are whisp’ring here and there (1816)
* La Belle Dame sans Merci (1819)
* Lamia (1819)
* Lines Written on 29 May, the Anniversary of Charles’s Restoration, on Hearing the Bells Ringing (1814 or 1815)
* Lines on Seeing a Lock of Milton's Hair
* Lines on The Mermaid Tavern
* Meg Merrilies
* Modern Love (Keats)
* O Blush Not So!
* O come, dearest Emma! the rose is full blown (1815)
* O grant that like to Peter I (1817?)
* O Solitude! if I must with thee dwell (1815 or 1816)
* Ode (Keats)
* Ode on a Grecian Urn (1819)
* Ode on Indolence (1819)
* Ode on Melancholy (1819)
* Ode to a Nightingale (1819)
* Ode to Apollo (1815)
* Ode to Fanny
* Ode to Psyche (1819)
* Oh Chatterton! how very sad thy fate (1815)
* Oh! how I love, on a fair summer's eve (1816)
* Old Meg (1818)
* On a Leander Which Miss Reynolds, My Kind Friend, Gave Me (1817)
* On Death
* On Fame
* On First Looking into Chapman's Homer (1816)
* On Leaving Some Friends at an Early Hour (1816)
* On Peace (1814)
* On Receiving a Curious Shell, and a Copy of Verses, from the Same Ladies (1815)
* On Receiving a Laurel Crown from Leigh Hunt (1816 or 1817)
* On Seeing the Elgin Marbles (1817)
* On Sitting Down to Read King Lear Once Again
* On the Grasshopper and Cricket (1816)
* On the Sea (1817)
* On The Story of Rimini (1817)
* On The Sonnet
* The Poet (a fragment)
* A Prophecy - To George Keats in America
* Robin Hood. To A Friend
* Sharing Eve's Apple
* Sleep and Poetry (1816)
* A Song of Opposites
* Specimen of an Induction to a Poem (1816)
* Staffa
* Stay, ruby breasted warbler, stay (1814)
* Stanzas
* Think not of it, sweet one, so (1817)
* This Living Hand
* This pleasant tale is like a little copse (1817)
* To —
* To a Cat
* To a Friend Who Sent Me Some Roses (1816)
* To a Lady seen for a few Moments at Vauxhall
* To A Young Lady Who Sent Me A Laurel Crown (1816 or 1817)
* To Ailsa Rock
* To Autumn (1819)
* To Lord Byron (1814)
* To Charles Cowden Clarke (1816)
* To Fanny
* To G.A.W. (Georgiana Augusta Wylie) (1816)
* To George Felton Mathew (1815)
* To Georgiana Augusta Wylie
* To Haydon
* To Haydon with a Sonnet Written on Seeing the Elgin Marbles (1817)
* To Homer
* To Hope (1815)
* To John Hamilton Reynolds
* To Kosciusko (1816)
* To Leigh Hunt, Esq. (1817)
* To My Brother George (epistle) (1816)
* To My Brother George (sonnet) (1816)
* To My Brothers (1816)
* To one who has been long in city pent (1816)
* To Sleep
* To Solitude
* To Some Ladies (1815)
* To the Ladies Who Saw Me Crown’d (1816 or 1817)
* To the Nile
* Two Sonnets on Fame
* Unfelt, unheard, unseen (1817)
* When I have fears that I may cease to be (1818)
* Where Be Ye Going, You Devon Maid?
* Where's the Poet?
* Why did I laugh tonight?
* Woman! when I behold thee flippant, vain (1815 or 1816)
* Written in Disgust of Vulgar Superstition (1816)
* Written on a Blank Space
* Written on a Summer Evening
* Written on the Day that Mr Leigh Hunt Left Prison (1815)
* Written Upon the Top of Ben Nevis
* You say you love; but with a voice (1817 or 1818)

Additional works

*"The Complete Poetical Works and Letters of John Keats," ed. Horace Elisha Scudder, Boston: Riverside Press (1899) [ full text available through Google Books]
*"The Complete Poetical Works of John Keats ," ed. H. Buxton Forman. Oxford University Press (1907) [ full text available through Google Books]
* "The Letters of John Keats, 1814-1821, Volumes 1 and 2," ed. Hyder Edward Rollins, [ Harvard University Press] (1958)
* "The Poems of John Keats," ed. Jack Stillinger, [ Harvard University Press] (1978)
* "Complete Poems," ed. Jack Stillinger, [ Harvard University Press] (1982)
* "John Keats: Poetry Manuscripts at Harvard, a Facsimile Edition," ed. Jack Stillinger, [ Harvard University Press] (1990)
* "Selected Letters of John Keats," ed. Grant F. Scott, [ Harvard University Press] (2002)

ee also

*Physician writer
*List of popular references to John Keats



* Citation
last =Goslee
first =Nancy
author-link =
year =1985
title =Uriel's Eye: Miltonic Stationing and Statuary in Blake, Keats and Shelley
place =
publisher =University of Alabama Press
edition =
volume =
id =
isbn = 0817302433
url =

* Citation
title=Twilight of the Gods: The Greeks in Schiller and Lukacs
periodical=Germanic Review
* Citation
title=History and Temporalization of Space: Keats's Hyperion Poems.
periodical=Proceedings of the XII Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association, edited by Roger Bauer and Douwe Fokkema
place=Munich, Germany
* Citation
last =Richard Marggraf Turley
first =
author-link =
year =2004
date =
title =Keats's Boyish Imagination
place =London
publisher =Routledge (2004)
edition =
volume =
id =
isbn =9780415288828
url =

* Citation
last =Keats
first =John
last2 =Stillinger
first2 =Jack
year =1982
title =Complete Poems
place =Cambridge, Massachusetts
publisher =Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
edition =
volume =
id =
isbn =0674154304
url =

* Citation
last =Wolfson
first =Susan J.
author-link =
year =1986
date =
title =The Questioning Presence.
place =Ithaca, New York
publisher =
edition =
volume =
id =
isbn =0801419093
url =


*Monckton Milnes, Richard, ed. (Lord Houghton) (1848). "Life, Letters and Literary Remains of John Keats". 2 vols. London: Edward Moxon.
*Rossetti, William Michael (1887). "The Life and Writings of John Keats". London: Walter Scott.
*Colvin, Sidney (1917). "John Keats: His Life and Poetry, His Friends Critics and After-Fame". London: Macmillan.
*Lowell, Amy (1925). "John Keats". 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
*Brown, Charles Armitage (1937). "The Life of John Keats", ed. with an introduction and notes by Dorothy Hyde Bodurtha and Willard Bissell Pope. London: Oxford University Press.
*Gittings, Robert (1954). "John Keats: The Living Year. 21 September 1818 to 21 September 1819". London: Heinemann.
*Parson, Donald (1954). "Portraits of Keats". Cleveland: World Publishing Co.
*Richardson, Joanna (1963). "The Everlasting Spell. A Study of Keats and His Friends". London: Cape.
*Ward, Aileen (1963). "John Keats: The Making of a Poet". London: Secker & Warburg.
*Bate, Walter Jackson (1964). "John Keats". Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
*Gittings, Robert (1964). "The Keats Inheritance". London: Heinemann.
*Gittings, Robert (1968). "John Keats". London: Heinemann.
*Hewlett, Dorothy (3rd rev. ed. 1970). "A life of John Keats". London: Hutchinson.
*Colvin, Sidney (1970). "John Keats: His Life and Poetry, His Friends, Critics, and After-Fame". New York: Octagon Books.
*Richardson, Joanna (1980). "Keats and His Circle. An Album of Portraits". London: Cassell.
*Coote, Stephen (1995). "John Keats. A Life". London: Hodder & Stoughton.
*Motion, Andrew (1997). "Keats". London: Faber.
*Walsh, John Evangelist (1999). "Darkling I Listen: The Last Days and Death of John Keats". New York: St. Martin's Press
*Kirkland, John (2008). "Love Letters of Great Men, Vol. 1". CreateSpace Publishing.

External links

* [ Works by or about John Keats] at Internet Archive (scanned books original editions color illustrated)
* (plain text and HTML)
* [ Complete Poetical Works]
* [ Complete Poetical Works] , in an RSS feed
* [ Electronic Concordance] to the standard edition of Keats's poetry
* [ Keats's Poetry and commentary] at Oldpoetry.comPortals
* []
* []
* [] Scholarship
* [ Romantic Circles -- Excellent Editions & Articles on Keats and other Authors of the Romantic period]
* [ The Life of John Keats: a memoir by his friend Charles Armitage Brown]
* [ The Life and Work of John Keats] Misc
* [ Keats's grave]
* [ Keats House]
* [ The Keats-Shelley House in Rome]
* [ "'Once More the Poet': Keats, Severn and the Grecian Lyre"] . Article by John Curtis Franklin about Severn's role in the design of Keats' tombstone, Protestant Cemetery, Rome
* [ John Keats] at the National Portrait Gallery (UK)
* [ "Second only to Byron"] : an essay on "Barry Cornwall" and Keats from [ TLS] , 3 September 2008.
* [ Selected Works at Poetry Index]

NAME= Keats, John
SHORT DESCRIPTION= one of the principal poets of the English Romantic movement
DATE OF BIRTH= 31 October 1795
PLACE OF BIRTH= London, England
DATE OF DEATH= 23 February 1821

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  • Keats House — is a museum in Hampstead in North London, England. The building was originally a pair of semi detached houses known as Wentworth Place. The poet John Keats lodged in one of them from 1818 to 1820 with his friend Charles Armitage Brown. These were …   Wikipedia

  • KEATS (J.) — Keats, issu d’un milieu londonien très humble, menacé très tôt par la tuberculose, disparut avant sa vingt sixième année. Il s’était voué très jeune au culte de la beauté. Il salua les Grecs, qu’il ne connaissait que par des traductions, comme… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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