Valenzuela, Philippines

Valenzuela, Philippines
Lungsod ng Valenzuela
—  City  —

Nickname(s): The Vibrant City, The City of Discipline
Motto: Valenzuela, May Disiplina
Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Valenzuela
Valenzuela is located in Philippines
Map of the Philippines showing the location of Valenzuela
Coordinates: 14°40′58″N 120°58′1″E / 14.68278°N 120.96694°E / 14.68278; 120.96694Coordinates: 14°40′58″N 120°58′1″E / 14.68278°N 120.96694°E / 14.68278; 120.96694
Country  Philippines
Region National Capital Region
(Third district)[1]
Legislative districts 1st and 2nd
Established November 7, 1621 (1621-11-07) (390 years ago)[2]
Cityhood February 14, 1998 (1998-02-14) (13 years ago)[3]
 – Type Strong mayor-council government (LGU)
 – Mayor Sherwin T. Gatchalian[4] (NPC)
 – Vice mayor Eric M. Martinez[5] (NPC)
 – Representatives
 – City 44.589 km2 (17.2 sq mi)
 – Water 3.995 km2 (1.5 sq mi)
 – Urban 31.559 km2 (12.2 sq mi)
 – Rural 5.504 km2 (2.1 sq mi)
Area rank 101st of 122 cities
Elevation[8] 38 m (125 ft)
Population (2007)[9]
 – City 568,928
 – Estimate (2010) 580,022
 – Rank 10th of 122 cities
 – Density 12,759.4/km2 (33,046.6/sq mi)
Demonym Valenzuelaño
 – Barangays 32
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP code 1440–48
0560 (see below)
Area code(s) 02
ISO 3166 code PH-00[10]
Twin Cities
 – Bucheon (2006)[11][12] South Korea Gyeonggi (SK)
 – Santa Cruz (2008)[13] Philippines Marinduque (PH)
 –  Koronadal (2011)[14] Philippines S. Cotabato (PH)
Spoken languages Tagalog, English, Chinese, and other regional languages
Population estimate of 2010 is based on National Statistics Office's average estimate for the country.[15]

Valenzuela (play /vɒlənzjˈɛlɑː/; Filipino: Valenzuela [ˌbɐlenzuˈwelɐ]),[n 1] officially known as the City of Valenzuela[16] (Filipino: Lungsod ng Valenzuela) (ISO: PH-00; PSGC: 137504000[10]) is a highly urbanized,[17][18] first-class city [19] and one of cities in the Philippines that constitutes Metro Manila. The city has 568,928 residents as of August 2007 and is primarily an industrial and residential suburb of Manila.[10] The North Luzon Expressway passes through the city and out of Metro Manila into the province of Bulacan.

Valenzuela has a land area of 44.59 km2 divided into several domain: residential, industrial and cultural. It is bordered by Meycauayan City, Quezon City and northern Caloocan City to the east; by Obando in Bulacan to the west; by Malabon City, southern Caloocan City and Tullahan River to the south.

Since becoming a city in 1998, Valenzuela’s economy has flourished and its population has swelled significantly.



Valenzuela, in Spanish is a diminutive form of Valencia, Spain which means "little Valencia".[20] The name Valenzuela is also the surname of Pío Valenzuela, a Filipino physician and patriot who was among the leaders of the Katipunan. He was one of the triumvirate of the Katipunan that started the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonial authorities and was the former provisional chairman for the Katipunan.[21][22]

Originally, Valenzuela was called Polo. The name Polo was derived from the Tagalog term pulô meaning island, though the area was not an entirely island for itself. The original town of Polo was blessed by the rivers from the north and Tullahan River on the south. Hence, the enclosed land was thought to be an island, so the early town men regarded the place as Pulo which later evolved into Polo done by hispanicization of the word.

Today, the term Polo only applies to the barangay of Polo, the birthplace of Dr. Pio Valenzuela himself, which is found in the city's first congressional district.


During its long history, the city played an important role in the development of northern Metro Manila. Before its cityhood on 1998, the city was divided economically into a Spanish friar hacienda, small political settlement and a Spanish garrison before the Philippine Independence in 1898. Valenzuela City was once part of the Bulacan province. In 19th century, its huge land area was subdivided into Polo, Novaliches, Obando, and others merged into the province of Morong. Later on in the American period, the city became part of Bulacan and colonial government commissioned the construction of Marcelo H. del Pilar Expressway. The expressway later became North Luzon Expressway during Marcos's era.

The liberation of the Philippines from Japanese rule on 1946 resulted in the division of Valenzuela into two towns.

On 1960, President Carlos P. Garcia signed a bill creating the municipality of Valenzuela independent from Bulacan. However, on 1963, the bill was reverted, making the northern Polo under Bulacan again, while the southern Valenzuela town became an independent municipality. The creation of Metro Manila Commission and National Capital Region during Marcos' administration led to unification of Polo and Valenzuela into a municipality of Valenzuela in 1975. Valenzuela finally attained cityhood status on February 14, 1998.

Spanish colonization

The history of Valenzuela is incomplete unless the history of its mother province, Bulacan, is included. For hundreds of years, present-day Valenzuela, Obando and Novaliches (now in Quezon City) were parts of Bulacan. Therefore, the history of Bulacan before 1623 was also the history of Valenzuela.

Early Hispanic history of the region

The area encompassed by the present-day Valenzuela City, Novaliches, and Obando municipality and portions of land in southern Caloocan City were formerly known during Spanish period as Polo. The region, is significantly bounded by the Tullahan River on the south and streams of branching Río Grande de Pampanga on some areas.

According to Philippine historians Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, there existed an infamous Battle of Bangkusay in Bangkusay Channel, Tondo headed by Maynila king Rajah Sulayman, which employed seafarers and warriors from all over parts of the north of Maynila Kingdom and Bulacan.[23] The battle was declared against Spanish conquering forces of Miguel López de Legazpi on June 3, 1571. Spanish troops were headed by Legazpi's nephew, Martín de Goiti. On June 3, 1571, Sulayman led his troops and attacked the Spaniards in a decisive battle at the town of Bangkusay, but they were defeated, and Sulayman himself was killed.[23] With the destruction of Sulayman's army and the friendship with Rajah Lakandula, the Spaniards were enabled to establish throughout the city and its neighboring towns.[24]

Legazpi formally established settlement on Maynila on June 24, 1571.[25] According to Father Martinez de Zuñiga, a Spanish missionary of Augustinian order, Maynila was a vast region enclosed by the towns of Polo, Tambobong (now Malabon City), and mountains of San Mateo in Morong. The region of Valenzuela, was formally merged under the rule of Bulacan town of Catanghalan.[25]

On 1587, the Tagalog cabeza de barangay of Catanghalan Tassi Bassi joined the Tondo chieftain Magat Salamat's planned insurrection against Spanish colonization of Maynila.[26] The rebellion was composed of kin-related noblemen or maharlikas of Maynila including Juan Banal, another Tondo chief and Salamat’s brother-in-law; Gerónimo Basi and Gabriel Tuambacar, brothers of Agustín de Legazpi; Pedro Balinguit, the chief of Pandacan; Felipe Salonga, the chief of Polo; Dionisio Capolo (Kapulong), the chief of Candaba and brother of Felipe Salonga; Juan Basi, the chief of Taguig; Felipe Salalila, the chief of Misil; Agustin Manuguit, son of Felipe Salalila; Luis Amanicaloa, another chief of Tondo; Felipe Amarlangagui, the chief of Caranglan; Omaghicon, the chief of Navotas and Pitongatan (Pitong Gatang), another chief of Tondo. In Philippine history, this was notably known as Tondo Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, a plot of series of "revolution" against Spain that included several native noblemen. The planned revolution was never happened because whistleblowers revealed the nature of it to Spanish authorities.[27]

When Manila became an archdiocese on August 14, 1595 based upon Pope Gregory XIII's Papal order, regular friars that had already established permanent church in Catanghalan decided that the attached sitio of Polo be divided to cater spiritual needs of an increasing population all over.[28] Thus, on 1623, upon order of Governor-General Alonso Fajardo de Entenza, sitio Polo became independent from Catanghalan although the two was still under the alcaldía (Spanish title for local government during that time) of Bulacan.

Establishment of the town

Prior to the elevation of Manila as an archdiocese on 1595, regular friars staying on the town of Catanghalan asked for an appeal from Governor-General Entenza to have another separate town from former. Through successive efforts of Fray Juan Taranco and Don Juan Monsód, sitio Polo was successfully separated from Catanghalan in 1623, but still under jurisdiction of the alcaldía de Bulacán. Thus, the first cabeza de barangay of the new town of Polo was Monsód and Taranco operated the present San Diego de Alcalá parish on a small tavern.[29]

It was in the year 1627 when the construction of the Parochial church dedicated to San Diego de Alcala started. Finally, in 1629, the church was fully constructed. Its fabrication was supervised by Fr. José Valencia aided by Capitan Juan Tibay. The church was fully repaired and remodeled under the direction of Fr. Vicente in 1852. A great change took place in the appearance of the church, that according to the missionaries it was one of the best ever built in the archipelago, and became the envy among other towns. Again, the church after its repair was dedicated to another patron, the "Nuestra Senora de la Inmaculada Concepcion". Still, another dedication was made and that was to San Roque. The convent was well built and comfortable. The pride of its artistry lies on the fact that the people of the town had done so much to its perfection. Besides the convent, a descent "casa tribunal" with a rectangular prison cell was built, and a school house also fabricated of stones was erected.

During 1635, the Sangleys at Parian in Manila and in the neighboring towns staged an insurrection against the Spanish government. It was during one of these rebellions that the church bells brought by the Spanish Missionaries to the town which was made of bronze, and whose intonations were second only to that of the bell of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, was stolen by the Chinese. Since it was so huge, the looters had to break it into small pieces in order to remove it from the belfry.

Philippine Revolution to World War II

The Americans established the military rule and Dr. Pío Valenzuela was appointed first president of the town on September 6, 1899. He resigned on February 1902.

Rufino Valenzuela became the first elected president of the Town in 1904.

The entrance of the Japanese in Polo was without any resistance. The people during the Japanese time enjoyed prosperity for Polo became a market town. There were more signs of cooperation and social contact among the inhabitants but on the contrary, fear of reprisals from the Japanese predominated. The town also became a place of terror. There were too many murders committed. The place became a habitat of Makapilis, and spies who troubled the peaceful civilians. The sudden appearance of the Japanese added terror to the place.

The reign of terror climaxed on December 10, 1944. It was a day of mourning for the people of Polo and Obando for it was the day when the Japanese massacred more than a hundred males in both towns. At about 1:00am on this day up to the setting of the sun, cries could be heard from the municipal building when males who were screeded by the "Magic Eye" inside the church were being tortured to death. (This could be the reason why the old church was not anymore restored, and be neglected to ruins, thus building a new edifice beside the old one.) Mayor Ponciano met the same fate. He died a cruel death on this day with the municipal officials.

When liberation came, the town was partly burned by the approaching the military forces of the Filipinos and Americans who threw flame throwers and shelled the big houses in the town, not exempting the more than 300 years old church of San Diego.

The historical old bridge was destroyed by the Japanese, thus separating Polo in two parts, the Northern and the Southern Parts. The northern part was at once liberated by joint Filipino and American troops while the southern part, which includes the Poblacion was still under the Japanese banner. The Japanese abandoned the town on February 11, 1945 when the combined American and Filipino troops were able to cross the river and took the town.

Polo, Bulacan to Valenzuela City

San Roque Church

On July 21, 1960, President Diosdado Macapagal signed Executive Order No. 401, which led to the creation of the separate municipalities of Valenzuela and Polo, in honor of Dr. Pío Valenzuela, a significant personality in Philippine history who was born here. The new town of Polo comprised the barangays on the northern part namely Poblacion, Palasan, Arkong Bato, Pariancillo Villa, Balangkas, Mabolo, Coloong, Malanday, Bisig, Tagalag, Rincon, Pasolo, Punturin, Bignay and Dalandanan. The new town of Valenzuela comprised the southern barangays: Karuhatan, Marulas, Malinta, Ugong, Mapulang Lupa, Canumay, Maysan, Paso de Blas, Bagbaguin and Torres Bugallon (now Gen. T. de Leon).After three years of administrating the two towns, however, the local government and their respective constituents realized that a division of Polo and Valenzuela was ill advised and only resulted in underdevelopment instead of progress. Thus, on September 11, 1963, another law, Executive Order No. 46 was signed by then President Diosdado Macapagal; this declared the re-unification of the towns of Polo and Valenzuela, which led to the adoption of the name "Valenzuela" in respect to and to perpetuate the legacy of the great patriot, Dr. Pío Valenzuela.

Because of the rapid growth of the National Capital Region in terms of population, as well as social and economic requirements in the early seventies, and the municipality's proximity to the area, During the Marcos administration, Valenzuela was taken from the province of Bulacan and was included in the created MMDA (Metro Manila Development Authority) and the NCR (National Capital Region). Presidential Decree Number 824 was issued on November 7, 1975, creating the Metropolitan Manila Commission and separating the Municipality of Valenzuela from the Province of Bulacan. During the Martial Law era, Valenzuela was known as the "Strike Capital of the Philippines" due to the presence of strikes coming from factories around the town.

As part of the National Capital Region, the social and political upheavals of the seventies and early eighties did not dampen the pulsating economy of the municipality. It was, in fact, a golden age in the history and culture of Valenzuela when businesses and industries in the municipality grew rapidly.

The passage of the Local Government Code in 1991 unlocked and marshaled the repressed energies of local communities. The Local Government Code provides genuine and meaningful autonomy to enable local governments to attain their fullest development as self-reliant communities. It was during this time that Valenzuela began charting its own destiny and moved the local economy in the direction it chose.

From then on, Valenzuela had to cope with rapid urbanization as part of the National Capital Region. It is considered as a vital link between the National Capital Region and Northern Luzon.

And 23 years after its separation from Bulacan and 375 years after its founding, On February 14, 1998, then President Fidel Ramos signed Republic Act No. 8526, converting the Municipality of Valenzuela under the administration of Mayor Bobbit Carlos into a highly urbanized city, making Valenzuela the 12th city in Metro Manila and the 83rd in the Philippines.[30]


Landsat satellite false-color photo of Manila Bay and the metropolis of Manila.

Valenzuela City is located at 14°40′58″N 120°58′1″E / 14.68278°N 120.96694°E / 14.68278; 120.96694. Manila Bay, the country's top port for trade and industry is located several kilometers west of the city. Valenzuela is bordered in the north by the town of Obando and the city of Meycauayan in Bulacan, the city of Navotas in the west, Malabon in the south and Quezon City and northern portion of Caloocan in the east.

The highest elevation point is 38 meters above sea level. Having a surface gradient of 0.55% and a gentle slope, hilly landscape is located in the industrial section of the city in Canumay. The average elevation point is 2 meters above sea level.[8]

Apart from the political borders set by the law, Valenzuela and Malabon is also separated by the 15-kilometer Tenejeros-Tullahan River or simply Tullahan River.[31] The river obtained its name from tulya, meaning clam due to the abundance of such shellfish in the area.[32] Tullahan is a part of the Marilao-Meycauayan-Obando river system of central Luzon.[33] It is now considered biologically dead[34] and one of the dirtiest river system in the world,[33] though the city government believes the river isn't dead yet.[35] Tullahan riverbanks used to be lined with mangrove trees and rich with freshwater fish and crabs. Children used to play in the river before it was polluted by developing industries near it.[33]

In an effort to save the river, the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Metro Manila Development Authority and the local governments of Valenzuela and Malabon signed partnerships with private and non-government organizations to dredge the area.[31][34][35]


Metro Manila/Valenzuela
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: BBC Weather (Manila)

Due to its location in Metro Manila, rainfall and climate in Valenzuela is almost similar to the country's capital Manila. The location of Valenzuela in the western side of the Philippines made Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAG-ASA) to classify its weather scheme as Type I. Wind coming from the Pacific Ocean is generally blocked by the Sierra Madre mountain range, several kilometers west of the city.[36]

Its proximity to the equator tends to make its temperature to rise and fall into very small range: from as low as 20°C to as high as 35°C. The Köppen climate system classifies Valenzuela climate as tropical monsoon (Am) due to its location and precipitation characteristics. This means that the city has two pronounced seasons: dry and wet seasons. The city's driest months are from November to April where the city receives less than 60 millimeters of rainfall. On the other hand, maximum rain period is from June to September where the city receives not more than 600 millimeters of rainfall. Hail and snow is not observed in the city.[37]

Humidity levels are usually high in the morning especially during June–November which makes it feel warmer. Lowest humidity levels are recorded in the evening during wet season. Discomfort from heat and humidity is extreme during May and June, otherwise it is higher compared to other places in the country. Average sunlight is maximum at 254.25 hours during April and minimum at 113 hours during July, August and September.[37]

Climate data for Valenzuela, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F 95 97 99 100 100 100 97 95 95 95 93 93 96.6
Record low °F 57 61 61 63 68 72 70 70 70 66 63 61 64.9
Record high °C 35 36 37 38 38 38 36 35 35 35 34 34 35.9
Record low °C 14 16 16 17 20 22 21 21 21 19 17 16 18.3
humidity 76 73.5 70 70 74.5 79.5 82.5 82.5 83 81.5 80 78.5 77.6
Sunshine hours 169.5 197.75 197.75 254.25 197.75 141.25 113 113 113 141.25 141.25 141.25 160.08
Source: BBC Weather (for Metro/Manila)[37]

Government and politics

First district
First (left) and second(right) legislative districts of Valenzuela City.

Like other cities in the Philippines, Valenzuela City is governed by a Mayor and Vice Mayor who are elected to three-year terms. The Mayor is the executive head and leads the city's departments in executing the city ordinances and improving public services. The Vice Mayor heads a legislative council consisting of 14 members: 6 councilors from the first district, 6 councilors from the second district, the Sangguniang Kabataan Federation President, representing the youth sector, and the Association of Barangay Chairmen President as the barangay sectoral representative. The council is in charge of creating the city's policies in the form of ordinances and resolutions.[17]

City officials

The incumbent mayor of the city is Sherwin T. Gatchalian, first elected in 2004 and is now on his third and last term as prescribed by the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. The incumbent vice mayor is Eric M. Martinez, first elected in 2007 and is now on his second term. Both leaders are members of the Nationalist People's Coalition.

The 2010 local elections in Valenzuela City, held at May 10, 2010, extended the terms of the incumbent district representatives and replaced all members of the city council. Later in October 2010, barangay and youth council elections were held which replaced seats to barangay governments and for the ABC and SK Federation presidencies as well.

Representatives, officials and members of the city council
Designation First district Second district
Representatives Rexlon T. Gatchalian[6] (NPC) Magtanggol T. Gunigundo[7] (Lakas Kampi)
Mayor Sherwin T. Gatchalian[4] (NPC)
Vice Mayor Eric M. Martinez[5] (LP)
Councilors Marlon Paulo D. Alejandrino[38] (NPC) Adrian C. Dapat[39] (Nacionalista)
Corazon A. Cortez[40] (NPC) Kate Abigael D. Galang-Coseteng[41] (Nacionalista)
Ritche D. Cuadra[42] (Liberal) Maria Cecilia V. Mayo[43] (Lakas Kampi)
Antonio R. Espiritu[44] (NPC) Lorena C. Natividad-Borja[45] (Nacionalista)
Gerald A. Esplana[46] (NPC) Lailanie P. Nolasco[47] (NPC)
Katherine C. Pineda[48] (Lakas Kampi) Shalani Carla S. Soledad[49] (Liberal)
ABC President Joel S. Angeles
SK President Cristina Marie Feliciano


The city government has various units that cater the needs of their people.[17][50] They are:

  • Administrative Services Office
  • City Civil Registry Office
  • City Engineer's Office — Permits Division
  • City Social Welfare And Development Office
  • City Veterinary Services Office
  • Office Of Senior Citizens Affairs
  • Public Employment Services Office
  • Special Projects Office
  • Tricycle Regulatory Unit

Himig Valenzuela

"Himig Valenzuela",[51] or "Valenzuela Hymn", is the official song of the city.[52][53] It is sung during flag ceremonies of private and public schools as well as government institutions along with the Philippine national anthem, "Lupang Hinirang". The hymn was composed by Edwin Ortega which has the primary objective to promote unity, progress and patriotism among the city's citizens.[54]

City ordinance number 18 mandated all citizens of Valenzuela to sing the hymn in all meetings and public occasions.[54]

Districts and barangays

Valenzuela is composed of 32 barangays, the smallest administrative unit in the city. A barangay is equivalent to American village and British ward, and is headed by the barangay captain (Tagalog: punong barangay) and his council (Tagalog: kagawad) duly elected by the residents. In legislative level, Valenzuela is divided into two congressional districts. Legislative district one contains 23 barangays in the northern half of the city, while legislative district two groups the 9 barangays in the southern portion of the city.

Unlike barangays, legislative districts have no political leader, but is represented by Congressional Representatives in the lower house of Philippine Congress.

Map of the city generated by OpenStreetMap.

District 1

  • Arkong Bato
  • Balangkas
  • Bignay
  • Bisig
  • Canumay
  • Coloong
  • Dalandanan
  • Isla
  • Lawang Bato
  • Lingunan
  • Mabolo
  • Malanday
  • Malinta
  • Palasan
  • Pariancillo Villa
  • Pasolo
  • Poblacion
  • Polo
  • Punturin
  • Rincon
  • Tagalag
  • Veinte Reales
  • Wawang Pulo

District 2

  • Gen. T. de Leon
  • Karuhatan
  • Bagbaguin
  • Mapulang Lupa
  • Marulas
  • Maysan
  • Parada
  • Paso de Blas
  • Ugong

In terms of land area, the three largest barangays are Gen. T. de Leon (366.90 km2, Ugong (307.20 km2), and Canumay (296.80 km2), while the smallest barangays are Polo (5.2 km2), Pariancillo Villa (5 km2), and Poblacion (3.40 km2). The old city hall is erected in barangay Poblacion, while the new Government Complex that also houses the Bulwagang Geronimo Angeles (Geronimo Angeles Hall) or the financial building is in nearby barangay Karuhatan.[55]

Largest barangay hall

On May 15, 2008, Philippine president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, and second district representative Atty. Magtanggol Gunigundo, assisted by Valenzuela mayor Sherwin Gatchalian, barangay Maysan chairman Enrique Urrutia, inaugurated the largest barangay hall in the Philippines. The Maysan Barangay Complex is built in the middle of a 253-hectare land barangay Maysan, Valenzuela City, having three storeys and occupies more than 3,000 square meters in area.[56]


Note: Latest Philippine census count was held in 2010, most previous was in 2007. In-depth data for 2010 and 2007 censuses in Valenzuela is not yet released officially by the National Statistics Office, so this article uses 2000 statistics.
Population pyramid 2000
% Males Age Females %

Circle frame.svg

Population ethnicity, 2000

  Tagalog (71.93%)
  Bicolano (4.55%)
  Bisaya (4.32%)
  Ilocano (3.14%)
  Cebuano (2.56%)
  Hiligaynon (2.41%)
  Others (11.09%)

As of the 2000 census of population, Valenzuela City has 485,433 people residing in 106,382 residential households, and the average household size was 4.56 persons.[57] On 2007 census count, the city has a general population density of 12,759.1/km2. From 2000-2007, population growth rate was 2.21% and is expected to double by 2038 if the city is at this constant rate.[9] The city contributes 4.89% to the population of Metro Manila, thus making it 5th in the region; and gives 0.63% to the whole country. Of the 32 barangays making up the city, barangay Gen. T. de Leon is the most populous barangay (as of 2007) of 95,536 person with density of 260.39 per km2 making 16.79% of the city's population, followed by barangay Marulas with 9.23% (density 251.24 per km2) and barangay Malinta with 7.69% (density 251.41 per km2).[58][59]

The city's population spread out to 0–14 years old by 32.74% and 2.39% for the 65 years old and above group. The economically active people, 15–64 years group, is 64.87% of the city. In general, half of the population is below 23 years old. General dependency ratio in 2000 is 54.16%, which means that there are 54 individuals from 0-14 and 65 and above age groups that are independent to every 100 individuals from the 15-64 group. Males outnumbered females by a ratio of 101.37 for every 100 females.[58][59][60]

Males dominate the age group of 0-14 and 25–54 years old while females exceeds to the rest of age groups. There are 2.03 children born to every ever-married women in the city. About 57.38% of the female population are in the 15–49 years reproductive group, with 11.71% are in the 20-24 age group. Females on the 15–19 years group may bear an average of 0.66 person; the 20–24 years may bear an average of 0.96 person; 25–29 years groups may bear an average of 1.52 person/s; 30-34 may bear 2.12 persons; 35-39 may bear 2.58 persons; 40-44 may bear 2.71 persons; and 45-49 may bear 2.82 persons.[58][59]

As of 2000 census, females dominated the population in terms of education: 50.04% were college undergraduates, 54.23% were academic degree holders and 56.27% finished post-baccalaureate studies. In 2000, 2.09% of the population held pre-school education as the highest educational attainment (51.81% male, 48.19% female), 27.68% were elementary (49.92% male, 50.08% female), 37.35% were secondary (50.63% male, 49,37% female), 4.62% were post-secondary (50.14% male, 49.86% female), 19.64% were undergraduate/academic degree/post-baccalaureate holders or combination of them (48.99% male, 51.01% female) and 2.46% never attended school at all (52.42% male, 47.58% female).[58][59]

The city is composed of 71.93% Tagalogs (71.78% male, 28.22% female), 4.55% Bicolanos (51.78% male, 48.22% female), 4.32% Bisayas (50.07% male, 49.93% female), and 15.99% are of other ethnicity (50.41% male, 49.59% female). On the other hand, 0.02% are of foreign ethnicity (68.37% male, 31.63% female).[58][59]

By the year 2010 (Census 2010 isn't officially released yet), the city is expected to have a population count of 580,022, taking care of the national estimate of 1.95% growth from 2000 to 2007.[15]



Elementary and secondary levels

The city collaborates with other institutions, government or private, to bring quality education among its citizens under the "WIN ang Edukasyon Program (roughly means Education WIN [sic]] Program, WIN is the nickname of the current mayor Sherwin Gatchalian). In 2010, the government, in partnership with the local school board, funded the purchase and construction of computer laboratories in 10 secondary schools all having a net worth of Php 17.7M (or about US$410,000 as of April 2011). This also includes the distribution of Php 1.46M (or about US$34,000 as of April 2011) computers in PLV and VCPC, as part of Department of Education's ICT4E Strategic Plan. In this project, information and communication technology education is extended and expanded among all students.[61] In 2009, the City Engineering Office repaired sidewalks and drainage to assist students especially during the wet season; they also repaired and constructed new buildings and classrooms to some schools in the city.[62] Under the same program, elementary school students received free mathematics and English workbooks published by the government especially designed for Valenzuelanos.[62] The steady increase of 3.4% enrollment rate each year forces the government to construct new buildings and classrooms to meet the target 1:45 teacher-to-student ratio, contrary to the current count of 1:50 ratio alternating in three shifts.[63] WIN ang Edukasyon Program was done in partnership with the Synergeia Foundation, a non government organization that aims to improve education in local governments in the Philippines.[64]

At the same time, WIN ang Edukasyon Program also spearheads the yearly training of some mathematics and English language teachers assigned to Grades 1 and 2 pupils.[65] The seminar focuses on how to enhance reading skills, language proficiency and mathematics of the students they are teaching through re-acquaintance with various drills and activities. This was done with the efforts of lecturers from Ateneo de Manila University and Bulacan State University using the approach developed by the UP Diliman's College of Education.[66][67]

Tertiary level

The government owns Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela and Valenzuela City Polytechnic College, that serves as the city's state university and technical school for residents and non-residents respectively. The Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Valenzuela (PLV) or University of the City of Valenzuela, was established in 2002 and is located within the perimeters of the old city hall in barangay Poblacion. In 2009, the city council passed Resolution No. 194 series of 2008 which authorized the government to purchase lots costing PhP 33M (or about US$750,000 as of April 2011) in nearby Children of Mary Immaculate College as part of the university's expansion.[68] Mayor Sherwin Gatchalian assisted the development, which has an over-all cost of PhP 75M (or about US$1.7M as of April 2011) loaned from Development Bank of the Philippines.[69] The newly purchased lots are used to construct an annex building which will house the departments of business administration and accountancy. The Board of Regents expected an increase of enrollment from 800 to 3,000 students in the next few years.[70]

Valenzuela City Polytechnic College (VCPC) was allotted with additional Php 18M (or about US$420,000 as of April 2011) budget in 2009 from the city fund which will be used for expansion and upgrade of the college.[62][71] This includes hiring of new instructors, acquiring new livelihood training program techniques and improving its existing campus in barangay Parada. Currently, the college offers short term technical courses that are still affordable by poor, but deserving residents of the city.[72]

There are also privately owned academic institutions including the Our Lady of Fatima University (OLFU). OLFU was previously granted by Commission on Higher Education an autonomy, which includes independence from monitoring and evaluation services by the Commission though still entitled by subsidies and other financial grants from the national government whenever possible. The autonomous status of the university was approved on March 11, 2009 which will expire on March 30, 2014.[73]


Valenzuela City provides medical missions and free medical operations in the city. Fully functional health facilities serves in every barangay.

Currently, the Mayor WIN Mobile Health Clinic go around the city to provide general medical procedures and dental services.[74][75] Also conducted are laboratory services including ECG, FBS, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Urinalysis, CBC, platelet count and pregnancy test.[75] A Mobile Pharmacy is, likewise, deployed to distribute free medicines ranging from kids and adult vitamins to fever, cough and flu medicines, antibiotics, de-worming tablets, among others.[74]

There are numerous hospitals in Valenzuela City, like the city-run Valenzuela City Emergency Hospital & Valenzuela City General Hospital, which is under the national government.[76] There are also privately owned hospitals like Calalang General Hospital, Sanctissimo Rosario General Hospital and Fatima University Medical Center, a tertiary private hospital under the administration of Our Lady of Fatima University.[76][77][78][79]

VC Cares program

Malinta Bridge, along MacArthur Highway in barangay Malinta, is one of the traffic-congested road in the city.

A health and social welfare service delivery system which promotes self-reliance within a caring society. The VC Cares Program is designed for individuals who are unable to provide for themselves health care and basic necessities or meet special emergency situations of need.[80] While health care service and financial assistance are generally the forms of assistance given, these may be supplemented by other forms of assistance, as well as problem-solving and referral services. Appropriate referrals may be made to other agencies or institutions where complementary services may be obtained.[81]

Polio immunization program

On July 12, 1976, DOH launched the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) [82] which covers immunization for BCG (for extrapulmonary tuberculosis), DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus), oral polio vaccine (OPV) (for poliomyelitis), Hepatitis B (for hepatitis infection), and measles (for measles infection). The DOH is assisted by local government units and government hospitals in the implementation and administration of this program. In Valenzuela, 82.5% and 75.3% were reported immunized with three doses of the same vaccine during the period, respectively.[83]

According to the 2002 Commission on Audit, the city reported accomplishment per health center ranging from as low as 42.26% to as high as 206% and vaccine utilization of 33% to 90% compared to normal 46% to 377% per basic requirements.[83] As the Polio Immunization Program is a continuing activity of the Government and deficiencies in program implementation would greatly affect the ability of the government to protect the intended coverage, the team recommended measures to address these concerns for consideration by the city of Valenzuela.

Anti-dengue programs

Since the establishment of the city, Valenzuela has been subjected to problems dealing with health. There are swampy areas on Valenzuela and there is a stagnant water in Tullahan River on the south, which make citizens vulnerable to mosquito-linked diseases such as dengue and malaria. Though malaria is not a common case in Valenzuela–the city ranks consistently among top five dengue-infected regions in the Philippines with around 560% chance of recurrence every year.[84][85] In the second quarter of 2008, however, only 500% increase was reported compared to the same period in 2007.[86]

To address this concern, Valenzuela mayor Sherwin Gatchalian reorganized the city's Anti-Dengue Task Force (ADTF).[87] The task force is headed by Gatchalian, as the chairperson with the city health officials and workers as members. ADTF was tasked to, primarily, disseminate information drives on how to prevent and clean mosquito-breeding sites, cleanliness campaign against dengue, and house-to-house inspection.[88] At areas with serious dengue infection, regular fogging and larvae-trapping are applied.[89] According to Health secretary Francisco Duque III, even though the city has high infection rate to dengue, it only have very low fatality rate.[87]

In September 2009, the Department of Health distributed free Olyset anti-dengue nets treated permethrin insecticide to Gen. T. de Leon High School. Over 150 rolls of the nets were given and installed to the windows of the said school, as part of DOH's "Dalaw sa Barangay: Aksyon Kontra Dengue" (Visit Barangay: Action against Dengue) campaign.[90]

Shopping centers and utilities

File:Sm center valenzuela mall facade.jpg
SM Supercenter Valenzuela, inaugurated on October 28, 2005, is located along MacArthur Highway in Valenzuela.

On October 28, 2005 SM Supercenter Valenzuela was inaugurated.[91] Other shopping sites such as Puregold Valenzuela and the newly renovated South Supermarket is also located in the city.[92][93] All these stores compete against each other since most have the same product offerings as diversified groceries. People from the city with more major shopping needs normally head south to cities such as Quezon City and Manila, since they have bigger malls and commercial centers with more diverse trade goods.

Valenzuela's source of electricity is part of the Manila Electric Company or Meralco. Water supply for the city is supplied by the Maynilad Water. Valenzuela's communication system is powered by the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, Globe Telecom, Bayan Telecommunications Corporation (BayanTel) and others. Cellular network in the Philippines particularly the metropolitan areas is increasing rapidly together with the low cost of calls and text messaging. Such big companies that control the cellular networks in the Philippines and Valenzuela itself are Globe Telecom, Smart Communications (PLDT) and Sun Cellular from Digitel. Cable television access is provided by SkyCable, Home Cable and Global Destiny. Internet Digital Subscriber Line or DSL coverage is provided by PLDT, cable internet is serviced by Sky Cable's ZPDee and Global Destiny. Wireless broadband is provided by Globeliness Broadband and Smart Communications.

On June 2, 2010, the Sitero Francisco Memorial National High School in barangay Ugong unveiled its first solar generators, the first time for a school in the Philippines. The six 1-kW photovoltaic solar arrays installed to light nine-classrooms are bought from Wanxiang America Corporation through the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) and are part of the solar energy initiative of the city. The arrays were shipped from Illinois, installation were paid by the city government. First district representative Rex Gatchalian and second district councilor Shalani Soledad headed the switching ceremony, that made it the first-ever solar-powered school in the country.[94][95] The solar panels can generate 1 kW to 5 kW of electricity per hour depending on the intensity of sunlight. Unused solar energy is stored in eight deep-cycle batteries which can be used after sunset. The panels also continue to absorb light from the night sky.[96]


Almost all of the major commercial banks in the Philippines operate a branch in the city. Major banks operate more than one branch in the city, and at this time, there are 50 banking institutions offer banking services to businesses and residents. Most of these are concentrated in Barangay Karuhatan, Gen. T. De Leon, Marulas and Malinta. A new row of banks are located near the Paso de Blas road by the entrance of the North Expressway's Malinta Exit.

Waste management

Valenzuela land use
P agriculture.png
Agriculture 5.5402 km2
(ponds, water spots)
3.995 km2
Residential 15.709 km2
Industrial 9.00 km2
(schools, government)
1.85 km2
Open space
(roads, railways)
5.00 km2
Total 44.5890 km2

According to the 2002 Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Report of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Valenzuela has the highest number of identified recycling companies in the region.[97] It was also said that recycling centers related to plastic materials are relatively higher than other recyclable objects like metals, paper, glass among others.[97] Accordingly, the city government allocates an amount of about 785.70 Philippine pesos (approx. US$18 as of April 2011) for every transportation and collection costs of a ton of waste material. In 2003, the city generated about 307.70 tons of waste every day.[98] In 2001, it was reported by ADB that the city has as high as 25% solid waste management cost recovery rate through service charges on households and other enterprises for operational activities associated with waste collection, treatment and disposal.[99] That same year, the city's proposal to implement a community-based solid waste management project in barangay Mapulang Lupa, was approved by the national government, which involves social mobilization, training of personnel, implementation of segragated collection and establishment of materials recovery facility and windows composting operation among others. The city government was granted a maximum of US$25,000 from Asian Development Bank for the operation of the project.[100]

In 1988, the city opened its first waste disposal facility, the Lingunan Controlled Dumpsite. Every year, the facility collects and processed only about 60% of the entire city's waste with landfilling and recycling services. The dumpsite uses rice hull ash as daily cover and odor control material for the waste collected in the area.[101] Lingunan Controlled Dumpsite also conducted some limited waste segregation and resource recovery operations prior to burial of residual waste.[101] In 2006, the controlled dumpsite was closed per MMDA order in 2003 and was subsequently converted into a sanitary landfill as directed by RA 9003.[98]

In statistics, 60% of the wastes collected in the city are collected, hauled and dumped in controlled dumpsites while 5% are retrieved and recycled and 35% are thrown everywhere in the city. Half of all these wastes are non-biodegradable wastes which include plastics, Styrofoams and rubbers alike, while the remaining are biodegradable wastes which is 70% food and kitchen wastes, 20% plant wastes and 10% animal wastes.[102] In 2002, there are about 30 small and big junkshops that collect recyclable materials and 20 schools that require their students to bring recyclable stuff as school project.[102]

The city spearheaded Metro Manila's implementation of full-pledged waste management program in 1999 when it became the first area in the region to allocate 2.8-hectare land in barangay Marulas, to serve an ecology center and location for the city's waste management program's operation center. Biodegradable wastes in this area are converted to fertilizers.[103] In 2004, the city government funded the repair of 29 garbage trucks and purchase of another 20 trucks that may increase the capacity of Waste Management Office to do full rounds of garbage every week.[104]


North Luzon Expressway with views going southbound (up), northbound (middle) and from Malinta Exit (down).

The KM 30 Mac Arthur Highway Intersection of Circumferential Road 5, or C5, a fork of NLEx, is located in barangay Karuhatan, Valenzuela. The northern side of the exit leads to Central Luzon while the southern will take users to Bonifacio Shrine in Balintawak, Quezon City. On the same hand, KM 28 NLEx Interchange of C5 in barangay Paso de Blas connects Valenzuela Cloverleaf of NLEx to C5 that goes to Central Luzon, Cagayan Valley, Ilocos Region and Cordillera Administrative Region. The cloverleaf is also connected to Mindanao Avenue in Quezon City through Segment 8.1 of NLEx, which also links Manila to NLEx. KM 28 NLEx Interchange is also known as Malinta Exit due to its proximity to barangay Malinta, as well as Tollgate to residents.

Valenzuela is also connected to Bulacan through MacArthur Highway which ends at Bonifacio Monument in Grace Park, Caloocan.

In 2011, the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and the city government of Valenzuela commissioned rehabilitation and upgrade of various minor roads within the city. Most of them include repair and transformation of paved gravel roads to concrete roads:[105]

  • Arkong Bato, Php 2.2 M
  • Granada St., Balangkas, Php 0.6 M
  • Kabuyao St., Balangkas, Php 1.5 M
  • Bagong Nayon, Bagbaguin, Php 1 M
  • La Mesa Extension, Bagbaguin, Php 0.15 M
  • Del Mundo St., Ugong, Php 1.15 M
  • St. Matthew St., Gen. T. de Leon, Php 1.75 M
  • Salvador St., Gen. T. de Leon, Php 1.1 M
  • Independence St., Gen. T. de Leon, Php 1.1 M
  • Angeles St., Gen. T. de Leon, Php 1.75 M
  • Industrial St., Karuhatan, Php 2 M

There are no known bridges in Valenzuela, except for the Tullahan bridge in barangay Marulas that connects the city to barangay Potrero in Malabon.[34] Tullahan bridge is part of MacArthur Highway that was built during the Spanish era as a way of transporting vehicles over Tullahan River. In the span of years, it was renovated repeatedly, most recent was in 2008, though defects on the bridge began to appear barely six months after it opened for public use.[106][107][108] Other bridges are just minors that connect small cliffs and former landfill areas, like Malinta Bridge in barangay Malinta.

Bus companies founded terminals in barangay Malanday, northernmost locality of Valenzuela along the border with Bulacan, though there are terminals situated in barangays Dalandanan and Karuhatan as well. This includes Laguna Star Bus, PAMANA Transport Service, Inc., CEM Trans Services and Philippine Corinthian Liner, Inc. among others. These buses are lined with Metro Manila destinations only, usually in Alabang or Baclaran with routes along EDSA. Other modes of transportation includes jeepneys (with routes usually from Malanday to Recto, Santa Cruz and Divisoria in Manila and Grace Park in Caloocan) for general mass transportation, tricycles (or trikes) for small-scale transportation and taxicabs for upper middle classes.

There are no airports and ports in Valenzuela.

Landmarks and attractions


Laguna Star Bus, one of subsidiary companies of Five Star Bus Company, has headquarters located in Malanday, Valenzuela.
  • Residence of Dr. Pío Valenzuela - Dr. Pío Valenzuela was part of the triumvirate, along with Andrés Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto, that composed the Katipunan, and was one of the founders of Ang Kalayaan — the official organ of the movement. He was born on July 11, 1869 in this house along Velilla Street in Barangay Pariancillo Villa.
  • Bell Tower of San Diego De Alcala Church - The Church of San Diego de Alcala was built in 1632 by the people of Polo. Residents were taken to forced labor to complete the church after the town gained its independence through Father Juan Taranco and Don Juan Monsod. The belfry and entrance arch, which are over four centuries old, are the only parts of the edifice that remain to this day. The main structure was destroyed by bombs during the Japanese occupation. Residents of Barangays Polo and Poblacion celebrate the Feast Day of San Diego de Alcala on the 12th of November every year.[109]
  • Arkong Bato - Literally, Arkong Bato is an arch of stone along M.H Del Pilar Street, built by the Americans in 1910. The arch then marked the boundary between the provinces of Rizal and Bulacan.In the olden days, M.H Del Pilar was the primary road leading to Northern Luzon before MacArthur Highway and North Luzon Expressway was opened. After Malabon and Navotas seceded from Rizal to become independent municipalities, the Arch now marked the boundary between Barangay Santulan in Malabon and Barangay Arkong Bato in Valenzuela.
  • Museo Valenzuela (English: Valenzuela Museum)—The original museum of Valenzuela was the house where Dr. Pío Valenzuela, a hero in the struggle of freedom against Spain and in whose memory the old town of Polo was renamed, was born and saw the best years of his life. This same house was burned recently. Valenzuela City's historical and cultural landmark, Museo Valenzuela features collections of artifacts depicting the city's past and continuing development. Special focus is given on the life and times of one of its illustrious sons, Dr. Pío Valenzuela, after whom the city was named in 1963. The Museo serves as a repository of Valenzuela's rich heritage and a beacon of light to its people and guests. It is likewise a venue for historical, cultural, and artistic presentations as well as seminars and symposia on national and local issues.[110][111]
  • National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima (Tagalog: Pambansang Dambana ng Birhen ng Fatima)—The National Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima, the center of the Fatima apostolate in the country, was declared a tourist site in 1982 by the Department of Tourism and a pilgrimage shrine in 2009 by the Diocese of Malolos. It is near the Our Lady of Fatima University.[112] The shrine houses the wooden statue of Our Lady of Fatima, one of the fifty images blessed by Pope Paul VI in 1967 as part of golden celebration of the Marian apparition to three children in Fátima, Portugal.[113] The images were later distributed to churches worldwide, where one of them is intended for the Philippines, however, unclaimed ending up in New Jersey. In 1984, Archbishop of Manila Jaime Cardinal Sin finally claimed the statue and was then transferred under the custody Bahay Maria Foundation, a Philippine-based Marian organization. During People Power Revolution in 1986, it was one of the iconic figures held by revolutionaries to oust the dictator Ferdinand Marcos.[114] On October 17, 1999, the statue was then transferred to the shrine. The feast of Our Lady of Fatima is celebrated every March 7 and May 13.[113][115][116]
  • Valenzuela City Convention Center -This is the center of performing arts of Valenzuela . This facility also caters to various events such as plays, concerts, shows, exhibits and seminars.
  • Valenzuela City Hall-The city hall surrounding many city government agencies and offices, and open areas, and it was located in the heart of the city. It was built in 1967
  • Valenzuela City Government Center-A one-stop shop. Faster, more convenient service. Bigger, more comfortable taxpayer’s lounge. Located on a 2,227.5sq. meters lot along MacArthur Highway, the three-storey building will house all revenue-generating offices such as the City Treasury and the Business Permits and Licensing Office (BPLO) The new taxpayers lounge will not have drawers and tables inside the offices.
  • SM Center Valenzuela-A one-stop shop. The first and only major shopping mall in the city, located along McArthur Highway in Karuhatan. It was opened in October 28, 2005, and has bolstered fast economic progress in the city and made Karuhatan the most progressive barangay.

Feasts and holidays

In 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed Republic Act number 9428 which sets February 14 every year as a special non-working holiday to commemorate cityhood of Valenzuela in 1998.[117] On the same hand, November 7 each year is declared by the city government as the city's foundation day, looking back the establishment of then-Polo in 1621.[2]

Each barangay in Valenzuela have their own feast, for example, most of them launch celebrations during May and April to honor patron saints and bounty harvest. Listed below are the most notable feasts in Valenzuela that gained media as well as international attractions.

Valenzuela traditional feasts[118]
Name Date Location
Sta. Cruz Festival April 26 Barangay Isla The Santacruzan was a novena procession commemorating St. Helena's mythical finding of the cross. St. Helena was the mother of Constantine the Great. According to legends, 300 years after the death of Christ, at the age of 75, she went to Calvary to conduct a search for the Cross. After some archeological diggings at the site of the Crucifixion, she unearthed three crosses. She tested each one by making a sick servant lie on all three. The cross where the servant recovered was identified as Christ's. St. Helena's feast day falls on August 8 but the anniversary of the finding of the Cross is on May 3, in the Philippines, this celebration took the form of the Mexican Santa Cruz de Mayo.[119]
Mano Po San Roque Festival May 12 Barangay Mabolo In Valenzuela, San Roque is also known as the patron saint of the unmarried. There are countless tales of single girls who danced and prayed in the procession and who claim to have found their husband during the fiesta. The festival is almost similar to Obando Fertility Rites where romantic hopefuls dance to San Roque requesting to find their true love.[120] Street dancing and procession along the city’s major thoroughfares in commemoration of the feast of San Roque, highlighting the customs and traditional celebration of the festival.[121] This also commemorates townsfolk victory after the British departed the country following the end of Seven Years' War with Spain.[122]
Feast of San Diego De Alcala November 12 Barangay Poblacion Celebration of the feast of the oldest church in Valenzuela City, which includes annual boat racing, street dancing and different fabulous activities of the festival.[123]
Putong Polo Festival November 11/12 Barangay Polo As part of the San Diego de Alcala Feast Day, it is one of the unique food festival in the country which features the famous putong Polo, the small but classy “kaka in” which was originally created in the town of Polo, Valenzuela.[109] This rice cake was a recipient of Manuel Quezon Presidential Award in 1931 which was cited having its exotic taste and amazingly long shelf-life.[124] The celebration includes a parade featuring artistic creations from the rice cake which showcases creativity among the residents.[125]

Zip codes

The Philippine Postal Corporation, to ease their mailing services throughout the city, adopted the use of ZIP codes. ZIP codes for Valenzuela City generally begin with the digits "14", except for special cases that receive and send huge volumes of mail.[126]

  • 1444: Arkong Bato
  • 1445: Balangkas — Caloong
  • 1443: Dalandanan — West Canumay
  • 1447: East Canumay — Lawang Bato Punturin
  • 1442: Fortune Village
  • 1442: General T. de Leon
  • 1441: Karuhatan
  • 1446: Lingunan
  • 1444: Mabolo
  • 1444: Malanday
  • 1448: Mapulang Lupa
  • 1442: Paso de Blas
  • 1444: Pasolo
  • 1444: Polo
  • 1444: Rincon
  • 1440: Valenzuela Central Post Office — Malinta
  • 1469: Valenzuela P.O. Boxes

Big users

  • 0560: Far East Broadcasting Corporation
  • 0550: Febias College of Bible

Sister cities

See also


  1. ^ In rare occasion it is pronunced as [ˌbɐlenzuwelɐʔ], with a glottal stop after /ɐ/ in Filipino/Tagalog languages.


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External links

External videos
A visit to Valenzuela's Japanese Shrine
Solar-powered school in Valenzuela
Footage of Typhoon Santi
Puregold Valenzuela
Skaters in Valenzuela City

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