Emblem of Gyeonggi
Map of South Korea with Gyeonggi highlighted Government Province Capital Suwon Governor Kim Moon-soo Dialect Seoul Region Sudogwon Area 10,183 km²(5th) Population (2005) - Population 10,415,399 (1st) - Density 1,022 /km² Cities 27 Counties 4 Website gg.go.kr (English) Metropolitan Symbols - Flower Forsythia - Tree Gingko - Bird Dove
Gyeonggi-do (Korean pronunciation: [kjʌŋ.ɡi.do]) is the most populous province in South Korea. The provincial capital is located at Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is located in the heart of the province, but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946. Incheon—South Korea's third largest city—is located on the coast of the province, but has been similarly administered as a provincial-level metropolitan city since 1981. The three administrations between them cover 11,730 km2, with a combined (census) population in 2005 of 22,766,850—amounting to over 48% of the entire population of South Korea.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Population
- 4 Economy
- 5 Administrative Area
- 6 Transportation
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture
- 9 Sports
- 10 Tourism
- 11 Sister provinces
- 12 External links
Gyeonggi Province has been a politically important area ever since 18 B.C., when Korea was divided into three nations during the Period of the Three Kingdoms. Ever since King Onjo, the founder of Baekje (one of the three kingdoms, founded the government in Wirye Castle of Hanam, the Han River valley was absorbed into Goguryeo in the mid-fifth century, and became Silla's territory in the year 553 (the 14th year of King Jinheung). Afterward, the current location of Gyeonggi Province, one of the nine states of Unified Silla (nation unifying the three kingdoms), was called Hansanju.
The Gyeonggi region started to rise as the central region of Goryeo Dynasty as the Emperor Taejo (dynasty following Unified Silla) set up the capital in Gaesong. Since 1018 (the 9th year of Goryeo’s King Hyeonjong), this area has been officially called "Gyeonggi."
During the Joseon Dynasty, which was founded after the Goryeo Dynasty, King Taejo set the capital in Hanyang, while restructuring Gyeonggi's area to include Gwangju, Suwon, Yeoju, and Anseong, along with the southeast region. Since the period of King Taejong and Sejong the Great, the Gyeonggi region has become very similar to the current administrative area of Gyeonggi Province.
In 1895, the 23-Bu system, which reorganized administrative areas at that time, was put in effect, and the Gyeonggi region was divided into Hanseong (Hanseong-Bu; 한성부; 漢城府), Incheon (Incheon-Bu; 인천부; 仁川府), Chungju (Chungju-Bu; 충주부; 忠州府), Gongju (Gongju-Bu; 공주부; 公州府), and Gaesong (Gaesong-Bu; 개성부; 開城府).
During the Japanese colonial period, Hanseong-bu was incorporated into Gyeonggi Province. On October 1, 1910, it was renamed Gyeongseong-bu and a provincial government was placed in Gyeongseong-bu according to the reorganization of administrative districts.
After liberation and the foundation of two Korean governments, Gyeonggi Province and its capital Seoul were separated, with partial regions of Gyeonggi Province being incorporated into Seoul thereafter. Additionally, Gaesong became North Korean territory, the only city to change control after the countries were divided at the 38th parallel, which is now part of North Korea's North Hwanghae province.
In 1967, the seat of the Gyeonggi provincial government was transferred from Seoul to Suwon. After Incheon separated from Gyeonggi Province in 1981, Gyeonggi regions such as Ongjin and Ganghwa were incorporated into Incheon in 1995.
Gyeonggi Province is the western central region of the Korean Peninsula, which is vertically situated in Northeast Asia, and is located between east longitude of 126 and 127, and north latitude of 36 and 38. Its dimension is 10.2% of Korea’s territory, 10,131 square kilometres (3,912 sq mi). It is in contact with 86 kilometres (53 mi) of cease-fire line to the north, 413 kilometres (257 mi) of coastline to the west, Gangwon Province to the east, North Chungcheong Province and South Chungcheong Province to the south, and has Seoul, the capital of the Republic of Korea, situated in its center. The location of its provincial government is Suwon, but some of its government buildings are situated in Uijeongbu for the administrative conveniences of the northern region.
The climate of Gyeonggi Province is the continental climate, which has a severe differentiation of temperature between summer and winter, and has distinctions of four seasons. Spring is warm, summer is hot and humid, autumn is cool, and winter is cold and snowy. The annual average temperature is between 11–13 °C (52–55 °F), where the temperature in the mountainous areas to the northeast is lower and the coastal areas to the southwest is higher. For January’s average temperature, the Gyeonggi Bay is −4 °C (25 °F), the Namhangang (River) Basin is -4–-6 °C (25–21 °F), and the Bukhangang (River) and Imjingang Basins are -6–-8 °C (21–18 °F). It becomes colder and higher in temperature differentiation from coastal to inland areas. Summer has a lower local differentiation compared to winter, and since the inland areas are hotter than the Gyeonggi Bay area, the hottest area is Pyeongtaek, making the average temperature of August 26.5 °C (79.7 °F).
The annual average precipitation is around 1,100 millimetres (43 in), with a lot of rainfall. It is rainy in summer and dry during winter. The northeastern inland areas of Bukhangang and the upper stream of Imjingang has a precipitation of 1,300–1,400 millimetres (51–55 in), whereas the coastal area has only 900 millimetres (35 in) of precipitation.
The topography of Gyeonggi Province is divided into southern and northern areas by the Han River, which flows from east to west. The area north to the Han River is mainly mountainous, while the southern area is mainly plain.
The configuration of Gyeonggi Province is represented by Dong-go-seo-jeo (high in the east and low in the west), where the Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range spreads from the east and drops in elevation in the west. The fields of Gimpo, Gyeonggi, and Pyeongtaek extend to the west.
Gyeonggi Province boasts beautiful nature stocked with rivers, lakes, mountains, and seas. Its representative rivers are the Hangang, Imjingang, and Anseongcheon (Stream), which flow into the Yellow Sea, with Gyeonggi Plain, Yeonbaek Plain and Anseong Plain forming a fertile field area around the rivers. The Gwangju Mountain Range and the Charyeong Mountain Range stretch toward China in Gyeonggi Province. Most of the mountains that rise above 1,000 metres (3,300 ft), such as Myeongjisan (1,267 metres (4,157 ft)), Gukmangbong (1,168 metres (3,832 ft)) and Yongmunsan (1,157 metres (3,796 ft)), are included in the Gwangju Mountain Range. It has a developed granite area which, due to the granite’s exfoliation effect, makes it full of strangely shaped cliffs and deep valleys. The Charyeong Mountain Range forms the boundary between Gyeonggi Province and North Chungcheong Province, but is a relatively low-altitude hilly area.
For National Parks within Gyeonggi Province, there is Bukhansan National Park located in Uijeongbu. For Provincial Parks, there are the Chukryeongsan Natural Recreation Area, Namhan-sanseong Provincial Park, Gapyeong Yeoninsan Provincial Park, and Mulhyanggi Arboretum. Besides the listed, the scenery of well-known mountains including Soyosan of Dongducheon City, Yongmunsan of Yangpyeong-gun, and Gwanaksan of Anyang•Gwacheon Cities, along with Hangang and Imjingang are the famous tourism sites of Gyeonggi Province.
Gyeonggi Province has shown a rapid increase in population due to the modernization and urbanization of the Republic of Korea. Its population has increased from 2,748,765 in 1960 to 3,296,950 in 1970, 4,933,862 in 1980, 6,619,629 in 1992, and 8,982,298 in 2000. In 2000 there were 2,944,148 households, with an average of 3 people per family. There were 4,545,929 males and 4,436,369 females. The population density was 882 people/km2, almost double the national average of 472 people/km2.
Excluding the two metropolitan cities (Seoul and Incheon), the most heavily populated area as of 2005 is Suwon (1,044,113) followed by Seongnam (934,984), Goyang (866,846), Bucheon (838,801), Yongin (689,691) and Ansan (681,590). The lowest populated area in 2005 was Yeoncheon (41,561) followed by Gapyeong (49,581) and Gwacheon (56,711).
As the backbone of Seoul in the means of manufacturing complex, Gyeonggi Province is evenly developed in various industries such as heavy industry (electronics, machine, heavy and chemical industry, steel), light industry (textile), and farm, livestock and fisheries industry. Due to the influence of recent high wages, the weight of various manufacturing industries has decreased in Korea’s economy. Gyeonggi Province is also making efforts in many ways to improve and modernize the conventional industry structure. Gyeonggi Province is unsparingly investing in the promotion of service industries related to soft competitive power such as state-of-the-art IT industry, designing, conventions and tourism, along with its great leap as a commercial hub in Northeast Asia using the Pyeongtaek Harbor. Besides this, it is famous for its special local products such as Icheon rice and Icheon/Gwangju ceramics. Also, the manufacturing base of global IT industries that represent Korea, such as Suwon Samsung Semi-conductor, Paju LG LCD Complex, and Icheon Hynix are located in Gyeonggi Province. Yeolmae Food also has its headquarters here.
Gyeonggi Province, as of May 7, 2008, consists of 27 cities (special: 7, normal: 20) and four counties. This is because many counties were elevated to city status owing to the influence of Seoul’s new town development plan. Special cities are especially concentrated in the southern area of Gyeonggi Province.
- Gapyeong County (가평군, 加平郡)
- Yangpyeong County (양평군, 楊平郡)
- Yeoju County (여주군, 驪州郡)
- Yeoncheon County (연천군, 漣川郡)
Gyeonggi Province is extremely well developed in international aerial transportation. It is nearby Incheon International Airport, said to be the gateway to Korea, with the 2nd international airport of Gimpo International Airport situated within Gyeonggi Province. The area is cut through by the Gyeongin Line, Korea’s first railroad, and the Gyeongin Expressway, Korea’s first expressway. It is in close relation with the Metropolis of Seoul, making it well-developed in transportation. The road pavement rate is at an average of 86.5%. The subway cuts through the Metropolis of Seoul so that the subway’s National Railroad Line #1 is connected to Cheonan past Gyeonggi Province to the southwest, and Dongducheon to the north. Line #3 is connected to Goyang to the north, while #4 is connected to Gwacheon and Ansan to the southwest, #7 is connected to Uijeongbu to the north and Gwangmyeong to the south, #8 is extended to Seongnam to the south, and finally the Bundang line is connected from Suseo to Bojeong, Yongin, making subway transportation within the metropolitan area extremely convenient. The usage of sea transportation utilizing Pyeongtaek Harbor is high, and this is due to the fact that nearby regions including Seoul are playing an important role as the door to trade and commerce along with imports and exports.
Gyeonggi Province is focusing proportions of its investments into education to foster talented people suitable for the global era. It is currently promoting campus transfer of reputable universities into Gyeonggi Province, while driving forth additional foundations of special purpose high schools for high-quality education. It has also founded and is operating the largest domestic scale of Paju English Community, along with Ansan and Yangpyeong English Villages for English education.
- Universities within Gyeonggi Province:
- Kangnam University, Kyonggi University, Kyungwon University, Kyung Hee University, Dankook University, Daejin University, Luther University, Myongji University (science departments campus), Seoul Theological University, Seoul Jangsin University and Theological Seminary, Sungkyul University, Suwon Catholic University, Suwon Science College, Shingyeong University, Asia United Theological University, Ajou University, Anyang University, Yongin University, Chung-Ang University (Anseong Campus), Calvin University, Pyongtaek University, College of Medicine Pochon CHA University, Korea Polytechnic University, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Korea Aerospace University, Hanbuk University, Hansei University, Hanshin University, Hanyang University, Hyupsung University
- Colleges within Gyeonggi Province
- Ansan College
Gyeonggi Province has long been a capital area, leaving many historic relics and ruins. For royal tombs (called reung), there are Donggureung of Guri, and Gwangreung, Hongreung and Yureung of Namyangju. For castles (called seong), there are Suwon Hwaseong, which is designated as the World Cultural Heritage, Namwonsanseong, Haengjusanseong, and Ganghwasanseong. For Buddhist temples, there are many aged temples within Gyeonggi Province where one can experience ‘temple stay’, besides Ganghwa Pusoksa Muryangsujeon, the oldest wooden building in Korea. You can view folk culture in the Korean Folk Village in Yongin, and the scene of Korea’s division at Panmunjeom in Paju.
Gyeonggi Province is investing a lot of money at a provincial level so that people do not have to go to Seoul to enjoy a high-class cultural life. There are various performances at Gyeonggi Arts Center in Suwon as well as at Gyeonggi Korean Traditional Music Center in Yongin. Gyeonggi Provincial Museum in Yongin, Nam June Paik Art Center in Yongin, Gyeonggi Museum of Art in Ansan, and the Ceramics Museum in Gwangju are some of the facilities that are currently run by the province. There are also sightseeing opportunities at Jangheung Art Park, Publication Art Complex at Heyri, Paju, and the Icheon Ceramics Exposition.
The 2002 Korea-Japan World Cup matches were held in Suwon World Cup Stadium. As for the professional soccer teams with Gyeonggi Province as their home ground, there are the Suwon Samsung Bluewings and Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma. Also, there is the professional basketball team of Guri Kdb Life Winnus, sponsored by Kdb Life Insurance.
Korea's foremost thoroughbred horse racing track Seoul Race Park is located in Gwacheon.
Sailing is a high profile sport in Gyeonggi. Gyeonggi-do's location on the bank of the river Han makes it an ideal venue for the sport which is host to the prestigious Korea Match Cup event which is a part of the World Match Racing Tour. The event draws the world's best sailing teams to Gyeonggi in a gladiatorial battle of nerve and skill on the water. The identical supplied (KM-36) boats are raced two at a time in an on the water dogfight which tests the sailors and skippers to the limits of their physical abilities. Points accrued count towards the World Match Race Tour and a place in the final event, with the overall winner taking the title ISAF World Match Racing Tour Champion. Match racing is an ideal sport for spectators in Gyeonggi. Racing in such close proximity to the river bank provides excellent heart of the action views for the audience. Highlights of the event can be seen on KBS World television and via the official World Match Racing Tour website.
Domestic sports clubs
- National League (4)
- Suwon City FC
- Yongin City FC
- Goyang Kookmin Bank
- Ansan Hallelujah
- Challengers League (7)
- WK-League (2)
- Suwon FMC
- Goyang Daekyo Noonnoppi Kangaroos
- WKBL (4)
- Yongin Samsung Life Bichumi
- Bucheon Shinsegae Coolcat
- Ansan Shinhan Bank S-Birds
- Guri Kdb Life Winnus
- V-League Men (2)
- Suwon KEPCO 45
- Guri LIG Insurance Greaters
- V-League Women (2)
- Suwon Hyundai Engineering & Construction Hillstate
- Seongnam Korea Expressway Corporation High-pass Zenith
Ice Hockey (1)
Former sports clubs
- Anyang LG Cheetahs (1996-2003, Anyang → Seoul)
- Bucheon SK (1996-2005, Bucheon → Jeju)
- Bucheon FMC Best (2010, Dissolved)
There are many famous theme parks and resorts spread across Gyeonggi Province. Everland, which is considered as one of the top 10 theme parks in the world considering admission numbers, is located in Yongin, while the Hallyu Wood Theme Park, which is based on the ‘Korean Fever’, is under construction in Goyang. Other sites are the Seoul Grand Park in Gwacheon, which has the Korea’s National Museum of Contemporary Art and a zoo, along with the Korean Folk Village in Yongin. Besides, Gyeonggi Province has a number of famous ski and golf resorts that aim to attract the citizens of Seoul, along with its Icheon Hot Spring.
Area Festival Name Period Main Contents Sponsor/Supervision Suwon City Hwaseong Cultural Festival October Great King Jeong Jo parade, Hwaryeongjeon Heondarae, re-presentation of the 60th birthday banquet of Hyekyeongung Hong, re-presentation of Kwageo (state examination during the Joseon Dynasty)
National housewife scenery festival, traditional flag game, culture and art festival, international food festival, drawing of Mars
Suwon City, Hwaseong Cultural Festival Committee KBS Drama Festival August ~ October KBS Magic, Studio Tour, digital image machinery, public broadcasting, reconstructions of historical dramas, national amateur image contest Suwon City, KBS Seongnam City Sungnam Global Folk Art Festival May Global folk dancing, music and clothing festival with 400 performers from 12 different countries participating Sungnam/Gyeongpyeong International Co., Ltd. Sungnam Cultural Art Festival October International / dance / music / play / movie festivals, art / picture exhibitions, citizen composition contest, citizen singing contest Sungnam City, Sungnam Art Assembly and Members Moran 5-Day Folk Festival April Various traditional folk art performance, reminiscent folk song stage, art performance of modern taste Moran 5-Day Folk Festival Committee Sungnam Art Village Lotus Festival July Lotus and nature workbook exhibition, lotus food and local food corner Lotus Festival Committee Anyang City Anyang Cultural Art Festival Mid-May Various culture and art event such as art, music, dancing and plays Anyang Cultural Center and Art Assembly Anyang Branch Anyang Citizen Festival October Local festival full of things to see / play / buy / eat Anyang City/Anyang Citizen Festival Committee Goyang City Goyang Haengju Cultural Festival October Seungjeon Street Parade, folk contest, Haengju Daecheop memorial services and rites Goyang City/Goyang Cultural Center Bucheon City Boksagol Art Festival May Student and citizen composition contest, street festival, image and picture subscription, art festival, citizen singing contest, dance contest, family musicals for children, play contest, music contest, citizen movie contest, citizen photography contest Korea Art Assembly Bucheon Branch Ansan City Danwon Art Festival (Kim Hong-do Festival) October Art Contest: art subscription contest, art appreciation classroom, street art contest
Ansan Kim Hong-do Festival: Danwon PR Hall, antique necessity products exhibition, yard play, art experience, traditional eateries
Ansan City/Danwon Art Festival Committee Byeolmangseong Art Festival September Byeolmangseong Festival, Byeolchomu performance, fireworks, teenager play festival, national music festival, other art events Ansan City/Ansan Art Assembly Seongho Cultural Festival May Seongho admiration services, National Cultural Festival performances, Gyeonggi folk song choir performance, Seongho ideology academic contest, other events Ansan City/Ansan Cultural Center Uijeongbu City Tongil Art Festival May Exhibition, traditional dance performance, Hanmaeum Citizen Singing Contest, composition contest, modern arts invitation Art Assembly Uijeongbu Branch Hoeryong Cultural Festival October Reproduction of royal parade, exhibition, dragon dance, yard drama Uijeongbu Cultural Center Uijeongbu International Music Performance Festival May Overseas group invitation/performance, college student showcase event, exhibition Uijeongbu Arts Center Namyangju City Dasan Cultural Festival October Awarding of Dasanmokmin Award, literature contest, traditional folk performance experience event Namyangju City/Namyangju Cultural Center Namyangju Outdoor Performance Festival August Invitation/performance of famous domestic/foreign performers, teenager get-together yard, experience event Namyangju City Gwangmyeong City Gureum Mt. Art Festival October National Music Festival, art exhibition, painting exhibition, picture exhibition, composition contest, student music contest, play performance, National Music Contest Art Assembly Gwangmyeong Branch/Respective Associations Ori Cultural Festival May Lecture on the life and ideology of Lee Won-ik, yard games, picture drawing, musicals, shortened marathon, masque dance performance Gwangmyeong Cultural Center Siheung City Mulwang Art Festival May National music yard festival, literature and art event, citizen singing contest Art Assembly Siheung Branch/Siheung City Hall Yeonseong Cultural Festival October Juvenile drama, composition contest, open concert, totem trimming and services Siheung Cultural Center/Siheung City Hall Gunpo City Gunpo Citizen’s Grand Festival April Masquerade parade, street exhibition, village concert, silver festival, photography contest Gunpo Cultural Information Department Cheoljjuk Dongsan Festival April Various exhibitions and concerts Guri City Guri Han River Rape Flower Festival May Fly away butterflies, concerts, citizen singer contests, art, writing contest, photography contest, teenager rock concert Guri/Korea Art Assembly Guri Branch Guri Cosmos Festival September Eve celebration, Chinese arts circus, open-air movie appreciation, smiling picture photography, various experience events Guri/Korea Art Assembly Guri Branch Hanam City Hanam Iseong Cultural Festival September Public broadcast attraction, provincial troupe performance, citizen performance, citizen participation yard Hanam City Hall/Hanam Cultural Center Uiwang City Uiwang Baekwun Art Festival October Walking on old street in Uiwang, I am an Artist Events: composition contest, sketch contest, fairy tale recital, puppet show, scenery games, making traditional toys, guitar performance Uiwang Baekwun Art Festival Committee Anseong City Anseong Namsadang Bawudeogi Festival September Art and science contest, taffy seller play, masque performance, tightrope walking performance, Baudeoki PR Hall, wayfaring male entertainer play of 6 yards, street play, general play, yard play, folk market and cattle market remake Anseong Anseong Juksan International Art Festival June Dance, music, creative performance, Avantgarde Exhibition with globally famous artists, make-your-own-product with artists, film contest Smile Stone Co., Ltd. Juksan Children Festival May For-children performance twice a day, experience Festival Troupe Mucheon Yangju City Yangju Traditional Culture and Art Festival May Intangible cultural assets and traditional folk art performance Yangju Festival Committee Yangju Cultural Festival October Traditional folk art performance and participation event, unit event Osan City Doksanseong Culture and Art Festival September Art events such as culture event performance, citizen participation yard Osan City/Osan Cultural Center Yeoju-gun Sejong Cultural Grand Feast October Resident concert, Hangeul writing contest, empress travel, various exhibitions, national picture subscription Yeoju-gun, Yeoju Cultural Center
Art Assembly Yeoju Branch
Yeoju Ceramics Exposition May Ceramics sales event, igniting of traditional oven, exhibition/performance event and experience event Yeoju, Yeoju Ceramics Exposition Yeoju Artifact Exhibition October Farm products exhibition, outstanding product sales, international sweet potato cooking contest, farming experience event (sweet potato tour) Yeoju Artifact Exhibition Committee
Yeoju Agricultural Technology Center
October Yeongsan memorial services, hyewon exorcism Yeoju-gun, Yeoju Cultural Center Paju City Yulgok Cultural Festival September Chuhyang ritual at Jawun Auditorium, art and science symposium, reconstruction of Confucian parade, Yulgok and Chinese poem writing contest, native writer invitation, calligraphy contest Paju City/Paju Cultural Center Paju Children Book Hanmadang October Publications exhibition and sales, book culture hanmadang, seminar games hanmadang, experience & study Paju City, Paju Publication Complex Heyri Festival October Art and plastic product exhibition at Heyri Village, construction tourism, performance, percussion, dance, play, classic jazz, workshop classrooms Paju City, Paju Construction Committee, Heyri Festival Committee Paju Art Festival May Music performance, national music performance, literature seminar, literary writing contest, art association member exhibition Paju City/Paju Art Assembly Dongducheon Dongducheon Rock Festival August Multi-day concert event featuring local, national, and international rock music performances. Dongducheon, Soyosan Tourist Resort
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