Eastern Nazarene College

Eastern Nazarene College
Eastern Nazarene College

Seal of the Eastern Nazarene College
Motto Via, Veritas, Vita
Motto in English "The Way, the Truth,
and the Life"
Established September 25, 1900 (PCI)
June 14, 1918 (ENC)
Type Private
Religious affiliation Nazarene
Endowment US $11,015,937
President Corlis A. McGee
Provost Timothy T. Wooster
Students 1,075
Undergraduates 927
Postgraduates 148
Location Quincy, Massachusetts, USA
42°16′15.5634″N 71°0′42.8076″W / 42.270989833°N 71.011891°W / 42.270989833; -71.011891Coordinates: 42°16′15.5634″N 71°0′42.8076″W / 42.270989833°N 71.011891°W / 42.270989833; -71.011891
Campus Urban/Suburban
27 acres (109,265.1 m2)
Former names Pentecostal Collegiate
Institute (1900-1918)[1]
Colors Red & White         
Athletics ECAC, NCAA (TCCC)
Sports Baseball, Basketball,
Cross-Country, Soccer,
Softball, Tennis, Volleyball
Nickname Lions
Affiliations AACU, CCCU, CIC,
Website www.enc.edu
The College Crest

The Eastern Nazarene College (or ENC) is a private, coeducational college of the liberal arts and sciences in Quincy, Massachusetts near Boston, in the New England region of the United States. Known for its strong religious affiliation, distinctive liberal arts core curriculum, and excellence in science and religion education. Its academic programs are primarily undergraduate, with some professional graduate education offered. The residential campus, in Wollaston Park near Quincy Bay, is served by the Wollaston MBTA station, and was once the summer home of Boston mayor Josiah Quincy, Jr. Established as a holiness college in Saratoga Springs, New York in 1900, it was relocated to Massachusetts in 1919.



New York

Pentecostal Collegiate Institute at the Rhode Island campus, c. 1905

On September 25, 1900, several come-outer Methodist clergy and laymen affiliated with the 19th century Holiness movement opened a co-educational collegiate institute at the Garden View House in Saratoga Springs, New York.[2] In a time when pentecostal did not hold the same meaning as it does today, but rather served as a synonym for holiness,[3][4] it was named the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute (PCI) and established for the purpose of providing liberal education and ministry training in a preparatory academy, four-year college, and theological seminary.[5] PCI operated under the auspices of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America (APCA), a loose association of Wesleyan-holiness churches[6] from eastern Canada down to the Middle Atlantic, and its own board of education,[7] with Lyman C. Pettit as its first president. PCI was also accredited by the New York State Education Department's Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York[8] and was given state funding because a public school did not exist there at the time.[5] In 1901, the institute changed locations in Saratoga Springs, from the Garden View House to the former Kenmore Hotel.[9]

Rhode Island

The initial plans for a liberal arts college were delayed, however.[7][10] There was a falling out between Pettit and the APCA, and the school re-opened on September 16, 1902, in North Scituate, Rhode Island,[11] without a post-secondary curriculum.[12] Having been the originator of the idea for establishing PCI and having already surveyed the Rhode Island location,[13] Fred A. Hillery had purchased the North Scituate campus on behalf of the association.[14] Its Greek Revival buildings were originally designed for the Smithville Seminary in 1839 by Russell Warren, the leading Greek Revival architect in New England in the 19th century,[15] but had been unused since the Lapham Institute closed in 1876. Attendance became multi-denominational after the move, only one-quarter to one-third of the student body being affiliated with the school's supporting denomination during any given academic year.[16] In 1907, the APCA merged with the Church of the Nazarene,[17] and PCI became one of the first three schools chosen to be officially affiliated with the Nazarenes in 1908.[18]

In 1917, it was decided to re-establish the liberal arts college,[19] and on June 14, 1918, the Eastern Nazarene College was chartered with degree-granting authority in the state of Rhode Island,[20][21] while secondary education would remain as the Eastern Nazarene Academy.[22] Choosing a new name, however, would be difficult: the school was now a liberal arts college and a Nazarene institution. Candidates included: "Northeastern Nazarene College", "Bresee Memorial College", "Nazarene College of the Northeast", and "Nazarene College and Bresee Theological Institute". General Superintendent John W. Goodwin can be credited with the chosen name, as he wrote to Hiram F. Reynolds, also a general superintendent and a long-time supporter of the school: "I know you will do your best for our New England College. I should be glad if they would change the name to the Eastern Nazarene College, or something like that. It would seem we must have a school there, although it moves along hard and slow."[20]


In 1919, the college moved to its current location in the Wollaston Park area of Quincy, Massachusetts. The founders wanted the new college to be located near either Harvard or Yale, for its graduates to attend graduate school at one or the other; Quincy won out over New Haven, Connecticut because the educational standards were known to be higher in Massachusetts[23] and because president-elect Fred J. Shields would only accept the position if the college were to be located near Boston.[24] At the time of its purchase, the 12-acre (49,000 m2) property consisted of the Josiah Quincy Mansion (1848), built by Josiah Quincy, Jr.[25] where Angell Hall now stands, a classroom building called the Manchester (1896), the stables (1848) on the site where Memorial Hall was built in 1948, and the Canterbury (1901), which is now Canterbury Hall. From the captain's walk of the mansion, Wollaston Bay was clearly visible down to the "ships entering and leaving the port of Boston."[26] The former Rhode Island campus was purchased in 1920 by William S. Holland, who moved his Watchman Institute there in 1923.

J. E. L. Moore 1918–1919
1. Frederick James Shields 1919–1923
2. Floyd William Nease 1923–1930
3. Robert Wayne Gardner 1930–1936
4. Gideon Brooks Williamson 1936–1944
5. Samuel Young 1944–1948
6. Edward Stebbins Mann 1948–1970
7. A. Leslie Parrott, Jr. 1970–1975
8. Donald Irwin 1975–1980
9. Stephen Wesley Nease 1980–1989
10. Cecil Roland Paul 1989–1992
11. Kent R. Hill 1992–2001
Albert L. Truesdale, Jr. 2001–2002
12. J. David McClung 2002–2005
13. Corlis A. McGee 2005-

The trustees of the college were incorporated by the state in 1920,[27] by which time its liberal arts identity had been "quite firmly established,"[18] but it took another decade to gain bachelor of arts degree-granting power from the commonwealth.[28] President Floyd W. Nease appealed directly to the General Court of Massachusetts, and defended his petition before the Joint Committee on Education and the House and Senate on January 28, 1930, calling on financial records, campus improvement plans, and prominent community leaders; the bill passed in both houses and was signed by Governor Frank G. Allen on March 12, 1930.[29] The news reached the college the following afternoon.[30] The next year under President R. Wayne Gardner, the trustees made a statement reaffirming that the college would remain "distinctly interdenominational and cosmopolitan in service."[31]

The college seal, designed by alumnus Harold G. Gardner and symbolically incorporating the college motto, Via, Veritas, Vita, was adopted by the trustees on the recommendation of the president and the student body in 1932,[32] along with a college banner to display the emblems of Verbum, Lux, Spiritus, Crux.[24] The college had been chartered in 1918 with a school of music,[20][21] President Gardner secured certification for the college as a teacher-training institution with the Massachusetts Department of Education in 1933,[33] and the college would institute a graduate program in theology starting in 1938,[34] thus becoming one of only two Nazarene schools to offer anything beyond a bachelor of arts before 1945.[24] Evolutionary biology was taught in the classroom at least as early as 1937,[35] and on May 8, 1941, Governor Leverett Saltonstall approved Eastern Nazarene to grant bachelor of science degrees.[34] ENC also had a cooperative degree program in engineering with Northeastern University by 1943.[36]

College seal on the main campus gate, a gift of the class of 1938

Under President Gideon B. Williamson on December 3, 1943, the Eastern Nazarene College gained accreditation from the New England Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools,[37] and became the second Nazarene college to ever gain institutional accreditation.[38] ENC was also admitted to the Association of American Colleges in 1944,[37] and an affiliation with Quincy City Hospital for nurses' training began in that same year.[36] Eastern Nazarene was soon dubbed "Our Quincy's College" by the Quincy Patriot Ledger[39] and has since maintained good town and gown relations with the city.[40] The Eastern Nazarene Academy would close after 1955,[22] and starting in 1956, professors Timothy L. Smith and Charles W. Akers began to establish a community college for the city of Quincy.[41] In 1964, the graduate course in theology was discontinued and replaced with a master's degree program in religion.[42] The college archives were created in 1963 and the first history of the college, spanning from 1900 to 1950, was published by James R. Cameron in 1968.[43]

Under President Irwin in 1977, there arose plans to relocate the college to a 125-acre (510,000 m2) parcel of land in Newtown Square, Pennsylvania, by purchasing the faltering Charles E. Ellis School for Girls.[44] The proposed move was very unpopular among students and members of the Quincy community, even Governor Michael Dukakis urged to administration to reconsider, but the relocation never took place because the college was outbid for the land by a corporation that wanted to establish an industrial park there.[45][46] In 1981, graduate degree offerings were expanded,[42] and an accelerated program for working adults was started in 1990.[47] In 1991, a report issued by the Association of Independent Colleges and Universities in Massachusetts (AICUM)[48] determined that the college contributed nearly $10 million to the local economy and brought in an estimated $7 million from outside the state.[49] In 1992, President Kent Hill approved a policy to only hire Christian professors at the college, a move that initially stirred some controversy in the media but was meant for the hiring of new faculty rather than the dismissal of then-current faculty, and was deemed by the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) to be reasonable according to civil rights laws.[50] A second history of the college, spanning from 1950 to 2000, was started in 1993.[43]

Front entrance to the Adams Executive Center in Quincy

In 1995, the college tried relocating once more, this time by purchasing the former 56-acre (230,000 m2) campus of the Boston School for the Deaf in Randolph, Massachusetts from the Sisters of St. Joseph, but the deal fell through despite support from the town selectmen.[51] Instead, the college began to expand at other locations in Quincy, buying a piece of land along Hancock Street later that year,[52] and the year after that purchasing an adjoining parcel along Old Colony Avenue, which had once been home to a Howard Johnson's candy factory and executive offices.[53] In 1997, the college extended beyond the metro Boston area for the first time when it started a learning annex in central Massachusetts to serve as part of its adult studies division.[54] The Old Colony Campus (OCC), as the new site on Old Colony Avenue had come to be named, was renovated and expanded into the Adams Executive Center.[55] The Cecil R. Paul Center for Business was founded at the Old Colony location in 1999, and the James R. Cameron Center for History, Law, & Government was added in 2005.[56] In 2001, just before the end of his second term, then-president Kent R. Hill was appointed the new Global Health Administrator for USAID.[57] In 2008, ENC established satellite campuses in Boston, Brockton, Fall River, and Swansea, Massachusetts.[58][59] In 2010, Eastern Nazarene College was ranked in the top tier for northern U.S. regional colleges in U.S. News & World Report's Best Colleges report.[60] It was also ranked 28th overall (specifically 25th in number of graduates going on to earn PhDs and 11th in number of alumni serving in the Peace Corps, relative to college size) by the Washington Monthly College Guide for baccalaureate colleges nationally in 2010.[61]


Wollaston Park

The college campus is also home to the Babcock Arboretum.

The 21-acre (85,000 m2) main campus[62] of the Eastern Nazarene College is situated in the Wollaston Park neighborhood of Quincy, Massachusetts. The Wollaston Park campus is roughly 1.5 miles (2.4 km) southeast from the Boston city line and 6 miles (9.7 km) south of downtown Boston,[63] just over 1 mile (1.6 km) north of Quincy Center, 0.5 miles (0.80 km) northeast of the Wollaston T station,[64] and 0.25 miles (0.40 km) southwest from Wollaston Beach. ENC purchased the Wollaston Park property, then a 12-acre (49,000 m2) parcel, from the former Quincy Mansion School for Girls for $50,000 in 1919,[23] and has added to it over the years. The Mount Wollaston land belonging to the Quincy family had been broken up into prestigious building lots and named Wollaston Park during in the late 19th century, to become one of Boston's first commuter neighborhoods,[65] and the area remains primarily residential. The campus is also a registered arboretum, named the Babcock Arboretum after Vernor J. Babcock and dedicated in 1993.[65] The alma mater, set to the tune of "Annie Lisle" with lyrics written by former president Edward S. Mann, not only refers to Quincy Bay but also the existence of the elm trees for which Elm Avenue was named,[66] all of which died with the onset of Dutch elm disease in the early to mid-20th century. The college has historically maintained good town and gown relations with the Quincy community,[40] and the campus has been home to the Anglican Parish of Saint George, established by the Anglican Mission in America, since 2009.[67]

The Quincy Mansion (1848) purchased by the college in 1919 was demolished in 1969. Its chandeliers were sold for food during the Great Depression.[24] It was once part of the Quincy family homestead along with the Dorothy Quincy House and the Josiah Quincy House, on a 200-acre (0.81 km2) parcel of land known as the "Lower Farm". The mansion itself was situated on the land where Angell Hall now stands, and was the summer home of Josiah Quincy, Jr., then mayor of Boston. It was three stories and white, in Georgian architecture, with marble fireplaces in most of the rooms and large French windows on the first floor that "opened upon either little balconies or broad piazzas."[26] Elm Avenue had been the avenue, or driveway, for the two mansions on the property.[65] The first of the two, the Josiah Quincy House (1770), still stands on Muirhead Street.

Gardner Hall (1930), the main college administration building

Both Gardner Hall (1930), originally named the Fowler Memorial Administration Building after Charles J. Fowler, and the original Floyd W. Nease Library (1953), now the Bower-Grimshaw Center for Institutional Advancement, were designed by Wesley Angell. Gardner Hall was designed in the Classical or Colonial Revival mode. Gardner is brick, three stories on a high granite basement, and capped by a parapet balustraded in the center. Corners are articulated with brick quoins. The fenestration is symmetric with double sash windows at regular intervals, trimmed in white, topped with flared brick lintels and a white keystone. It also features a two-story balustraded Doric portico of fluted cast stone columns. The portico is the backdrop for commencement ceremonies. The main entrance, at the end of wide stairs, is pilastered and topped with a bracketed entablature, which frames an arched glass opening. The side elevations have projecting stair towers, which indicate the site of a central hall running the length of the building. Originally rectangular in form, the 1953 addition of the then-Nease Library in the rear bestowed upon it a T-configuration.[68]

Memorial Hall (1948), for those who served and died in World War II

Memorial Hall (1948) holds the distinction of the only building on campus, other than the pre-existing Canterbury Hall (1901), not to be named for any one individual. Rather, it was built as a memorial to those who had served in the Second World War. Over two hundred alumni had served, and six students had given their lives.[69]

Old Colony and other locations

The 6-acre (24,000 m2) Old Colony Campus (OCC), named for its location on Old Colony Avenue in Quincy, has two buildings. The 180 building is the Adams Executive Center, which houses the business department in the Cecil R. Paul Center for Business, established in 1999.[56] The building at 162 Old Colony houses the college archives and offices for the history department as part of the James R. Cameron Center for History, Law, and Government, established in 2005, as well as separate offices for mathematics, and physics and engineering departments, and the Campus Kinder Haus (CKH), an early childhood education center.[70] CKH was founded in 1979 and moved to the Old Colony Campus in 2000.[71] The college also owns adjacent undeveloped land between Old Colony and Hancock Street in Quincy, at the Southern Artery,[72] that has been rezoned by the city several times,[73] and Quincy officials announced in 2009 they might take it by eminent domain for the construction of a new middle school.[74]

In addition to its campuses in Quincy, the college established a learning annex called the Auburn Learning Center in Auburn, Massachusetts in 1997 to function as part of the Leadership Education for Adults Division,[54] and added satellite campuses in Boston, Brockton, Fall River, and Swansea, Massachusetts in 2008.[58][59]


The Wollaston Church of the Nazarene seen from the college campus in Wollaston Park

Religious affiliation

Higher education is, historically, one of the Nazarenes' most important emphases, and the Nazarenes provide their colleges with "students, administrative and faculty leadership, and financial and spiritual support.... the college, while not a local congregation, is an integral part of the church; it is an expression of the church."[75] Originally founded under the auspices of the Association of Pentecostal Churches of America, ENC was one of the first three schools officially chosen to be Nazarene institution in 1915,[18] making it the oldest continuously operating educational institution affiliated with the Nazarenes. As one of eight Nazarene liberal arts colleges[76] in the United States,[77] the college receives financial backing equivalent to a $40 million endowment from its constituent churches.[78] Eastern Nazarene is also bound by a gentlemen's agreement not to actively recruit outside its respective educational region,[79] which extends southwest from Maine as far as Pennsylvania and Virginia in the United States[80][81] and provides trustees for the college.[82] The institution is otherwise largely independent, having been multi-denominational since 1902,[16] and tuition-driven, with an actual endowment of only US $11,015,937.[83] The president and trustees of the college determined in 1931, one year after gaining its charter to grant degrees in Massachusetts, that it is part of the college's mission to be "distinctly interdenominational and cosmopolitan in service."[31] Students are not required to profess any religion, but faculty members are required to be Christians.[84]

Academic associations

The now-defunct secondary school, the Pentecostal Collegiate Institute, was accredited by the New York State Education Department's Board of Regents of the University of the State of New York upon its founding in 1900.[8] When it was first chartered in 1918, the Eastern Nazarene College was granted the authority to grant baccalaureate degrees in Rhode Island,[21] and was later chartered with that same authority in Massachusetts in 1930.[30] Teacher education was recognized by the Department of Education of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1933[33] and is also approved by the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification and the Massachusetts Board of Higher Education, as well as benefitting from the Interstate Certification Compact for all teacher education programs, which allows graduates to teach in 44 states and the District of Columbia.[85][86] ENC gained institutional accreditation from the Commission on Institutions of Higher Education of the New England Association of Schools and Colleges (NEASC)[87] in 1943,[88] and the social work program has been accredited by the Council on Social Work Education since 1979.[89] Eastern Nazarene joined the Association of American Colleges in 1944,[37] has been a member of the Council for Christian Colleges and Universities (CCCU) since 1982,[90] and is also a member of both the Council of Independent Colleges (CIC)[91] and the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities (NAICU).[92]


Munro Hall (1926), the first building erected by the college in Massachusetts

According to some of the college's earliest and most influential figures, the Eastern Nazarene College has always existed with the idea in mind that one can be a Christian and an intellectual scholar: Bertha Munro, the first dean of the college and a Boston University, Radcliffe, and Harvard alumna, is often quoted as having said that "there is no conflict between the best in education and the best in Christian faith"[93] and former history professor Timothy L. Smith, a University of Virginia and Harvard alumnus who began his career at ENC, is widely considered the first evangelical Christian to gain academic prominence,[94] while ENC alumnus and physicist Karl Giberson has worked to address the Creation-Evolution controversy and was Executive Vice President of the BioLogos Foundation until May, 2011.[95] Though it makes no religious requirements of its students, Eastern Nazarene has required that its faculty members be Christian since 1993.[84] The school currently has three college divisions: the Traditional Undergraduate Division, the Adult Studies Division (often called the Leadership Education for Adults Division, or LEAD), and the Graduate Division.[91] There were 1,075 students enrolled at the college in 2007, 927 of whom were undergraduate and 148 of whom were graduate students.[96] Admission is selective[97] on a rolling deadline and the 2007 acceptance rate for students who applied to the college was 61.7 percent.[83]

Traditional Undergraduate Division

Most degree offerings at Eastern Nazarene are baccalaureate degrees. In the Traditional Undergraduate Division, the college offers associate's and bachelor's (bachelor of arts and bachelor of science) liberal arts degrees in 50 majors, with 57 minors and 6 pre-professional programs for a combined total of 80 programs of study, including dual degree programs with Northeastern University and the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences leading to the doctor of pharmacy.[91] In addition to co-operative programs and internship opportunities around Boston, Eastern Nazarene provides a number of intercollegiate and off-campus programs at 56 Nazarene institutions of higher education around the world. Students may also participate in the "Best Semester"[98] study abroad program, and ENC offers an additional semester-long program in Romania.[42] The college uses a "4-1-4 system"[83] for its academic year: there are two full semesters in the Fall and Spring, each roughly four months long, and a one-month term in January known as "J Term".

Eastern Nazarene emphasizes a blend of faith and other pursuits, from biology[99] to business,[100] and has won the John Templeton award for science-and-religion education.[101] The undergraduate curriculum at Eastern Nazarene was developed in 1919 by the first dean of the college, Bertha Munro, and originally modeled after the curricula at Radcliffe College and Boston University.[24] A revision that introduced the Cultural Perspectives core sequence is very distinctive and comprises a series of interdisciplinary courses on Western culture that encourages students to ponder the "tensions and possibilities" in the relationships between the Christian faith and societal values.[42] The traditional undergraduate student-to-faculty ratio at Eastern Nazarene is 11:1,[83] and graduates on average have a 94 percent acceptance rate into medical school as well as a 100 percent acceptance rate into law school.[102]

Graduate Division and LEAD

College name and shield on the side of the Cecil R. Paul Center for Business at the Old Colony Campus

In addition to traditional undergraduate education, the college offers continuing education for working adults through the Leadership Education for Adults Division (LEAD). Accelerated programs have been in place since 1990,[47] and now include bachelor's degree completion (bachelor of arts and bachelor of science degrees) and associate's degrees (the associate of arts degree) as well as certificates in paralegal studies (CPS) and human resource management (CHRM).[103] The college also maintains 2+2 programs[104] and articulation agreements with junior colleges in the surrounding geographical area, like the agreements with Bristol, Massasoit, and Roxbury Community Colleges.[58][59] Most LEAD classes are held at the Old Colony Campus or at one of the four satellite campuses for reasons of transportation and accessibility, such as parking space, which is limited at the main campus, and access to public transportation via the Wollaston T Station, located on Beale Street where it intersects with Old Colony Avenue.

Current graduate offerings from the Graduate Division are primarily master's degrees (master of science and master of education).[103] Eastern Nazarene first offered graduate work in theology in 1938,[34] then replaced it with a master's degree in religion in 1964, and added master's degrees in business, education, and psychology in 1981.[42]

Student life

The Mann Student Center, named for Edward S. Mann

In 2006, students from 21 countries and 31 U.S. states were attending Eastern Nazarene.[105] ENC is 24 percent ethnically diverse,[106] the highest diversity rate among the eight Nazarene liberal arts colleges,[107] and black student enrollment rose from 4.9 to 15 percent between 1997 and 2007.[108] Eastern Nazarene has always been co-educational, and most of the traditional undergraduate population lives on campus.[109] Undergraduate students at ENC are typically affiliated with approximately 30 different Christian denominations (the largest representations being Nazarene, Baptist, Catholic, and non-denominational), while 35 percent of the student population had no reported denominational or religious affiliation.[84][105]

No student is required to be Christian to attend the Eastern Nazarene College,[84] but each traditional undergraduate student, upon registering, agrees to what is called a Lifestyle Covenant: to, among other things, "abstain from the use of illegal drugs, alcohol and tobacco, and to avoid attendance at bars, clubs, or other activities or places of entertainment that promote themes of inappropriate sexuality, violence, profanity, pornography or activities demeaning to human life."[110] The Student Handbook also specifies that "No person shall engage in sexual acts with anyone other than a spouse."[111] While some guidelines might appear to be "relics from another era," according to the Boston Globe,[112] the Globe has also noted that other prominent Christian colleges uphold these ideals,[113] and that Eastern Nazarene is known for being a progressive "trendsetter"[107] with a "slightly more liberal bent" than its peers.[112] The John Templeton Foundation has also cited the Eastern Nazarene College as one that builds character,[114] and the Quincy Patriot Ledger has said that the school's "deep religious roots make for a quiet campus and good neighbors."[40]


The stained glass windows of Angell Chapel in Angell Hall

There are no fraternities or sororities on campus, but there are Greek "societies". Until 2002, there were four societies based on intramural sports competition, which included the "Kappa Cougars", the "Sigma Stallions", and the "Zeta Warriors". New societies were formed in 2007 and originally numbered eight but were reduced to four again in 2008. Current membership is primarily based on residency, but includes faculty and staff.

There has been an Honors Scholar Society since 1936,[115] and there are various national honors societies (Phi Alpha Theta for history majors, Phi Delta Lambda for Nazarene scholars,[116] Psi Chi for psychology majors, etc.). Students participate in the Student Government Association (SGA), Class Council, Students for Social Justice,[117] academic clubs (Beta Phi Mu Shrader Club, Biology Club, History Club, etc.), and club sports. The student-run newspaper is "The Veritas News", since 1933 and regularly published since 1936, and the student-developed yearbook has been the Nautilus since 1922.[118]

There are vocal and instrumental ensembles, including the A Cappella Choir,[119] which was formed in 1938,[115] and Chamber Singers, Gospel Choir, Symphonic Winds, and Jazz Band, among several others. The college also has a student theatre organization.[120][121] There exist both campus-oriented and community-oriented ministries like as "Open Hand, Open Heart", which ministers to the homeless of Boston by providing food, clothing, and blankets.[122] In addition to its study abroad programs, ENC also provides missions opportunities through a program known as "Fusion".[123] Locally, environmental management students have been involved in community cleanup programs[117][124] and archaeological investigations around Quincy.[125]

The ENC Lions athletic logo


Intramural sports take place year-round and change from season to season based on student interest (past sports have included lacrosse, field hockey, and a very successful men's volleyball club).[126] These and other campus sports, such as J-Term basketball, men's wrestling, men's football, powder puff football, and indoor soccer, are organized by the Student Government Association's (SGA) Rec. Life director.[127]

Intercollegiate athletics at ENC first began in 1959 with wins over Gordon, Curry, and Barrington Colleges in baseball.[128] Varsity sports are National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III, The Commonwealth Coast Conference (TCCC),[129] and Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC).[130] Along with NNU, ENC is one of only two Nazarene colleges to compete in the NCAA. Men's varsity sports include baseball, basketball, cross-country, soccer, and tennis. Women's sports include basketball, cross-country, soccer, softball, tennis, and volleyball. When NAIA-affiliated,[131] Eastern Nazarene regularly won the basketball tournament hosted by The King's College at Briarcliff Manor, New York.[132] The college also won the ECAC Division III Championship in 1996[133] and went to the NCAA Division III Sweet 16 in 2000.[134][135]

Eastern Nazarene's athletic nickname is "Lions".[136] From 1959 until 2009, the athletic moniker was "Crusaders".[128] The college colors are red and white.[137] Bradley Field is named in honor of Carroll Bradley, one-time professional baseball player and the first athletic director at Eastern Nazarene,[128] and the LaHue Physical Education Center at ENC also serves as a clinical site for Northeastern University.[138]

Shields Hall, the residence hall for male freshmen

Residential life

Students live in single-sex residence halls with visitation hours throughout the week. There are three female dormitories (Spangenberg Hall, Williamson Hall, and Munro Hall) and two male dormitories (Memorial Hall and Shields Hall). Young Hall provides apartments for staff and married students, in addition to suites for upperclassman females and males. Each dormitory houses a common area, known as a parlor, where students of both sexes are welcome. Student use these parlors extensively for social events and study groups during the week.

The Mann Student Center houses The Commons for sit-down meals cafeteria-style, as well as The Dugout for meals in a café-type atmosphere. The latter is a popular location for social gathering, as is the adjacent "Colonel's Coffee House", which, ironically, is not a place where coffee is served. Chapel services for undergraduate students, which are 40 minutes long,[139] are offered on Wednesdays and Fridays.[140] Attendance for most chapels is required for most undergraduates.[141] The services take place in the Wollaston Church of the Nazarene, located on the corner of East Elm Avenue and Wendell Avenue, adjacent to the campus of the college.

Notable persons

Karl Giberson, science-and-religion scholar

Notable alumni

Samuel Young, Edward S. Mann, and Stephen W. Nease were all ENC alumni and presidents of Eastern Nazarene College. Russell V. DeLong served two non-consecutive terms as president of Northwest Nazarene College in Nampa, Idaho, and also served as president of Pasadena College. John E. Riley, Kenneth H. Pearsall, and A. Gordon Wetmore also served as presidents of NNC. Stephen Nease and Gordon Wetmore later served as presidents of the Nazarene Theological Seminary in Kansas City, Missouri. Stephen Nease was also the president of Bethany Nazarene College in Bethany, Oklahoma and the founding president of Mount Vernon Nazarene College in Mount Vernon, Ohio. William Henry Houghton was the fourth president of the Moody Bible Institute in Chicago, Illinois, and Charles W. Akers was the first president of Quincy Junior College (QJC) in Quincy, Massachusetts. Alumnus Donald Young, Samuel Young's son,[142] would also become a president of Quincy College.[143][144]

Lawrence Yerdon is the president of the Strawbery Banke Museum in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. He also served 1986-2004 as president of the Hancock Shaker Village in Pittsfield, Massachusetts and was director of the Quincy Historical Society 1976-1986.[145] Alumnus Edward Thomas Dell, Jr. was a published author, the editor of The Episcopalian from 1968 to 1973, and founder of two magazines, and he kept a running correspondence with C. S. Lewis, which is now archived in the Bodleian Library and at Wheaton College.[146] Ralph Earle, Jr. served on the Committee on Bible Translation for the New International Version of the Bible.

John S. Rigden is an alumnus and world-renowned physicist. Eldon C. Hall was the lead design engineer of the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) at MIT. Ross Tubo is Vice President of Stem Cell and Chemokine Biology at Genzyme.[147] Carl Crouthamel earned his doctorate at the University of Chicago after graduating from ENC, is famous for his work with Enrico Fermi on the U.S. project that produced the first atomic bomb, started the first program to build a gamma ray lens for use in astronomy, and has worked for the Argonne National Laboratory.[148] Professor Karl W. Giberson serves on faculty as a scholar of science and religion and is the president of the BioLogos Foundation.

Floyd Nease, Stephen's son and Floyd's grandson, is the Democratic Party Majority Leader for the Vermont House of Representatives. James Sheets, former six-term Quincy mayor, is an Eastern Nazarene College graduate.[149] David Bergers serves as the current Director for the Boston Regional Office of the Securities and Exchange Commission, and attended Yale Law School after completing his undergraduate education at ENC.[150][151]

Richard R. Schubert, another ENC alumnus and graduate of Yale Law School, was the founding president of the Points of Light Foundation, former president and vice chairman of the Bethlehem Steel Corporation, general counsel and deputy secretary for the U.S. Department of Labor, and president and chief executive officer (CEO) of the American Red Cross.[152][153] Neil Nicoll is the current President & CEO of the YMCA.[154][155] Jim Tabor is Vice President for Operations at AirTran Airways.[156] Harold Palmer was president of Atco Records,[157] a division of Atlantic Records that produced albums by The Beatles and AC/DC. Wyclef Jean attended ENC briefly. Wyclef's younger brother, Samuel Jean,[158] graduated from Eastern Nazarene in 1992 with a bachelor's degree in history[159] before graduating from Boston University School of Law in 1995 and is the founder of CityView Artist Management.[160]

Donald Yerxa, Director of The Historical Society (THS) at Boston University

Notable faculty

There are several notable academics on faculty at the college, some of whom are also alumni. Chemistry professor Lowell Hall is the creator of "Molconn", which Pfizer uses to test drug potency,[161] and is emeritus program chairman of the Boston Area Group for Informatics and Modeling.[162] History professor Randall J. Stephens is editor of both the Journal of Southern Religion and Historically Speaking, which is produced at Boston University and published by the Johns Hopkins University. Donald A. Yerxa is director of The Historical Society (THS) at Boston University. He and fellow history professor James R. Cameron both studied under Charles W. Akers and Timothy L. Smith.

Former faculty members of note include physicist John S. Rigden, historian and community college president Charles W. Akers, biblical scholar Ralph Earle, Jr., historian Timothy L. Smith, theologian Thomas Jay Oord, inspector general and Massachusetts representative Robert A. Cerasoli, historian and seminary president Hugh C. Benner, and Olive Winchester. Presidents of the college who were first faculty members include Fred J. Shields in psychology, Floyd W. Nease in theology, R. Wayne Gardner in mathematics, Samuel Young in theology, Edward S. Mann in mathematics, and Cecil R. Paul in psychology.

Notes and references

  1. ^ American universities and colleges: a dictionary of name changes by Alice H. Songe. Rowman & Littlefield (1978), p. 62
  2. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 17. 
  3. ^ "Birth of a Church". Church of the Nazarene. http://www.usamission.org/Portals/1/Documents/Birth%20of%20a%20Church2%20(1).pdf. Retrieved July 24, 2009. 
  4. ^ "History of the Church of the Nazarene". http://www.nazarene.org/ministries/administration/archives/history/turn/display.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  5. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 20–21. 
  6. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 27. 
  7. ^ a b Ingersol, Stan (PDF). Why These Schools? Historical Perspectives on Nazarene Higher Education. http://media.premierstudios.com/nazarene/docs/Why%20These%20Schools%20%20Historical%20Perspectives%20on%20Nazarene%20Higher%20Education.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  8. ^ a b Smith, Timothy L. (1962). Called Unto Holiness. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2501-2600/HDM2593.PDF. 
  9. ^ "Saratoga Hotel Sold" (PDF). The New York Times. September 17, 1901. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9802E2D7163BE733A25754C1A96F9C946097D6CF&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  10. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 28–29, 33. 
  11. ^ Scituate, Rhode Island. Arcadia Publishing. 1998. p. 127. ISBN 0738564192. http://books.google.com/?id=Qyo1ui9T_gMC&printsec=frontcover. 
  12. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 33–36. 
  13. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 32–33. 
  14. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 34.  Originally "built and equipped for $78,000," Hillery bought it for $4,500 and negotiated a mortgage for $3,000.
  15. ^ African American Historic Places. John Wiley and Sons. 1995. p. 422. ISBN 9780471143451. http://books.google.com/?id=wjZIkchWX5AC&printsec=frontcover. 
  16. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 46, 53, 61, 175. 
  17. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 52. 
  18. ^ a b c Raser, Harold E.; Thomas C. Hunt, James C. Carper, eds. (1996). Religious Higher Education in the United States. Taylor & Francis. p. 547. ISBN 0815316364. http://books.google.com/?id=lxr_PID7o2IC&printsec=frontcover&q. 
  19. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 125–126. 
  20. ^ a b c Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 130. 
  21. ^ a b c Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 137. 
  22. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (2000). The Spirit Makes the Difference: The History of Eastern Nazarene College, Part II, 1950-2000. Quincy, Massachusetts: ENC Press. p. 57. 
  23. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 146–147. 
  24. ^ a b c d e Munro, Bertha (1970). The Years Teach, an Autobiography: Remembrances to Bless. Kansas City: Beacon Hill Press. http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/3401-3500/HDM3426.pdf. 
  25. ^ Pepe, William J.; Elaine A. Pepe (2008). Postcard History Series: Quincy. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 72. ISBN 9780738555393. http://books.google.com/?id=NBQrnXx79-UC&printsec=frontcover#PPA72,M1. 
  26. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 147. 
  27. ^ Hood, William Ross (1922). State Laws Relating to Education Enacted in 1920 and 1921. District of Columbia: Department of the Interior: Bureau of Education. p. 224. http://books.google.com/?id=snQaAAAAYAAJ. 
  28. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 163.  Before 1930, an arrangement was made with Northwest Nazarene College for students to receive degrees from that institution instead.
  29. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 194–195. 
  30. ^ a b "Gov. Allen Signs Nazarene College Degree Grant Bill". The Patriot Ledger. March 14, 1930. 
  31. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 263. 
  32. ^ In large part from Jesus' words, "I am the way and the truth and the life...." from John 14:6, as well as the statement from natural science professor Jesse B. Mowry (with master's degree from Brown University and a doctor of science degree from Norwich University) that, "Yea, the Truth points the Way and the Life, and these three determine man's destiny!" Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 38, 220. 
  33. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. pp. 248, 401. 
  34. ^ a b c Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 333. 
  35. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 318. 
  36. ^ a b Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 330. 
  37. ^ a b c Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 293. 
  38. ^ Purkiser, Westlake Taylor (1983). Called Unto Holiness, Vol. 2. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. http://wesley.nnu.edu/wesleyctr/books/2601-2700/HDM2623.PDF.  The first was the Northwest Nazarene College in Idaho, which was accredited as a four-year school in 1937, while ENC alumnus Russell V. DeLong was president there.
  39. ^ "Our Quincy's College". The Patriot Ledger. October 5, 1948. pp. 1, 4. 
  40. ^ a b c "Editorial: Quincy home to more collegians". Patriot Ledger. August 23, 1996. 
  41. ^ "History Department". Eastern Nazarene College. http://www.enc.edu/history/dept_hist.html. Retrieved August 4, 2009. 
  42. ^ a b c d e Balmer, Randall Herbert (2004). Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Baylor University Press. p. 224. ISBN 9781932792041. http://books.google.com/?id=Vjwly0QyeU4C&pg=PA532&lpg=PA532&dq=pentecostal+collegiate+institute. 
  43. ^ a b Davis, Joy (December 5, 2000). "Second volume added to Eastern Nazarene history". The Patriot Ledger. 
  44. ^ "Eastern Nazarene College Leaving Massachusetts for Pennsylvania". The New York Times. March 20, 1977. pp. 5. 
  45. ^ Cameron, James R. (2000). The Spirit Makes the Difference: The History of Eastern Nazarene College, Part II, 1950-2000. Quincy, Massachusetts: ENC Press. p. 283. 
  46. ^ Ferguson, Gailynne M. (March 30, 1999). "History of the Ellis School". EllisAlum.org. http://www.ellisalum.org/Ellis/History.htm. Retrieved July 24, 2009. [dead link]
  47. ^ a b Salter, Sue (Summer 1997). "From the Chair" (PDF). News Vol. 7 No. 2. Consortium for the Advancement of Adult Higher Education. http://www.caahe.org/publications/news_1997_06.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
  48. ^ "Association of Independent Colleges and Universities in Massachusetts (AICUM)". http://www.masscolleges.org/. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
  49. ^ "ENC Boosts Local Economy By Nearly $10 Million". The Quincy Sun. October 31, 1991. pp. 33. 
  50. ^ Coakley, Tom (April 27, 1993). "Faculty shift ahead at Christian college". Boston Globe (http://www.proquest.com/). 
  51. ^ Markoe, Lauren (January 4, 1995). "College bids for Randolph campus". The Patriot Ledger. 
  52. ^ April, Carolyn (July 27, 1995). "Eastern Nazarene buying motel site". The Patriot Ledger. 
  53. ^ Davis, Maia (August 20, 1996). "Expansion plans move ahead: ENC to buy former Quincy factory". The Patriot Ledger. 
  54. ^ a b Salter, Sue (Summer 1997). "New Learning Center Launched at ENC" (PDF). News Vol. 7 No. 2. Consortium for the Advancement of Adult Higher Education. http://www.caahe.org/publications/news_1997_06.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-29. 
  55. ^ Givens, Ann (October 1, 1998). "Eastern Nazarene College is expanding 2 Wollaston buildings undergoing renovation". The Patriot Ledger. 
  56. ^ a b "Photo tour: Cecil R. Paul Center for Business". http://www1.enc.edu/About-ENC/Campus-Tour/Cecil-R.-Paul-Center-for-Business.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-07. 
  57. ^ Davis, Joy (August 7, 2001). "Christians-only policy not for U.S. agency; Ex-ENC president will eschew practice at Quincy college". The Patriot Ledger. pp. 7. 
  58. ^ a b c "ENC's Adult and Graduate Studies Program expands into satellite locations around the state". Nazarene Communications Network. December 18, 2008. http://www.ncnnews.com/nphweb/html/ncn/article.jsp?sid=10000013&id=10006683. 
  59. ^ a b c Hatch, Steve (January 25, 2009). "Brockton: Extending Education". Boston Globe (Boston.com). http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2009/01/25/a_legislative_visit_in_avon/. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  60. ^ USNews and World Report Guide to Best Colleges: Eastern Nazarene College
  61. ^ Washington Monthly College Guide: Baccalaureate college rankings 2010
  62. ^ Campus map (Map). http://www1.enc.edu/About-ENC/Campus-Map.aspx. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  63. ^ "Eastern Nazarene College: About". http://www.enc.edu/about/index.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  64. ^ "Wollaston MBTA Station (with Google map)". http://www.mbta.com/schedules_and_maps/subway/lines/stations/?stopId=15412. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  65. ^ a b c Information provided by the Eastern Nazarene College, History of the Babcock Arboretum, published in 2003, written by Gerry Wood, founder. Found in the Nease Library, Reference Section.
  66. ^ "Alumni Relations at Eastern Nazarene College". http://www.enc.edu/IA/alumni_relations.php. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  67. ^ "New Anglican Church". The Patriot Ledger. February 28, 2009. 
  68. ^ "Historical and architectural significance of the campus of Eastern Nazarene College". http://thomascranelibrary.org/htm/503.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  69. ^ Cameron, James R. (2000). The Spirit Makes the Difference: The History of Eastern Nazarene College, Part II, 1950-2000. Quincy, Massachusetts: ENC Press. p. 11. 
  70. ^ "Photo tour: Campus Kinder Haus". http://www1.enc.edu/subpage.aspx?id=1009. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  71. ^ Davis, Joy (September 26, 2000). "Kinder Haus finally at home". The Patriot Ledger. 
  72. ^ "Rezoning of parcel debated; Property value would drop, says Eastern Nazarene". Patriot Ledger. September 24, 2002. 
  73. ^ "City council rezones college land; Officials at ENC opposed the move". Patriot Ledger. October 9, 2002. 
  74. ^ Encarnacao, Jack (July 9, 2009). "Quincy looking to take inn, other properties to create site for new middle school". Patriot Ledger (PatriotLedger.com). http://www.patriotledger.com/news/education/x1885888099/Quincy-looking-to-take-inn-other-properties-to-create-site-for-new-middle-school. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  75. ^ Manual of the History, Doctrine, Government, and Ritual of the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. 2005. p. 170. http://media.premierstudios.com/nazarene/docs/Manual2005_09.pdf. 
  76. ^ J. Matthew, Price (PDF). Liberal Arts and the Priorities of Nazarene Higher Education. http://media.premierstudios.com/nazarene/docs/didache_2_1_Price.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10.  Nazarene higher education is based on the liberal arts college model. While ENC is the only Nazarene institution to retain the "college" moniker, no Nazarene schools fit the standard national definition of a "research university". Furthermore, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Board of Higher Education holds a "two doctorate" standard.
  77. ^ "US Educational Regions" (PDF). http://www.nazarene.org/files/docs/educregions.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10.  ENC and NNU are the only Nazarene schools to remain true to their regional names.
  78. ^ Jaschik, Scott; Kate Maternowski (May 11, 2009). "Show me the money". Inside Higher Ed. http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2009/05/11/enroll. Retrieved 2009-05-13. 
  79. ^ Guidelines and Handbook for Educational Institutions of the Church of the Nazarene. Church of the Nazarene International Board of Education. 1997. p. 14. http://www.nazarene.org/files/docs/guide.pdf. 
  80. ^ "Eastern USA Region" (PDF). http://www.nazarene.org/files/docs/EasternUSAregiondistricts.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  81. ^ When first established on June 10, 1918, this region also included Ohio, West Virginia, maritime Canada, and the British Isles. Manual of the History, Doctrine, Government, and Ritual of the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. 1919. http://www.mnu.edu/academics/mabee/manuals/Pentecostal_Church_of_the_Nazarene_1919.pdf. 
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  86. ^ "Eastern Nazarene College Catalogue 2007-2008, p. 9" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2008-06-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20080627054257/http://www.enc.edu/downloads/undergrad_catalog_07-08.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
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  89. ^ "CSWE 2006 Directory of Accredited Programs". http://www.cswe.org/cgi-bin/MsmGo.exe?grab_id=0&page_id=378&query=%22eastern%20nazarene%20college%22. Retrieved 2008-07-10. [dead link]
  90. ^ CCCU member details: Eastern Nazarene College
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  92. ^ "NAICU Members — E". http://www.naicu.edu/member_center/members.asp#E. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
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  95. ^ "Karl Giberson Moves On to Create More Time for Writing". The BioLogos Forum. BioLogos.org. http://biologos.org/blog/karl-giberson-moves-on-to-create-more-time-for-writing. Retrieved 2011-10-25. 
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  116. ^ Cameron, James R. (1968). Eastern Nazarene College—The First Fifty Years, 1900-1950. Kansas City: Nazarene Publishing House. p. 309.  Organized in 1940 at the Nazarene General Assembly.
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  125. ^ "A walk in the swamp". Boston Globe. July 5, 1992. 
  126. ^ Fine, Mike (March 17, 1999). "Going for the Kill: ENC's undefeated volleyball team continues its winning tradition". Patriot Ledger. 
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