Master of Science

Master of Science

A Master of Science (Latin: Magister Scientiæ; abbreviated M.Sc., MSc, M.Sci., M.Si., Sc.M., M.S., MSHS, MS, Mag., Mg., Mgr, S.M., or SM) is a postgraduate academic master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is typically studied for in the sciences including the social sciences.


Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay

In Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, the Master of Science or Magister is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration.[1] The admission to a Master program (Castilian: Maestría; Portuguese: Mestrado) in an Brazilian, Argentine or Uruguayan University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years long from any recognized university. Under the accomplishment of the Magister Scientiæ thesis dissertation, that in years of formal education, is generally equivalent to a Ph.D. or Doctorate in universities of North America or Europe given the Bologna comparison system among academic programs.


Australian universities commonly have coursework or research based Master of Science courses for graduate students. They typically run for 1–2 years full-time, with varying amounts of research involved. Research based Masters degrees are usually accompanied by an extensive thesis before completion. In some universities, as in the University of Melbourne an intensive 1 year Master is offered before getting into the Ph.D program with the name of "Bachelor of Sciencie with Honours".


In Bangladesh, every universities, including Dkaka University and Rajshahi University, have Master of Science courses as postgraduate degrees. After passing Bachelor of Science (BSc), any student becomes eligible to study in this discipline.

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic is using two Master Degree systems. Both award a title of Mgr. or Ing. to be used before the name. The older system requires a 5-years programme. The new system takes only 2 years, but requires a previously completed 3-year bachelor programme (a Bc. title).


The Master of Science (M.Sc.) academic degree has been recently introduced in Germany, as the once common Diplom programmes typically lasting four to five years were replaced by separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields, and, depending on the focus of studies, also in engineering, business or economics. The completion of a scientific thesis is required. All Master's degrees in Germany are designed to certify an equal level of education and qualify for a doctorate program.

The degree Master of Science is often awarded in English form, but institutions can alternatively award it in the German form, Magister der Wissenschaften. The graduate needs to use it as awarded and cannot choose which form to use.[2]


Similar to United States or UK. The M.Sc. is mostly a "taught" programme spanning 2 years. Some universities stress on research more than others.


Similar to Germany. A graduate who is awarded the title Master of Science may still use the previously awarded Dutch title ingenieur (for graduates who followed a technical or agricultural programme) or doctorandus (in all other cases).


The Master of Science academic degree has been recently introduced, and has replaced the previous award forms "Sivilingeniør" (civil engineer, a.k.a. engineering master) and "Hovedfag" (academic master). Both were awarded after 5 years university-level studies and required the completion of a scientific thesis.

"", is a protected title exclusively awarded to engineering students who completed a five year education at The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norwegian: Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, NTNU). Historically there was no Bachelor's degree involved, and todays program is a five years Master's degree education. The "" title is in the process of being phased out, replaced by (for now, complemented by) the "M.Sc" title. By and large, "" is a title tightly being held on to for the sake of tradition. In academia, the new program offers separate three-year bachelor and two-year master programs. It is awarded in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields. The completion of a scientific thesis is required. All Master's degrees are designed to certify a level of education and qualify for a doctorate program.


Pakistan inherited its conventions pertaining to higher education from United Kingdom after independence in 1947. Master of Science degree is typically abbreviated as M.Sc. (as in United Kingdom) and which is awarded after 16 years of education. Recently, in pursuance to some of the reforms by the Higher Education Commission (the regulatory body of higher education in Pakistan), the traditional 2-year Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) degree has been replaced by the 4-year Bachelor of Science degree, which is abbreviated as B.S. to enable the Pakistani degrees at par with the rest of the world. Subsequently, students who pass 4-year B.S. degree that is awarded after 16 years of education are then eligible to apply for M.S. degree, which is considered at par with Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) degree.


The Polish equivalent of Master of Science is "magister" (abbreviation "mgr", placed before one's name, like Dr). In the 2001, the MSc programs typically lasting 5 years were replaced by separate 3-year bachelor programs (termed "licencjat") and 2-year master programs. The degree is awarded mostly in the natural sciences, mathematics and computer science fields, and economics, but also in the arts and other disciplines. In engineering and agricultural sciences, it is extended to "mgr inż." (which literally means "master engineer"). The completion of a research thesis is required. All Master's degrees in Poland qualify for a doctorate program.


The Master of Science academic degree has, like in Germany, recently been introduced in Sweden. Students studying Master of Science in Engineering programmes are rewarded both the English Master of Science Degree, but also the Swedish equivalent "Teknologie masterexamen" and "Civilingenjör".

United Kingdom and Ireland

The M.Sc. is typically a "taught" postgraduate degree, involving lectures, examination, and a short project. Taught masters programmes involve 1 or 2 years of full-time study (or the equivalent period part-time). Some universities also offer research MSc programmes, where a longer project or set of projects is undertaken full-time.

Until recently, both the undergraduate and postgraduate masters degrees were awarded without grade or class (like the class of an honours degree). Nowadays however, masters degrees are normally classified into the categories of Pass and Distinction, with some universities also using an intermediate Merit category.[citation needed]

The Master of Science degree should not be confused with the more recent M.Sci., or Master in Science degree, now offered by UK institutions. This is an extended undergraduate degree, with honours awarded, and is intended to better prepare students for postgraduate study. Many research universities are now demanding M.Sci. degrees for entry to Ph.D. research programmes.

This education pattern in United Kingdom is also followed in Hong Kong SAR and in many Commonwealth Nations such as Malta, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

United States

The Master of Arts (Magister Artium) and Master of Science (Magister Scientiæ) degrees are the two primary types in most subjects and may be entirely course-based, entirely research-based or (more typically) a mixture.

Admission to a master's program is normally contingent upon holding a bachelor's degree, and progressing to a doctoral program may require a master's degree. In some fields or graduate programs, work on a doctorate can begin immediately after the bachelors degree. Some programs provide for a joint bachelor's and master's degree after about five years. Some universities use the Latin degree names, and due to the flexibility of word order in Latin, Artium Magister (AM) or Scientiæ Magister (SM) may be used at some schools.

See also


  1. ^ "CONEAU: Tipos de Posgrado". Ministerio de Education Republica Argentina. 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-06-08. [dead link]
  2. ^ See university law of the respective German states, or their common structural standards

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