- Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to a particular type of educational
curriculumbroadly defined as a classical education.
Definitionanchors|Seven liberal arts|The seven liberal arts
The term 'liberal arts' is a college or curriculum aimed at imparting general knowledge and developing intellectual capacities, in contrast to a
professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. In classical antiquity, the term designated the education proper to a freeman ( Latin: "liber", "free") as opposed to a slave. Martianus Capella(5th century AD) defines the seven Liberal Arts as grammar, dialectic, rhetoric and geometry, arithmetic, astronomy, music. In the medieval Western university, the seven liberal arts were:
* the "Trivium"
grammar rhetoric logic
* the "Quadrivium"
geometry arithmetic music astronomy
collegesand universities, the liberal arts include the study of art, literature, languages, philosophy, history, mathematics, and science. [cite web | first = | last = | title = Liberal Arts: Encyclopedia Britannica Concise| publisher = Encyclopedia Britannica| date = | url= http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/article-9370154/liberal-arts]
Expansion to include visual arts
Renaissancea considerable propaganda campaign was mounted to support the promotion to the number of liberal arts of architecture, paintingand sculpture, though not necessarily for their inclusion in the educational curriculum in the same way. Previously they had been classified among the mechanical or manual arts. Among those writing to support their inclusion were Leon Battista Alberti, Leonardo da Vinci, Giorgio Vasariand many others. At least in Italy, and among Renaissance humanists, the battle was largely won by about 1500, [Blunt, Anthony, "Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450-1660",p. 49, 1940 (refs to 1985 edn), OUP, ISBN0198810504] though in remoter regions like Spain and England the process took up to another century.
Liberal arts colleges
Liberal arts colleges are institutions which place a particular emphasis upon undergraduatestudy in the liberal arts. Generally, a full-time, four-year course of study at a liberal arts college leads students to a Bachelor of Artsor Bachelor of Sciencedegree. Liberal arts colleges have traditionally emphasized interactive instructionFact|date=May 2008 (although research is still a component of these institutions) and are usually residential.Fact|date=May 2008 They typically have a smaller enrollment, class size, and higher teacher-to-student ratios than universities. These colleges also encourage a high level of teacher-student interaction at the center of which are classes taught by full-time faculty rather than graduate student teaching assistants (who teach some classes at Research I and other universities).Fact|date=June 2008 Although the genesis for what is known today as the liberal arts college began in Europe, [cite web | first =Philip | last =Harriman | title = Antecedents of the Liberal Arts College| publisher = "The Journal of Higher Education," Vol. 6, No. 2 (1935), pp. 63-71 | date =1935 | url= http://www.jstor.org/view/00221546/di962074/96p0148k/0] the term is commonly associated with liberal arts colleges in the United States. Liberal arts colleges are found in countries all over the world as wellFact|date=August 2008.
Following completion of their undergraduate studies at liberal arts colleges, students may continue on to graduate study in other institutions, such as
professional schools (for instance, in business, law, medicine, or theology) or graduate schools.
* Blaich, Charles, Anne Bost, Ed Chan, and Richard Lynch. "Defining Liberal Arts Education". Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts, 2004.
* Blanshard, Brand. "The Uses of a Liberal Education: And Other Talks to Students". (Open Court, 1973. ISBN 0-8126-9429-5)
* Friedlander, Jack. "Measuring the Benefits of Liberal Arts Education in Washington's Community Colleges". Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Community Colleges, 1982a. (ED 217 918)
* Joseph, Sister Miriam. "The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric". Paul Dry Books Inc, 2002.
* Pfnister, Allen O. " [http://www.jstor.org/view/00221546/di962488/96p0027o/0 The Role of the Liberal Arts College] ." "The Journal of Higher Education." Vol. 55, No. 2 (March/April 1984): 145-170.
* Reeves, Floyd W. " [http://www.jstor.org/view/00221546/di962034/96p0137g/0 The Liberal-Arts College] ." "The Journal of Higher Education." Vol. 1, No. 7 (1930): 373-380.
* Seidel, George. " [http://www.jstor.org/view/00221546/di962375/96p0021i/0 Saving the Small College] ." "The Journal of Higher Education." Vol. 39, No. 6 (1968): 339-342.
* Winterer, Caroline."The Culture of Classicism: Ancient Greece and Rome in American Intellectual Life, 1780-1910." Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
* Wriston, Henry M. "The Nature of a Liberal College". Lawrence University Press, 1937.
* T. Kaori Kitao, William R. Kenan, Jr."The Usefulness Of Uselessness" [http://www.honors.ucr.edu/files/SUHP2006/usefulness.pdf] Keynote Address, The 1999 Institute for the Academic Advancement of Youth's Odyssey at Swarthmore College, 27 March 1999
Bachelor of Liberal Studies
Bachelor of Liberal Arts
Bachelor of General Studies
Bachelor of Arts
* [http://www.ditext.com/libed/libed.html Philosophy of Liberal Education]
* [http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-1/liberal.htm Liberal Arts at the Community College]
* [http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-926/liberal.htm A Descriptive Analysis of the Community College Liberal Arts Curriculum]
* [http://liberalarts.wabash.edu/ The Center of Inquiry in the Liberal Arts]
* [http://www.academiccommons.org Academic Commons]
* [http://www.catholicity.com/encyclopedia/l/liberal_arts,seven.html CatholiCity: Catholic Encyclopedia]
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