Military academy

Military academy

A military academy or service academy (in American English) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, the navy, air force or coast guard or provides education in a service environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.

Three types of academy exists: High school-level institutions awarding academic qualifications, university-level institutions awarding Bachelor's degree level qualification, and those preparing officer cadets for commissioning into the armed services of the state.




  • ("Skenderbej Military University",


Argentine Army

Argentine Navy

  • Escuela Naval Militar (Naval Military School), located in Río Santiago, Buenos Aires

Argentine Air Force

  • Escuela de Aviación Militar (Military Aviation School), located in the city of Córdoba






  • Military College of Bolivia) (Colegio Militar del Ejército de Bolivia [1])
  • Bolivian Military Naval Academy
  • Bolivian Air Force Academy


Has several military academies:


  • Vasil Levski National Military University founded in 1878 as a military school in Plovdiv


Canada currently has one military-theme private boarding school open for students at the pre-university level, Robert Land Academy (RLA), which is located in West Lincoln, Ontario. Founded in 1978, it is an all-boys' institute whose funding arises solely from tuition fees. The Academy is an institute fully accredited by the province of Ontario, which accepts students from Grade 6 to Grade 12 (the Ontario Academic Credit level).

Canada formerly had three university level service academies, the Canadian Military Colleges. These included the Royal Military College of Canada (RMC) in Kingston, Ontario, Royal Roads Military College (RRMC) in Victoria, British Columbia and the Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean (CMR) in Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Québec. RMC was founded in 1876, RRMC in 1941 and CMR in 1954.[1] By the 60s all three institutions were providing *military education to officer cadets of all three elements in the Canadian Forces; the navy, army and air force; and RMC received the authority to grant academic degrees in Arts, Science and Engineering.[2]

Graduates of the Colleges are widely acknowledged to have had a disproportionate impact in the Canadian services and society, thanks to the solid foundations provided by their military education.[3] In the modern era, emphasis was placed on a broad based, liberal education including core courses in the humanities, social, pure and applied sciences. Military discipline and training, as well as a focus on physical fitness and fluency in both of Canada's two official languages, English and French, provided cadets with ample challenges and a very fulfilling experience.[4] In 1995 the Department of National Defence was forced to close Royal Roads Military College and Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean due to budget considerations, but Royal Military College of Canada continues to carry the proud tradition educating Canada's future leaders into the twenty-first century.[5] Royal Roads reopened as a civilian university in the fall of 1995, and is maintained by the Government of British Columbia. In 2007, the Department of National Defence reopened Collège militaire royal de Saint-Jean as a preparatory and first year college.

China, People's Republic of

China, Republic of

Czech Republic

Univerzita obrany (University of Defence)



El Salvador

  • Escuela Militar Capitan General Gerardo Barrios




High schools :

  • Lycée militaire de Saint-Cyr
  • Lycée militaire d'Autun
  • Prytanée National Militaire
  • Lycée militaire d'Aix en Provence
  • Lycée naval de Brest
  • L'Ecole des Pupilles de l'Air

Undergraduate academies :

  • École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr (ESM, literally the "Special Military School of St Cyr") is the French Military Academy. It is often referred to as "Saint-Cyr". Founded by Napoleon in 1802, and initially located in Fontainebleau, it was moved first to Saint-Cyr l'École in 1808, and then to Coëtquidan (Brittany) in 1945.
  • École de l'Air: the French Air Force Academy
  • École Navale: the French Naval Academy
  • École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale (EOGN) : gendarmerie commissioned officers academy
  • ENSTA Bretagne: a French military engineering academy

Postgraduate academies :

  • Institut des hautes études de la défense nationale (IHEDN): Defense Postgraduate Institute
  • École d'État-major (Staff School)
  • Collège d'enseignement supérieur de l'armée de terre (Army Higher Education College)
  • École de Guerre (War School)

The Ecole Polytechnique, though its engineering students are enlisted in the military, is sometimes not considered a military academy, as very few of its graduates remain in the military after graduation.


Main complex of the Naval Academy Mürwik of the German Navy with all-ranks-dining hall, historic assembly hall and tower

In Germany there exists a system which clearly differs from the common ones. The only true military academies are in fact the Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr where mainly future staff officers and general staff officers are further trained.

The standard education in military leadership is the task of the Offizierschulen (officer's schools) run by the three branches. The contents differ from branch to branch. In the army all officers are at least trained to lead a platoon. There they also have to pass an officer exam to become commissioned later on.

Moreover there exist so called Waffenschulen like infantry school or artillery school. There the officer's learn to deal with the typical tasks of their respective corps. A specialty of the German concept of officer formation is the academic education. Germany runs two own Universities of the German Federal Armed Forces where almost every future officer has to pass non-military studies and achieve a Bachelor's or Master's degree. During their studies (after at least three years of service) the candidates become commissioned Leutnant (second-lieutenant).

The three officer's schools are:

Academic and staff education:


The Hellenic Armed Forces have military academies supervised by each branch of the Armed Forces individually:


  • "Miklós ZRÍNYI" National Defence University, located in Budapest (



Akademi Angkatan Bersenjata Republic Indonesia (Indonesia Military Academy)[2] Founded in Yogyakarta, October 13, 1945 in order of General Staff Chief of Indonesia Army Leut. Gen Urip Sumoharjo with name Militaire Academie (MA) Yogyakarta. Now, Tentara Nasional Indonesia (National Military of Indonesia), placed each academy into:

Indonesian Army

  • Akademi Militer - Akmil (Military Academy), located in Magelang, Province of Jawa Tengah

Indonesian Air Force

  • Akademi Angkatan Udara - AAU (Air Force Academy), located in Yogyakarta, Province of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

Indonesian Navy

  • Akademi Angkatan Laut - AAL (Naval Academy), located in Surabaya, Province of Jawa Timur


High School level institutions (only for Classical and Scientific Liceum, starting from grade 10):

  • Scuola Militare Nunziatella, founded during the Borbonic Period in 1787, in Italian Army, Naples
  • Scuola Militare Teulié, Italian Army, Milan
  • Scuola Militare Navale Morosini, Italian Navy, Venice
  • Scuola Militare Aeronautica Douhet, Italian Air Force, Florence

The 2009-2010 Schoolyear has been the first one with girls attending those schools.

University level institutions:


Korea, South

The three main military academies:

Other military academies:

  • Korea Army Academy at Yeongcheon, formerly Korea Third Military Academy
  • Armed Forces Nursing Academy


Secondary level institutions:

University Level of Education

Specialist Training & Staff institutions:

Reserve Officer Training Units (Malay: Pasukan Latihan Pegawai Simpanan or PALAPES) or ROTU exists only in public universities in Malaysia. This is a tertiary institution based officer commissioning program to equip students as officer cadets with military knowledge and understanding for service as Commissioned Officers in the reserve components of the various branches of the Malaysian Armed Forces.



New Zealand

Tier One - Initial Officer Training

Tier Two - Junior Officer Education

Tier Three - Senior Officer Education


High school training:

Undergraduate officer training:

Postgraduate officer training:


Undergraduate officer training

Postgraduate training

  • Norwegian Defence Staff College, Oslo (Joint)
  • Norwegian National Defence College, Oslo (Civil Service/Very senior officers)


The Pakistan Military Academy is the sole supplier of officers to the Pakistan Army while the Pakistan Air Force Academy supplies officers and fighter pilots to the Pakistan Air Force. The officers for the Pakistan Navy are supplied by the Pakistan Naval Academy.


Centro de Enseñanza Superior Dr. Justo Arosemena


Undergraduate officer training


The Philippine Military Academy (PMA) is the training school for future officers of the three service branches of the Armed Forces of the Philippines namely, Philippine Army, Philippine Navy and Philippine Air Force. It was established as an Officer's School of the Philippine Constabulary on February 17, 1905 at Intramuros, Manila, but was relocated on September 1, 1908 in Baguio City. after the separation of Philippine Constabulary from the Armed Forces of the Philippines in December 31, 1990, PMA stopped producing Constabulary Cadets in 1992, because The Philippine Constabulary is now getting officers from the Philippine National Police Academy. Other academies include the Philippine Merchant Marine Academy (PMMA), for future deck and engine officers of different private shipping companies or serve as a regular ensign in the Philippine Coast Guard. graduates of PMMA are automatically commissioned as an ensign in the Philippine Navy Reserve. The Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) is the training school for future Inspectors/Lieutenants of the Philippine National Police formerly named as Philippine Constabulary/Integrated National Police until December 31, 1990, The Bureau of Fire Protection and Bureau of Jail Management and Penology upon graduation. It was established as a training school for active Non-Commissioned Officers to be promoted as Police and Fire Lieutenants of the defunct Integrated National Police but stopped accepting police, jail and fire NCO's until 2000. and lastly, The Maritime Academy of Asia and the Pacific (MAAP), also for future deck and engine officers of private shipping companies and automatically commissioned and ensign in the Philippine Navy Reserve.




High school training:

  • Colégio Militar, Lisbon - military school for boys;
  • Instituto de Odivelas, Odivelas - military school for girls;
  • Instituto dos Pupilos do Exército, Lisbon - vocational education military school.

Polytechnical training:

Undergraduate officer training:

Postgraduate officer training:

  • Instituto de Estudos Superiores Militares, at Lisbon - joint Portuguese Armed Forces higher studies institute.

No longer operational:

  • Instituto Superior Militar, Águeda - school for training NCOs to become officers;
  • Escola Superior Politécnica do Exército, Amadora - school for training NCOs to become officers.



Cruiser Aurora and Nakhimov Naval School (behind)
Omsk Cadet Corps

See also: Cadet Corps (Russia), Soviet military academies

The first stage of training:

  • The Cadet Corps is an admissions-based military middle school for young boys that was founded in the Russian Empire in the year 1732, soon becoming widespread throughout the country.
  • The Sea Cadet Corps
  • Kronstadt S.C.C.
  • Moscow Representative Sea Cadet Corps of the Navigation and Mathematics School

The second stage of training:

  • Suvorov Military School are a type of boarding school in modern Russia for boys of 14-18. Education in such these schools focuses on military related subjects.
  • Nakhimov Naval School is a form of higher military education for teenagers introduced in modern Russia.
  • St.Petersburg N.N.S.

The third stage of training:

The forth stage of training:


Military Academy Belgrade



Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has one defense university taking cadets from all three armed services , 3 non-university level Military Academies, one for each armed service providing basic training for officer and a Command and Staff College for senior officers of the three armed services. The General Sir John Kotelawala Defense University, was established in 1980 and is named after Gen. Sri John Kotelawala the 2nd Prime Minister of Sri Lanka.

Officer training
Staff training


Military Academy Karlberg


  • Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy (University level)
  • Phramongkutklao College of Medicine (Medicine, University level)
  • Royal Thai Navy Academy (university level)
  • Royal Thai Air Force Academy (university level)



Uganda maintains the followings military training institutions, as of December 2010:[6]

United Kingdom

The 149th Sovereign's Parade in front of Old College, RMA Sandhurst.

Pre-University level institution:

  • Welbeck College - Sixth form college for 16 to 18 year olds providing A-Level education in preparation for entry into the British Armed Forces or Ministry of Defence Civil Service as Technical Officers, following undergraduate education.

Officer training

Postgraduate and staff training

No longer operational:

Paralleling the way the School Cadet forces work at a pre-university level, at the university level there are the University Royal Naval Units, University Officer Training Corps (UOTC) and University Air Squadrons. However the mission of the UOTC is not the training of officers.[16]

United States

The United States is almost unique in that the term "military academy" does not necessarily mean an institution run by the armed forces to train its own military officers; it may also mean a middle school, high school or tertiary-level college, whether public or private, which instructs its students in military-style education, discipline and tradition.

Many public high schools offer Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps programs sponsored by the United States Armed Forces.

  • The term military school primarily refers to pre-collegiate (middle and high school) institutions. Military schools were once far more common than they are today; see the extensive list of defunct military academies.
  • The term military academy commonly refers to all pre-collegiate, collegiate, and post-collegiate institutions, yet graduate institutions, catering for officers already in service, are often considered separately and termed staff colleges and Graduate Schools.

Military academies can be either private or have government sponsorship from regional (state) or national government.

The colleges operated by the U.S. Federal Government are referred to as the Federal Service Academies and are:

State-sponsored Military Academy:

In addition, five institutions, which were military colleges at the time of their founding, maintain both a corps of cadets and a civilian student body. These are:

Along with the Virginia Military Institute these institutions are known as the Senior Military Colleges.

Five institutions are considered Military Junior Colleges. These five schools participate in the Army's two-year Early Commissioning Program, an Army ROTC program where qualified students can earn a commission as a Second Lieutenant after only two years of college. The five Military Junior Colleges are:

Note: The terms college and university are interchangeable in the below discussion. They are both used to denote an institution of higher learning which a person might attend after attending high school, typically at age 17, 18, or 19.

Pre-collegiate institutions

A military school teaches various ages (middle school, high school, or both) in a manner that includes military traditions and training in military subjects. The vast majority are in the United States. Many military schools are also boarding schools, and others are simply magnet schools in a larger school system. Many are privately run institutions, though some are public and are run by either a public school system (such as the Chicago Public Schools), or by a state.

A common misconception results because some states have chosen to house their child criminal populations in higher-security boarding schools that are run in a manner similar to military boarding schools. These are also called reform schools, and are functionally a combination of school and prison. They attempt to emulate the high standards of established military boarding schools in the hope that a strict structured environment can reform these children. This may or may not be true. However, this should not reflect on the long and distinguished history of military schools; their associations are traditionally those of high academic achievement, with solid college preparatory curricula, schooling in the military arts, and considerably esteemed graduates. 

Popular culture sometimes shows parents sending or threatening to send unruly children off to military school (or boarding school) to teach them good behavior (e.g., in the "Army of One" episode of The Sopranos, Tony and Carmela Soprano consider sending their son, AJ, to the Hudson Military Institute after AJ is expelled from high school but relent when AJ collapses from a panic attack).

Adult institutions

A college level military academy is an institute of higher learning of things military. It is part of a larger system of military education and training institutions. The primary educational goal at military academies is to provide a high quality education that includes significant coursework and training in the fields of military tactics and military strategy. The amount of non-military coursework varies by both the institution and the country, and the amount of practical military experience gained varies as well.

Military academies may or may not grant university degrees. In the U.S., graduates have a major field of study, earning a Bachelor's degree in that subject just as at other universities. However, in British academies, the graduate does not achieve a university degree, since the whole of the one-year course (nowadays undertaken mainly but not exclusively by university graduates) is dedicated to military training.

There are two types of military academies: national (government-run) and state/private-run.

  • Graduates from national academies are typically commissioned as officers in the country's military. The new officers usually have an obligation to serve for a certain number of years. In some countries (e.g. Britain) all military officers train at the appropriate academy, whereas in others (e.g. the United States) only a percentage do and the service academies are seen as institutions which supply service-specific officers within the forces (about 15 percent of US military officers).
  • State or private-run academy graduates have no requirement to join the military after graduation, although some schools have a high rate of graduate military service. Today, most of these schools have ventured away from their military roots and now enroll both military and civilian students. The only exception in the United States is the Virginia Military Institute which remains all-military.

See also


  1. ^ H16511 Dr. Richard Arthur Preston "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College of Canada" 1997 Toronto, University of Toronto Press, 1969.
  2. ^ 4237 Dr. Adrian Preston & Peter Dennis (Edited) "Swords and Covenants" Rowman And Littlefield, London. Croom Helm. 1976.
  3. ^ H16511 Dr. Richard Preston "R.M.C. and Kingston: The effect of imperial and military influences on a Canadian community" 1968
  4. ^ H1877 R. Guy C. Smith (editor) "As You Were! Ex-Cadets Remember". In 2 Volumes. Volume I: 1876-1918. Volume II: 1919-1984. Royal Military College. [Kingston]. The R.M.C. Club of Canada. 1984
  5. ^ "To Serve Canada: A History of the Royal Military College since the Second World War", Ottawa, University of Ottawa Press, 1991.
  6. ^ List of Uganda Military Schools
  7. ^ One Thousand Somalis Graduate From Bihanga Military School
  8. ^ Kalama Warfare Training School Opened in 2005 at Kabamba
  9. ^ Colonel Geoffrey Kyazze is Commandant of KWTS
  10. ^ Kalama Warfare Training School Located at Kabamba
  11. ^ Oliver Tambo Leadership School Located at Kaweweta, Nakaseke District
  12. ^ South Africa Donates Equipment to Oliver Tambo School
  13. ^ About Uganda Airforce Academy
  14. ^ The NUST Located at Lugazi
  15. ^ About Uganda Urban Warfare Training School
  16. ^ "University Officer Training Corps About Us". Ministry of Defence. "UOTCs are military units but it is not about training students for war. Many UOTC members do go on to join the Armed Forces, both full and part time, but the majority have no further contact with the forces after they graduate."

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