:"Leghorn" redirects here. For the breed of chicken, see
Leghorn chicken.Infobox CityIT
img_coa = Livorno-Stemma.png
official_name = Comune di Livorno
province = Livorno (LI)
elevation_m = 3
area_total_km2 = 104
population_total = 160774
image_caption=Palaces next to the "Fosso Reale".
timezone = CET, UTC+1
coordinates = coord|43|33|N|10|19|E
mapx = #expr:43 + 33 / 60.0
mapy = #expr:10 + 19 / 60.0
frazioni = Ardenza, Antignano, Montenero, Castellaccio, Gorgona, Quercianella
telephone = 0586
postalcode = 57100
gentilic = Livornesi, poetically Labronici
Santa Giulia da Corsica
mayor = Alessandro Cosimi
website = [http://www.comune.livorno.it www.comune.livorno.it]
Livorno (also in _en. Leghorn) is a
portcity on the Ligurian Seaon the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capitalof the Province of Livornoand the third-largest port on the western coast of Italy, having a population of approximately 170,000 residents as of the year 2007.
Livorno was defined as an "ideal town" during the
Italian Renaissance. Today, it reveals its history through the structure of its neighbourhoods, crossed by canals and surrounded by fortified town walls, through the tangle of its streets, which embroider the town's Venicedistrict, and through the MediciPort characteristically overlooked by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. Designed by the architect Bernardo Buontalentiat the end of the 16th century, Livorno underwent a period of great town planningexpansion at the end of the 17th century. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress, together with the town-walls and the system of navigable canals, was then built.
In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I de
Medicideclared Livorno a "porto Franco", which meant that the goods traded here were duty free. The "Leggi Livornine" were laws which ruled between 1590 and 1603. These laws helped the trading activities of the merchant, freedom of religionand amnestyfor some penance. Thanks to these laws, Livorno became a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterraneanarea. Many foreigners moved to Livorno; Jews, Armenians, Greeks, Dutch, and English were among those who relocated to live and trade. Some Moriscos ( Muslim Spaniards forcibly converted to Catholicism), much later, also moved to Livorno (from Spain and during the 18th century). On the 19th of March 1606, the Granduca di Toscana Ferdinando I de' Medici, in the Fortezza Vecchia Chapel of Saint Francis of Assisi elevated Livorno at the rank of city.livorno e la citta piu brutta del mondo'
Napoleonic Wars, trade with Englandwas prohibited and the economyof Livorno suffered greatly. Then, in 1868, after Livorno became part of the new Kingdom of Italy, she lost her, by now, traditional status of “"Porto Franco"” and the city's importance declined.
Nowadays the Venice district preserves most of its original town planning and architectural features such as the bridges, the narrow
lanes, the noblemen's houses and a dense network of canals which once linked the port to its storehouses. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Livorno, by then grown up and open to the world, had a lively appearance marked by neo-classicalbuildings, public parks housing important museums and cultural institutions, "Liberty" villas with sea views and the market.
The Museo Mascagnano houses memorabilia, documents and operas by the great composer
Pietro Mascagni. Every year some of his operas are traditionally played during the lyric music season, which is organised by the Traditional Theatre of Livorno. Also the “Terrazza Mascagni”, a walkway divided from the sea by a handrail, is named in honor to Pietro Mascagni.
Up in the hills the
Sanctuary of Montenero, which is dedicated to Our Lady of the Graces, the patron saint of Tuscany, is a fixed destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decorated with ex-voti mainly connected to stories of miraculous sea rescue.
In Livorno there is an important square called "Piazza della Repubblica" that contains two important monuments of Italian politicians. Thus, this square is also a bridge: in fact, under the bridge there is an old, big canal. Piazza della Repubblica is the largest bridge of Europe.
Another important monument is the old fortress; an old building made with red bricks that at the time of Medici defended the city from pirates attacks. It has 3 bastion, named “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” and “Canaviglia”. The old fortress was made before the Renaissance. The new Fortress, distinct from the old one, was made at the end of the 16th century.
There are some graveyards where foreign people who moved to Livorno used to be buried.
Politically, Livorno is one of the most left-leaning cities of Italy. The
Communist Party of Italywas founded in Livorno on 21 January 1921.
There is a breed of chicken called leghorn, named after the city. This in turn gave its name to the cartoon character
Tuacaliqueur is produced in Livorno. The city also has a substantial petrochemicalindustry.
Livorno has a football team in
Serie B, A.S. Livorno Calcio. The football club reflects the left-leaning tendencies of the city with Livorno Calcio's left-wing ultras.
Livorno inhabitants speak a colourful variant of the
Tuscan dialectof Italy named "vernacolo", which is especially characterized by the popular interjection "dé", which has a very wide range of meanings, usually recognizable only by the tone of the pronunciation, and a tourist is soon discovered if they pronounce the word as "dè", because it is not the correct pronunciation.
There is a satirical comic/magazine written mainly in the Livornese dialect called "
Mario Ancona(1860-1931), opera baritone
Chaim Joseph David Azulai(1724-1807), prolific Rabbinic scholar
Andrea Baldini(born 1985), fencer, double World Championship silver medallist
Elijah Benamozegh(1822-1900), rabbi and scholar of Cabala
Leonetto Cappiello(1875-1942), painter
Giorgio Caproni(1912-1990), poet
David Castelli(1836-1901), Jewish Biblical scholar
Carlo Azeglio Ciampi(born 1920), former President of the Republic of Italy
Piero Ciampi(1934-1980), musician
Vittorio Matteo Corcos(1859-1933), painter
Giovanni Fattori(1825-1908), painter
Alberto Fremura(born 1936), artist
Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi(1804-1873), writer and politician
Levett, English merchant, the Levant Company
Cristiano Lucarelli(born 1975), football player
Pietro Mascagni(1863-1945), opera composer
Matteo Mazzantini(born 1976), rugby player
Amedeo Modigliani(1884-1920), painter and sculptor
Aldo Montano(born 1978), fencer, Olympic gold medalist
Moses Haim Montefiore(1784-1885), financier and philanthropist in Britain
Sabato Morais(1823-1897), rabbi in Philadelphia, USA, and founder of the Jewish Theological Seminaryin New York City
Alfredo Muller(1869-1940), artist
Nedo Nadi, won 5 gold medals in fencing at the 1920 Olympics
Armando Picchi(1935-1971), football player and manager
Dario Resta(1884-1924), Racecar driver, Indy 500winner
Giorgio Raimo Ruggieri(born 1978), lawyer, manager and philanthropist
Angiolo Tommasi(1858-1923), artist
Samuel Uziel(Seventeenth century), rabbi and Talmudist
Points of interest
Museo di Storia Naturale del Mediterraneo
Orto Botanico del Mediterraneo
Cisternoni of Livorno
Jewish community of Livorno
* [http://www.comune.livorno.it/ Municipal website] it icon
* [http://www.fotolivorno.net Photographic map of Livorno] it iconen icon
* [http://dewey.library.upenn.edu/sceti/ljs/PageLevel/view.cfm?option=view&ManID=ljs379 Ferdinando I De Medici, Document Inviting Jewish Merchants to Settle in Livorno and Pisa, in Italian, Manuscript on Vellum, Florence, Italy, 10 June 1593 (fac-simile)]
* [http://www.webvisionitaly.com/category.php?id=241&ref_genre=&ref_item=349 Livorno Video Tour]
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