Malaysian Armed Forces

Malaysian Armed Forces
Malaysian Armed Forces
Angkatan Tentera Malaysia
Flag Malaysian Armed Forces
Founded September 16, 1963
Service branches Malaysian Army Flag.pngMalaysian Army
Naval Ensign of Malaysia.svgRoyal Malaysian Navy
Royal Malaysian Air Force Flag.svgRoyal Malaysian Air Force
Commander-in-Chief Yang Di-Pertuan Agong
Tuanku Mizan Zainal Abidin
Minister of Defence Dato' Seri Dr.
Ahmad Zahid Hamidi
Chief of Defence Force General (Malay: Jeneral) Tan Sri Dato' Sri Azizan Ariffin
Budget $3.5 billion List of countries by military expenditure
Percent of GDP 1.9%
Related articles
History Military history of Malaysia
Ranks Malaysian Armed Forces ranks and insignia

The Malaysian Armed Forces (MAF, Malay: Angkatan Tentera Malaysia-ATM), the military of Malaysia, consists of three branches; the Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN, Malay: Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia-TLDM), the Malaysian Army (Malay: Tentera Darat Malaysia-TD) and the Royal Malaysian Air Force (RMAF, Malay: Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia-TUDM). General (Jen) Tan Sri Dato' Sri Azizan bin Ariffin, is the Chief of Defence Forces, Malaysia.



Malaysian Armed Forces
Malaysian Army Malaysian Army Flag.png
Royal Malaysian Navy Naval Ensign of Malaysia.svg
Royal Malaysian Air Force Royal Malaysian Air Force Flag.svg
Military history of Malaysia
Related information
Awards & decorations
Special Operations Force
National service
Military manpower
Military age 18 years of age
Availability males age 15-49: 5,584,231
(2005 est.)
Fit For service males age 15-49: 4,574,854
(2005 est.)
Of age / year males: 244,418
(2005 est.)
Military expenditure
Dollar figure $1.69 billion
(2000 est.)
% of GDP 2.03%
Foreign military suppliers
Suppliers  United States
 United Kingdom
 South Africa

Source :
CIA World Factbook 2006

Malaysia's armed forces originated from the formation of local military forces in the first half of the 20th century, during British colonial rule of Malaya and Singapore prior to Malaya's independence in 1957. Its role is to defend the sovereignty and strategic interests of Malaysia from all forms of threat.[citation needed]

It is responsible for assisting civilian authorities to overcome all international threats, preserve public order, assist in natural disasters and participate in national development programs. It is also sustaining and upgrading its capabilities in the international sphere to uphold the national foreign policy of being involved under the guidance of the United Nations (UN).

Theatre of operations

The main theatres of operations were within Malaysian borders, primarily to fight an insurgency led by the Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) in what was known as the Emergency. The only foreign incursion of Malaysian territory in modern times were in World War II by Japan (Malaya was then not a unified political entity and consisted of the British Crown Colony of the Straits Settlements, and the British protected Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States) and during the Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation by Indonesia under the leadership of President Sukarno. Operations on foreign soil have mainly been peacekeeping operations under the auspices of the United Nations.

  • First Emergency (1948–1960)
    An insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malayan Races Liberation Army organised by the CPM against the British and Malayan administration.
  • Congo Peacekeeping Mission (1960–1962)
    A contingent of 1,947 personnel were dispatched as part of the United Nations Operation in the Congo or ONUC. This contingent was known as the Malayan Special Force to the Congo and their experiences there were later recounted through the drawings of the cartoonist, Rejabhad.
  • Sarawak Communist Insurgency (1963–1990)
    An insurrection and guerrilla war of the Sarawak Communist Organisation (from 1971, the North Kalimantan Communist Party or NKCP) against the British and Malaysian governments to establish an independent nation comprising the states of Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei. The insurgency ended when the NKCP signed a peace treaty with the Malaysian government in 1990.
  • Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation (1963–1966)
    An intermittent armed conflict between Malaysia and Indonesia with skirmishes mainly occurring in Sarawak and Sabah in the island of Borneo. In 1964, armed raids were made on Peninsular Malaysia. Combat eased with the deposing of Indonesia's President Sukarno in 1965 by the Indonesian army and the conflict was declared over by both sides in 1966.
  • Communist Insurgency War (1967–1989)
    A low level resurgence of insurgent activity by the armed elements of the CPM from sanctuaries in the Malaysian-Thai border. The insurgency was only ended after the CPM signed a peace treaty with the Governments of Malaysia and Thailand on December 2, 1989.
  • Iran/Iraq Border (1988–1991)
    Participated as part of the UN Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group (UNIIMOG) to supervise the Iran–Iraq War ceasefire.
  • Namibia (1989–1990)
    Contributed a battalion to the UN Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) to supervise Namibia's elections and transition to independence.
  • Western Sahara (1991–present)
    A contingent of observers under the Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO) to help implement a ceasefire between the Polisario Front & Morocco and help promote referendum on area's future.
  • Angola (1991–1995)
    A contingent was sent under the United Nations Angola Verification Mission II (UNAVEM II) to enforce the ceasefire in Angolan civil war.
  • Iraq/Kuwait Border (1992–2003)
    A contingent was sent under the United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM) to monitor the demilitarized zone along the Iraq-Kuwait border, deter border violations and report on any hostile action.
  • Cambodia (1992–1993)
    An observer team was sent under the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) to aid in the administration of Cambodia and to organize and run elections.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (1993–1998)
    A peacekeeping contingent known as MALBATT Command (Malaysia Battalion) was sent initially under the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) from 1993–1995 with deployments at Konjic, Jablanica and Pazarić in Hadžići. Following the Dayton Agreement, forces were redeployed as MALCON Command (Malaysia Contingent) under the NATO led Implementation Force (IFOR) in Operation Joint Endeavor with deployments at Livno, Glamoč and Kupres. MALCON further participated as part of the NATO led Stabilisation Force (SFOR) until 1998. Up to 8,000 troops were eventually deployed in this theater of operations.
  • Liberia (1993–1997)
    An observer team of 3 officers was sent under the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia (UNOMIL) to support the efforts of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the Liberian National Transitional Government to implement peace agreements signed between the warring parties in Liberia.
  • Somalia (1993–1994)
    A contingent known as MALBATT was sent under the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) to take appropriate action, including enforcement measures, to establish throughout Somalia a secure environment for humanitarian assistance. During its deployment, MALBATT was involved in the Battle of Mogadishu which saw 1 personnel killed in action and 7 others wounded in action during the relief operations to aid the surrounded troops of the United States' Task Force Ranger. On January 18, 1994, Lieutenant General Aboo Samah Bin Aboo Bakar was appointed the Commander of UNOSOM II forces. His appointment also saw the United Nations revise the mandate of UNOSOM II to stop using "coercive methods" in the discharge of their duties while retaining "some capability to defend its personnel if circumstances so warrant." [1]
  • Mozambique (1993–1995)
  •  :A team of observers were sent under the United Nations Operations in Mozambique (ONUMOZ).

(The rest of the entries below require a cleanup)

Royal guard of the Malaysian Army outside the main gate of the Istana Negara, Kuala Lumpur
  • Deployed a contingent called MASMEDTIM/Malaysian Medical Team to Chaman, Pakistan to treat refugees from Afghanistan during the US invasion of Afghanistan in 2001.
  • Deployed approximately a brigade-sized force on islands surrounding Sabah waters in Ops Pasir to prevent the recurrence of Sipadan kidnapping.
  • Deployed a contingent to Acheh after the tsunami disaster in 2004.
  • Deployed MASMEDTIM to Pakistan during the 2005 quake.
  • Deployed in Southern Philippines as a part of monitoring force agreed upon by both the Philippine Government and Moro Islamic Liberation Front/MILF.
  • Deployed in East Timor/East Leste together with Australian, Portuguese and New Zealand forces at the request of East Timor Government. The first team of 25 soldiers from 10 Para Brigade, Royal Intelligence Corp and Commando Regiment were deployed on a fact-finding mission before being reinforced by another 209 soldiers. (as at May 27, 2006)
  • Deployed in South Lebanon on peace keeping role at present after the withdrawal of Israeli Military forces early 2007 (Invasion of South Lebanon by Israeli Military). Unit mainly consist of GGK,PASKAL, PASKAU and PARA elements.

Other limited participation under UNPKO are United Nations International Police Force (UNIPTF) since December 1995; United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) since Jun 1999; United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) since October 1999; United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET) since September 1999 and United Nations Organisation Mission in Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUC) since February 2000.

18 Malaysian Armed Forces personnel have been killed during UN peacekeeping operations.

Current developments

Soldiers from the Malaysian Army 9th Royal Malay Regiment with a M4 Carbine carry out a beach assault with U.S. Marines during a combined amphibious landing exercise on the final day of CARAT Malaysia 2009.
Malaysia's first Scorpène class submarine docked at the naval base in Port Klang on the outskirts of Kuala Lumpur on September 3, 2009.
The Russian-made state-of-art Sukhoi Su-30MKM Flankers serial number M52 and British-made BAE Hawk Mk.108 serial number M40 of the Royal Malaysian Air Force at the Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition 2009


Malaysian defence requirements are assigned to the Malaysian Armed Forces (Angkatan Tentera Malaysia - ATM). The armed forces has three branches, the Royal Malaysian Navy (Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia - TLDM), Malaysian Army (Tentera Darat Malaysia - TD), and the Royal Malaysian Air Force (Tentera Udara Diraja Malaysia - TUDM). Malaysia does not have conscription, and the required age for voluntary military service is 18.[2]

In the early 1990s, Malaysia undertook a major program to expand and modernize its armed forces. However, budgetary constraints imposed by the 1997 financial crisis held many of the procurements. The recent economic recovery may lead to relaxation of budgetary constraints on the resumption of major weapons purchases. In October 2000 the Defense Minister also announced a review of national defense and security policy to bring it up to date. The review addressed new security threats that have emerged in the form of low intensity conflicts, such as the kidnapping of Malaysians and foreigners from resort islands located off the east coast of the state of Sabah and risk rising territory dispute with several neighbour countries. Currently, 1.9% of Malaysia's GDP is spent on the military, which hires 1.23% of Malaysia's manpower.[2] Dr Kogila Balakrishnan is the head of the Defence Industry.

Malaysian Army

Since the recovery from the 1997 economic crisis, MA along with other branches of the MAF regains momentum in its modernizing programs.

Royal Malaysian Navy

The RMN Future Fleet programme is component of second batch of Lekiu class frigates, Scorpène class submarines, New Generation Patrol Vessels (NGPV), Multi-Purpose Support Ship (MPSS) and maritime patrol aircraft. The ultimate goal is to build a six vessels squadron of each class by year 2020.

Royal Malaysian Air Force

TUDM has traditionally looked to the West for its purchases, primarily to the United States. However, limitation imposed by the United States on "new technology" to the region such as the AIM-120 AMRAAM fire and forget air to air missiles has made TUDM consider purchases from Russia and other non-traditional sources.

National Service

In early 2004, the Ministry of Defense also initiated a compulsory National Service program for 18 years old Malaysians. Participants of the Malaysian National Service are chosen randomly. Currently, only 20% of those eligible are inducted but plans call for this program to eventually cover all 18 year olds. Although under the purview of the Ministry of Defence, the National Service is not a military programme. Draftees are taught basic hand-to-hand combat and handling of certain weapons, including Colt M16s by military instructors, but are not expected to be conscripted or called into military draft. It is described as a nation and community building programme and incorporate other training modules including character learning and civics.

Defence Research and Development

In light of the increasing crude oil price worldwide, the military had volunteered in a pioneering program to use biodiesel. By next year (2007), all diesel-type vehicle in the Malaysian Armed Forces will be using biodiesel consisting of 95% diesel and 5% oil palm diesel.

Although MoD announced a redraw from funding the Eagle ARV research program. Composite Technology and Research Malaysia Sdn. Bhd. (CTRM) joined venture with Kramatic Systems Sdn. Bhd. (IKRAMATIC) and System Consultancy Services Sdn. Bhd.(SCS) had come close with another development, the ALUDRA MK I/MK II. It was reported during the LIMA 07, Malaysian army and Joint Forces Command had showed strong interest toward the indigenous tactical UAV.

There is also a new development unveiled during the celebration of the Malaysia's 50th independence. It is a laser guide projectile code name Taming Sari XK98, but no further details were enclosed. It was first spotted by the public when it participated the celebration parade.

M4 Carbine Procurement

During the Defence Services Asia (DSA) 2006, Malaysia announced that the U.S. made M4 carbine service rifle will replace the Austrian made Steyr AUG service rifle for all three Malaysian Armed Forces services. This decision has been finalized. Malaysia had also obtained a licensed product line of the rifle under SME Ordnance. The first batch of the weapon is expected to be delivered by year 2008.


On July 18, 2007, five days after the wreckage of a Nuri (Sikorsky Sea King S-61A4) helicopter was found near Genting Sempah, Pahang, Defense Minister Najib Razak announced that the Malaysian government will call soon for an international tender for new helicopters to replace the aging fleet. The aging Nuri will be retired by year 2010. The requirement for the new procurement includes capacity of 25 passengers as well as limited combat, search and rescue capability.[3] Four contender were shortlisted for the final evaluation, they were the Eurocopter EC 725, AgustaWestland EH101, Sikorsky S-92 and Mil MI-171. On September 26, 2008, Malaysian Government announced that the tender is being awarded to Eurocopter.[4]

DSA 2008

On April 21, 2008, first days of DSA 2008 Ministry Of Defence Malaysia has made a new procument worth RM1.2 billion (USD375 million). The new procument involving 8 unit ACV-S 300 (Mobile Armor Mortar Carrier – 120mm), additional 30 unit ACV 300 with various variant from local firm DRB Hicom Technologies Sdn Bhd (DEFTECH) which expected full delivery on 2010. Another procument involving new 85 HUMVEE Spain version from Master Defence Sdn Bhd, of which 25 are as Igla platform carrier and the rest configured in AGL/HMG role.

International actions

The Five Power Defence Arrangement between Malaysia, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, is a regional security initiative which has been in place for almost 40 years. It involves joint military exercises held between the 5 countries.[5]

Joint exercises and war games have been held with Indonesia for years.[6] Malaysia and the Philippines have agreed to host joint exercises between their security forces, in order to secure their maritime border and tackle issues such as illegal immigration.[7]

There are fears that unrest in the Muslim areas of the southern Philippines[8] and southern Thailand[9] could spill over into Malaysia.

See also


Further reading

External links

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