Royal Malaysian Navy

Royal Malaysian Navy
Royal Malaysian Navy
Tentera Laut Di Raja Malaysia
Naval Ensign of Malaysia.svg Crest of The Royal Malaysian Navy.gif
Flag and Crest of Royal Malaysian Navy
Founded 27 April 1934
Country  Malaysia
Allegiance King of Malaysia
Branch Navy
Role Maritime safety
Size Navy fleets:
Part of Malaysian Armed Forces
Garrison/HQ Ministry of Defence
Nickname TLDM
Motto "Sedia Berkorban"(English: Ready To Sacrifice)
Engagements World War II
Malayan Emergency
Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation
Communist Insurgency War
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
War on Terrorism
Chief of RMN Admiral Tan Sri Abdul Aziz Jaafar

The Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) (Malay: Tentera Laut DiRaja Malaysia; TLDM) is the naval arm of Malaysian Armed Forces. All commissioned ships of the RMN have the prefix KD (in Malay, Kapal Diraja), which means Royal Ship.



Straits Settlement Naval Volunteer Reserve

The Royal Malaysian Navy can trace its roots to the formation of the Straits Settlement Naval Volunteer Reserve (SSNVR) in Singapore on 27 April 1934 by the British colonial government in Singapore. The SSNVR was formed to assist the Royal Navy in the defence of Singapore, upon which the defence of the Malay Peninsula was based. Another reason behind its formation were political developments in Asia, particularly a Japan that was increasingly assertive in Asia. In 1938, the SSNVR was expanded with a branch in Penang.

On 18 January 1935, the British Admiralty presented Singapore with an Acacia class sloop, HMS Laburnum, to serve as the Reserve's Headquarters and drill ship. It was berthed at the Telok Ayer Basin. HMS Laburnum was sunk in February 1942, prior to the capitulation of Singapore at the beginning of the Pacific Second World War.

With the outbreak of the Second World War in Europe, the SSNVR increased the recruitment of mainly indigenous personnel into the force, to beef up local defences as Royal Navy resources were required in Europe.

Members of the SSNVR were called up to active duty, and the force was augmented by members of the Royal Navy Malay Section. This formed the basis of the navy in Malaya, called the Malay Navy, manned by indigenous Malay personnel (similarly, the Malays were recruited into the fledgling Malay Regiment formed in 1936). The Malay Navy had a strength of 400 men who received their training at edit] Post World War II – Formation of the Malayan Naval Force

The Malay Navy was reactivated on 24 December 1948 at the outbreak of the Malayan Emergency, the Communist-inspired insurgent war against the British Colonial government. The Malayan Naval Force regulation was officially gazetted on 4 March 1949 by the colonial authorities, and was based at an ex-Royal Air Force radio base station in Woodlands, Singapore. The base was initially called the 'MNF Barracks' but later renamed HMS Malaya. The Malayan RNVR was reconstituted as a joint force comprising the Singapore Division and the Federation Division, by an Ordinance passed in Singapore in 1952.

The main mission of the Malayan Naval Force (MNF) was coastal patrol in order to stop the communist terrorists from receiving supplies from the sea. In addition, the Force was tasked with guarding the approaches to Singapore and other ports.

The MNF was firstly equipped with a River class frigate, seaward defence motor launches (SDML).

"Royal" Title

In August 1952, Queen Elizabeth II, bestowed the title "Royal Malayan Navy" to the Malayan Naval Force in recognition of the sterling service in action during the Malayan Emergency.


Malaya, soon after attaining independence on 31 August 1957, had successfully negotiated with the British Government and had the British Royal Malayan Navy transferred to the independent Federation of Malaya on 12 July 1958. With the hoisting of the Federation naval ensign - the White Ensign modified by the substitution of the Union Flag with the Federation flag in the canton - the RMN was thus made responsible for Malaya's maritime self defence.

From then on it became Malayan owned and administered. The designation "Royal" in Royal Malayan Navy was now in reference to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, who became the Supreme Commander of the Malaysian Armed Forces. All ships, facilities, and personnel serving in the Royal Malayan Navy were inherited by the Malayan government.

The new force shouldered the responsibility with only an operational and training base at HMMS Malaya and a small coastal fleet of one LCT, two Ham class minesweepers, one coastal minelayer, and seven MLs (the ex-RN 200th Patrol Squadron) on transfer from the Royal Navy.

On 16 September 1963 the naval force was renamed the Royal Malaysian Navy, following the formation of Malaysia. The RMN was gradually strengthened after the formation of Malaysia. 18 Vosper Thorneycroft in 1967, powered by three Rolls Royce Marine Proteus gas turbines as the main power plant with two diesel auxiliary engines for cruising and manoeuvring. These were armed with four 21-inch (53 cm) torpedoes, one Bofors 40 mm gun forward, and one 20 mm cannon aft. They had a maximum speed of 54 knots (100 km/h) and was driven by triple propellers.

The Royal Navy transferred the Loch class frigate HMS Loch Insh to the RMN in 1964 and renamed KD (Kapal di-Raja, "His Majesty's Ship") Hang Tuah. In 1965, during the Indonesian Confrontation, Hang Tuah took over guardship duties off Tawau from HMS Yarra. The ship served the RMN until decommissioned in the 1970s and scrapped. The RMN also used some of the decommissioned ship as a part of navy monument. Visitor and tourist can visit and explore this nostalgic ship at Bandar Hilir, Melaka or at the Lumut Navy base.

Malaysianisation of the Navy

Following the end of Indonesian Confrontation in 1966 Tunku Abdul Rahman and his colleagues decided to Malaysianise the top posts in the navy and air force. They initially offered these posts to two senior Malaysian army generals, who declined for two main reasons. First they felt that they were not professionally qualified and second because they did not want to jeopardise their own careers in the army.

Tunku and his colleagues then decided that they would select two officers, one from the navy and one from the air force, and appoint them chiefs of their respective services. They were fully aware of Rear Admiral Datuk K. Thanabalasingam's age but decided, nevertheless, to appoint him and take the risk. This exercise created history not only because Malaysians for the first time were appointed to these two top posts but also because of his age—he was 31 years old and a bachelor.

Under Thanabalasingam and with Tunku Abdul Rahman's foresight and will, they were responsible for initiating the gradual transformation of the navy from a coastal navy (brown water force) to an ocean-going navy (blue water navy).

1970's Onwards

In 1977, the RMN acquired the frigate HMS Mermaid from the Royal Navy to replace the decommissioned Hang Tuah. The ship was also named KD Hang Tuah, but retained HMS Mermaid’s pennant number of F76. Hang Tuah is a 2,300 standard ton light patrol frigate armed with twin 102 mm guns. Hang Tuah gradually reverted to a training role and currently continues in that role for the RMN. KD Rahmat (ex-HANG JEBAT) (F24) joined the RMN in 1972. The 2,300-ton ship was a one-off Yarrow light frigate design for the RMN. The ship was originally named

KD Hang Tuah alongside Pulau Labuan

The RMN purchased several types of missile boats in the 1970s and 80s. These were four Combattante II attack boats purchased from France and four Spica M from Sweden. Both classes were armed with the Exocet MM38 missiles. The RMN also acquired two 1,300-ton OPVs of Korean design. Sealift requirements were met by the purchases of several ex-United States Navy World War II-era LSTs.

KD Sri Langkawi (A1500), ex-USS Hunterdon County (LST-838), KD Sri Banggi (A1501),ex-USS Henry County (LST-834), and KD Rajah Jarom (A1502), ex-USS Sedgwick County (LST-1123), were replaced by KD Sri Indera Pura (A1505), the ex-Newport-class LST USS Spartanburg County (LST-1192). Additional sealift capability is provided by two 4,300-ton, 100-meter Multi-Role Support Ships, KD Sri Indera Sakti (A1503) and KD Mahawangsa (A1504).

Minehunting capabilities are provided by 4 Mahameru minehunters. These are Italian-built ships based on the Lerici, but displacing 610 tons. Hydrographic duties are handled by Westland Wasps.

Four ships of the RMN have been officially decommissioned and handed over to the Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency. The vessels are patrol boats KD Lembing and KD Sri Melaka, and offshore patrol vessels KD Marikh and KD Musytari. MMEA had received a total of 17 vessels from the RMN fleet to equip its enforcement operations. 6 of the vessels were transferred in August 2005 and 7 were handed over in January 2006. [1]

Anti-piracy efforts

The Royal Malaysian Navy has been patrolling the Gulf of Aden in order to thwart piracy since 2009.[1]

In January 2011 the navy foiled a hijacking attempt against the Malaysian-flagged MT Bunga Laurel chemical tanker carrying lubricating oil and ethylene dichloride. The navy ship Bunga Mas 5 responded after receiving a distress signal from the ship. A Fennec attack helicopter was used to pin down the pirate mothership as commandoes boarded the tanker. The commandoes injured three pirates in the battle to re-take the ship. 23 sailors were rescued and seven Somali pirates were detained. According to a Friday, February 11, 2011 online breaking news update by CNN's Brad Lendon, the seven Somalis, including three boys under 15 years old, could face the death penalty if convicted on charges of firing on Malaysian armed forces- navy commandos- while attempting to hijack the ship. The seven appeared before a Malaysia magistrate judge in Kuala Lumpur on Friday to hear the charges against them. They did not enter a plea and were transferred to a prison to await the next court action, scheduled for March 15. The ship was rescued 555 kiliometers from the coast of Oman. [1][2][3]

RMN Current Fleet

The Laksamana class corvette KD Laksamana Mohammad Amin.

In the late 1980s, another renovation was taken by the Royal Malaysian Navy. Four Laksamana class corvettes were purchased from Italy. These compact ships were originally built for Iraq, but were not delivered due to international sanctions put in place against Iraq.

A prominent addition to the fleet were two Lekiu class frigates. Based on the YARROW F2000 design, the two 2,300-ton frigates are armed with Exocet MM40 II SSM and the Sea Wolf VLS point defence SAM system with accommodation of one Westland Super Lynx helicopter.

Complementing the two Lekiu frigates are two German-built Kasturi class frigates which were delivered in the early 1980s. These vessels, together with two Mahamiru (Lerici) class minehunters, had been scheduled to receive the Service Life Extension Programme (SLEP).


THALES Naval Division has been selected as the contractor of the Service Life Extension Programme (SLEP) involve of the Kasturi Class corvettes - KD Kasturi, KD Lekir and two Mahamiru (Lerici) class minehunters - KD Mahamiru, KD Ledang. The corvettes will receive radar and fire control upgrade while the minehunters will receive the new wide band sonar, 2022MkIII. The programme aim to extend the service life of these surface combatants by another 10 years.[4][5][6]

Fleet expansion

The RMN Future Fleet programme is component of second batch of Lekiu class frigates, Scorpène class submarines, New Generation Patrol Vessels (NGPV), Multi-Purpose Support Ship (MPSS) and maritime patrol aircraft. The ultimate goal is to build a six vessels squadron of each class by year 2020.[7]

Scorpene submarines

Royal Malaysian Navy Scorpene submarine title as Tunku Abdul Rahman during Trials near Lorient in march 2008.
Malaysia's first Scorpene-class diesel-electric submarine named after the country's first premier "KD Tunku Abdul Rahman" inducted in Malaysia's Naval fleet at a ceremony.

Two Scorpène class submarines were ordered by the RMN on June 5, 2002 under a €1.04 billion (about RM4.78 billion) contract.[8] The two Scorpène submarines were built jointly by the French shipbuilder, DCNS, and its Spanish partner, Navantia. They are armed with Blackshark wire-guided torpedoes and Exocet SM-39 sub-launched anti-ship missiles.

The submarine programme also included the redeployment of an Agosta class submarine retired from the French Navy, for the training of submarine crews. The training of 150 Malaysian sailors, mainly in Brest, France, represented an important aspect of the programme.

In 2006, the RMN had launched a nationwide competition in order to select the names for the first two Malaysian submarines. On 26 July, RMN announced these vessels will be named after historic Malaysians. The first hull will be named KD Tunku Abdul Rahman and the second hull KD Tun Razak. These vessels are classified as Perdana Menteri Class in service with RMN.[9] The first vessel, KD Tunku Abdul Rahman was launched on October 24, 2007 at the DCNS dockyard, Cherbourg, France[10]

On 3 September 2009,the first Scorpene submarine of Malaysia KD Tunku Abdul Rahman, arrived at a Port Klang naval base on peninsular Malaysia's west coast after a 54-day voyage from France. Another base is also being constructed on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah to provide the RMN with readier access into the Indian Ocean. Ready access into the Pacific Ocean is available via the existing base at Semporna, Sabah.

Defects and problems were found in the submarines such as the inability to submerge and faults in the coolant system of the first submarine, causing delays in the delivery of the second submarine.[11][12]

Kedah Class New Generation Patrol Vessel

In 1996, Royal Malaysian Navy (RMN) planned to acquire a total of 27 New Generation Patrol Vessels (NGPV) to full fill its future requirement. The Germany Blohm + Voss MEKO 100 based design was selected and a contract of 6 NGPVs was signed in 2003. However due to management failure of the main contractor, PSC-Naval Dockyard Sdn Bhd (PSC-ND), progression was seriously delayed and led the programme into crisis. This may also affect the initial planned total number of NGPVs to be decreased. However under the intervention of the Malaysian Government, Boustead Naval Shipyard Sdn Bhd took over the PSC-ND, thus regaining momentum for the programme.

After a long wait of 18 months, the first 2 two hulls, KD Kedah commissioned in June 2006 and KD Pahang commissioned in August 2006. As of July, 2009, all six ships had been launched. Subsequently good progression of the programme has regained interest in the Malaysian decision makers to order the second batch of 6 NGPVs. Navy Chief Admiral Datuk Abdul Aziz bin Jaafar had recently unveiled that the navy is interested to have the second batch of NGPV ASW configured. The ASW configured NGPV is expected to be able to coordinate operations with the Scorpene submarines.

Second order of Lekiu Class frigates

The Malaysian Minister of Defence, Najib Razak, announced at the Farnborough Air Show that Malaysia would be buying 2 frigates from the United Kingdom.[13] The Evening Times published on 20 July 2006 reported that the Clyde shipyard has won a contract to help build two Lekiu class warships for Malaysia.[14][15] The two frigates will be completed at Labuan Shipyard and Engineering in Malaysia as a condition of the deal. The new frigates are said to be benefit from the latest U.K.Type 45 (T45) destroyer technology transfer.[16] However RMN had denied the report and said the authorities had not decided where to assemble the frigates.[17] While the price of procurement and technical speculations are yet to be decided, Annual Report 2006 published by MoD anticipates the new frigates to have a larger displacement than the current Lekiu class and capable of area air defence.[6]

The latest report from the UK Times appear to indicate that the Second Batch of Lekiu or Project Brave have had been canceled due to the lack of funds.[18]

Maritime patrol aircraft

Currently, RMN has no fixed wing patrol aircraft and is dependent on the RMAF’s fleet of four Beechcraft B200T maritime patrol aircraft to execute long-range patrols. This procurement will enable RMN to focus on operational maritime surveillance whilst the RMAF focuses on a strategic surveillance role, through the acquisition of Airborne Early Warning aircraft. However there is no budget allocated for this procurement until RMK 9.[19]

Anti-submarine helicopter

Navy chief Admiral Datuk Abdul Aziz Jaafar unveiled an intention of the navy to acquire at least six ASW helicopters as a complement to the soon to be commissioned Scorpene submarines. The navy is looking forward to include the procurement into the RMK 10. However he also admitted that the plan is still at the preliminary discussion stage.

Multi-Purpose Support Ship

RMN has an outstanding requirement for a Multi-Purpose Support Ship (MPSS) to replace the KD Inderapura. The MPSS was originally slated to be included in the Ninth Malaysian Plan but was subsequently postponed due the financial crisis of 2008. However, with the fire and damage to the KD Inderapura in October 2009, the replacement programme is expected to be restarted.

Commanders of the RMN

Organization of The RMN.png

Chief of Navy

  • Admiral Tan Sri Abdul Aziz Jaafar

Admiral Tan Sri Abdul Aziz Jaafar assumed his appointment as the Chief of Navy on 1 April 2008.


Admiral Datuk Abdul Aziz Jaafar was born in Sungai Udang, Malacca on 7 May 1956. He joined the service in 1974 and was then commissioned into His Majesty's service as a Sub-Lieutenan in 1977. He had his secondary education at the Sekolah Menengah Masjid Tanah and later at the Royal Military College, Sungai Besi.

Throughout his 31 years in service, Admiral Datul Abdul Abdul Aziz has held various appointments both at sea and ashore. He was the Chief of Staff to the Fleet Operations Commander in 2001. In July 2002 he assumed duty as Commander, Naval Region 2 in Labuan. In July 2005 he was appointed as Assistant Chief of Staff Human-Resources in RMN Headquarters. He was appointed as Fleet Operations Commander for 6 months on 27 January 2006 until 28 July 2006 before taking up his last job as the Assistant Chief of Staff Defence Operations and Training at the MAF Headquarters.

Admiral Datuk Abdul Aziz was a commissioning crew for 4 RMN ships namely KD PAUS in Hong Leong-Lurssen, Malaysia ( 1976), KD SRI INDERA SAKTI in Bremen, Germany (1980), KD KASTURI in Kiel (1984) and KD LAKSAMANA MUHAMMHAD AMIN in LA Spezia, Italy (1999). He has command of 3 RMN ships before, such as KD BAUNG in 1986, KD MUSYTARI an Offshore Patrol Vessel from 1994 to 1996 and KD LAKSAMANA MUHAMMAD AMIN from 1999-2001. He was the Senior Officer Afloat while commanding RMN Missile Corvette KD LAKSAMANA MUHAMMAD AMIN from 2000 to 2001.

Admiral Datuk Abdul Aziz has attended various professional and career courses locally and abroad. Among the courses were International Navigation Specialization Courses, United Kingdom in 1980, Malaysia Armed Forces Staff Course in 1991 and Naval Command Course at the Naval War College, United States in 1995. Whilst undergoing this course, he pursued his MA studies majoring in International Relations at the Salve Regina University graduating with distinction.

Admiral Datuk Abdul Aziz is married to Datin Sarah Tun Abdul Ghafar. He has a wide range of interests. He is a keen golfer and an avid reader. His favourite subjects are sports, international relations, leadership and management.

In recognition of his services, Admiral Datuk Abdul Aziz has been bestowed the Darjah Mulia Seri Melaka (DMSM) by the HE the Governor for the State of Malacca which carries the title of Datuk, the Malaysian Armed Forces award "Pahlawan Angkatan Tentera"(PAT), the National award " Johan Setia Mahkota"(JSM) and "Kesatria Mangku Negara"(KMN) and the State Award "Bintang Cemerlang Melaka"(BCM).

Ranks of The Royal Malaysian Navy

This is the list of ranks that is currently used in the Royal Malaysian Navy, from the highest rank to the lowest rank.

Flag Officer

Rank Admiral of the Fleet Vice Admiral Rear Admiral First Admiral
Malay Laksamana Armada Laksamana Madya Laksamana Muda Laksamana Pertama

Commissioned Officer

Rank Captain Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub Lieutenant Acting Sub Lieutenant Midshipmen Cadet
Malay Kapten Komander Leftenan Komander Leftenan Leftenan Madya Leftenan Muda Kadet Kanan Kadet


Rank Warrant Officer (1 and 2) Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer Leading Rate Able Seaman Ordinary Seaman Seaman Recruit
Malay Pegawai Waran (1 and 2) Bintara Kanan Bintara Muda Laskar Kanan Laskar Kelas I Laskar Kelas II Laskar Muda Perajurit Muda


The RMN's Fleet HQ is called KD Malaya, in Lumut, Perak. Other bases are located at Tanjong Gelang, Kuantan, Pahang, which also serves as HQ Naval Region I and KD Sultan Ismail at Tanjung Pengelih, Johor, where the Recruit Training Centre is located. Base are also located in Sandakan, Sabah. The principal submarine base is located at Teluk Sepanggar, Sabah, which also serves as HQ Naval Region II.

Another base is also being constructed on Pulau Langkawi, Kedah to provide the RMN with readier access into the Indian Ocean. Ready access into the Pacific Ocean is available via the existing base at Semporna, Sabah.

List of Naval Bases

The Lumut Base in Lumut, Perak
  • TLDM Lumut, Perak[20] Lumut is also well known as The Home of Navy(Fleet HQ and location of Boustead Naval Shipyard Sdn Bhd)
  • TLDM Tanjung Gelang, Pahang (HQ Naval Region I/MAWILLA I)
  • TLDM Sepanggar, Sabah (HQ Naval Region II/MAWILLA II)
  • TLDM Tanjung Gerak, Langkawi, Kedah (HQ Naval Region III/MAWILLA III)
  • TLDM Tanjung Pengelih, Johor (Recruit Training Centre (PULAREK)) (KD Sultan Ismail)
  • TLDM Sandakan, Sabah
  • TLDM Semporna, Sabah
  • National Hydrographic Centre, Pulau Indah, Selangor (KD Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah)
  • TLDM Sejingkat, Sarawak (complete by 2011/12)

Ships and Weapon systems

All RMN Ships carry the prefix KD for Kapal di-Raja meaning "Royal Ship" (glossed into English as"His Majesty's Ship"). The Training vessel Tunas Samudra however carries a KLD prefix for Kapal Layar di-Raja for Royal (His Majesty's) Sailing Ship.

Air Combat Weapon

RMN Fennec during LIMA 2005
Aircraft Origin Type Versions Number built Notes
Eurocopter Fennec  France Surface Surveillance[21] AS 550 Fennec 6
Westland Lynx  Italy
 United Kingdom
Anti-Submarine Warfare SuperLynx 300 6 It is equipped with the MBDA Sea Skua antiship missile.

The Westland Wasps were retired from service in 1999. As a replacement, RMN now has 6 AgustaWestland SuperLyn 300 Mk100 helicopters which are operated by the 501 Squadron and another 6 Eurocopter AS 555 Fennecs which are operated by the 502 Squadron. Both squadrons were managed and supported at their main base, KD Rajawali. One of the WASPS is been displayed at Royal Navy Museum at Bandar Hilir, Melaka.

Current Fleet of the RMN

  • Squadron 21 Frigate
  • Squadron 23 Frigate
  • Squadron 22 Corvette
  • Squadron 24 Corvette
  • Squadron 26 Mine Counter Measure Vessel
  • Squadron 31 MPCSS
  • Squadron 32 SEALIFT
  • Squadron 36 HYDRO
  • Squadron 1 FAC (M)
  • Squadron 6 FPC (LABUAN)
  • Squadron 13 PC (SANDAKAN)
  • Squadron DIVING TENDER
  • Squadron TUG

Transferred to Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency

Musytari class offshore patrol vessels

  • 160 KD Musytari
  • 161 KD Marikh

Keris Class Patrol Craft

  • ex-P 40 KD Lembing
  • ex-P 3147 KD Sri Melaka

Special Forces

Navy Special Operations Force PASKAL operatives during the hostage rescue drill in MISC merchant vessel.

The special forces arm of the RMN is known as PASKAL (Pasukan Khas Laut or Naval Special Forces). In peacetime, the unit is tasked with responding to maritime hijacking incidents as well as protecting Malaysia's numerous offshore oil and gas platforms. Its wartime roles include seaborne infiltration, sabotaging of enemy naval assets and installations, and the defence of RMN vessels and bases. This unit is analogous to the United States Navy SEALs.

On 15 April 2009, PASKAL was renamed KD Panglima Hitam (KD being the equivalent of HMS in the Royal Navy). The ceremony was held at the RMN HQ Lumut to honour PASKAL's courage and loyalty to the nation. Panglima Hitam was the name given to brave and loyal Malay warriors who served during the golden age of the Malay Rulers (Sultans and Rajas) of Perak, Selangor, Johor and Negeri Sembilan.[2]

See also

External links


  1. ^ a b Malaysia navy foils ship hijack attempt, seizes pirates, BBC News, 22 Jaunary 2011
  2. ^ Malaysian navy foils hijack attempt off Oman, by Alex Richardson, 22 January 2011
  3. ^ Malaysia navy frees hijacked tanker, Al Jazeera, 21 January 2011
  4. ^ "Malaysia Buying European on Air, Anti-Air, and Naval Fronts". 
  5. ^ "Royal Malaysia Navy selects Thales for MCMV". 
  6. ^ a b "2006年国防部年度报告书之一:马来西亚采购6套FN-6 第2批护卫舰成本介于35亿令吉至50亿令吉". 
  7. ^ "Interview with Dato' Sri Najib Tun Razak on 25 April 2006". 
  9. ^ "Penyambungand dan penamaan kapal selam pertama". 
  10. ^ "First Malaysian sub launched". 
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ "A The Star article. Broken as of 13-11-2007". 
  14. ^ "Evening Times Article. Broken as of 13-11-2007". 
  15. ^ "Shipyards win Malaysian contract". BBC News. 19 July 2006. Retrieved 4 January 2010. 
  16. ^ "New Straits Time Article. Broken as of 13-11-2007". 
  17. ^ "Navy: No decision on frigates". 
  18. ^ Robertson, David (11 August 2009). "BAE Systems secures £1.75bn of deals". The Times (London). Retrieved 22 May 2010. 
  19. ^ "Market brief for U.S. exhibitors at Asian Aerospace 2004, Singapore". 
  20. ^ "WikiMapia Map of Lumut, Perak". 
  21. ^

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