Military of Nepal

Military of Nepal

The Military of Nepal basically consists of the Armed Nepalese Force.

History

Nepal unification campaign was a turning point in the history of theNepalese army. Since unification was not possiblewithout a strong army, the management of the armedforces had to be exceptional. Apart from the standardMalla era temples in Kathmanduarmy being organized in Gorkha, technicians and expertshad to be brought in from abroad to manufacture warmaterials. After the Gorkhali troops captured Nuwakot,the neighbouring principality of Kathmandu (Kantipur)in the year 1744, the Gorkhali armed forces came tobe known as the Royal Nepalese Army.Their gallantry, sincerity and simplicityimpressed even the enemy so much that the British East-India Company started recruiting Nepalese into theirforces. Since the British had fought against the RNA,which was till that time, still colloquially known as "Armyof Gorkha" or "Gorkhali" army, the British took to callingtheir new soldiers "Gurkhas".There is still some misunderstanding that theRoyal Nepalese Army is a part of the British and IndianArmies. The Gurkha Rifles existing in India and Britainare part of foreign military organizations where Nepaleseare recruited.The RNA, although righfully the true heirof the title of "The original Army of the Gorkha". Theproud National Army of the sovereign and independentHindu Kingdom of Nepal with an unbroken history sincethe year 1744. The fact that Nepal and the Nepalesepeople have never been subjugated by any colonialpower is a significant achievement of the RoyalNepalese Army.Prithvi Narayan Shah the Great was the founderof the Royal Nepalese Army.

Organization

The current command and control organization of Nepal's army is set forth in the 1990 Constitution. As of January 2007, it is still Nepal's active constitution. However, the current government has said that it plans to replace the 1990 constitution with a new one. The timeframe for this new constitution is unknown as of now and the possibility remains that the 1990 constitution will only be amended or left as is. It is simply too early to know how this will work out. Until a new or amended constitution comes into effect, the basic layout of command and control is as follows:

upreme Command

Atricle 119 of the 1990 constitution states that: "His Majesty the King is the Supreme Commander of the Royal Nepal Army." However, following the People's Power revolution in April 2006, the 1990 constitution has been replaced by an interim constitution which has removed the King from anything to do with the army. The army is now answerable to the civilian and the multi-party government.

After, Dr. Ram Baran Yadav was elected president of Nepal on 23 July 2008 [http://www.nepalnews.com/archive/2008/jul/jul23/news08.php] , the President of Nepal is the supreme commander of Nepal Army.

The National Defence Council

This Council used to have three members, the Prime Minister, the Defence Minister, and the Chief of the Army Staff. In accordance with the Constitution, the King (as Supreme Commander) used to "operate and use" the "Royal Nepal Army on the recommendtion" of this council. However, this is no longer the case as the king has been removed from his position as the supreme commander of the army.

Ranks

* "Paramadhipati":"Grand" "Commander-in-Chief" -President of Nepal [http://www.nepalnews.com/archive/2008/jul/jul23/news08.php]
* Field Marshal
* "Pradhan Senapati": "Chief General" but usually translated as "Chief of the Army Staff"
* General
* Lieutenant General
* Major General
* Brigadier General
* Colonel
* Lieutenant Colonel
* Major
* Captain
* Lieutenant
* Second Lieutenant
* Subedar Major
* Warrant Officer 1
* Warrant Officer 2
* Sergeant
* Corporal
* Lance Corporal

Battles of Unification campaigns

Nepalese army fights various battles on the unification campaign these battles of Nepal unification help royal Nepalese army to gain more experiences with a gift of Unified Nepal.

* Battles of Nepal Unification Campaign

Battles on Defending Kingdom of Nepal

*Battle against Mir Kassim - 1763 AD
*Battle of Pauwa Gadhi against Captain Kinloch- 1767 AD
* Anglo-Nepal War 1814 AD
* First Nepal - Tibet War
* Nepal-Tibet/China War
* Last Nepal-Tibet War

Foreign Involvements

* Royal Nepal Army in Indian Sepoy Mutiny
* Royal Nepal Army in The First World War 1914-1918
* Royal Nepal Army in Waziristhan War
* Royal Nepal Army in Afghan War –1919
* Royal Nepal Army in The Second World War
* Royal Nepal Army in Hyderbad Action - 1948

Domestic Operations

Disarmament of the Khampas - 1974

In 1974, The Royal Nepalese Army (RNA) was mobilized to disarm the Tibetan Khampas who had been using Nepalese soil to engage gureilla war against the invading the Chinese forces. The Khampas had secretly created their base in Mustang (north-west Nepal) and were operating from there against China. The RNA, under immerse diplomatic presseure from China and the international community moved nine infantry units towards the Khampa post in Mustang and gave them an ultimatum to either disarm themselves and surrender or face consequences. The terms and conditions of their surrender was that they would be given Nepalese citizenship, land, and some money. The Khampa commander Wang Di agreed to surrender but eventually fled the camp. He was later killed in Doti, far-western Nepal by RNA forces while trying to loot a Nepal Police post. This was first time that the RNA was mobilized in such a large number domestically.

Nepali Maoist Peoples War

In November 2001, the Nepalese armed forces began military operations against the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). Allegations of war crimes and human rights abuses have been levelled by the media against current and former members of the high command, especially former royalist army chiefs like Prajwalla Shumsher Rana and Pyar Jung Thapa.

See article Nepalese Civil War

International Operations

Nepal Army's long association with UN Peace Support Operations began with the deployment of five Military Observers in the Middle East, Lebanon (UNOGIL/ United Nations Observer Group in Lebanon) in 1958. And the first Nepalese contingent, Purano Gorakh battalion was deployed in Egypt in 1974. Nepal Army's participation in the UN peacekeeping operations spans a period of 50 years covering Nepal army involved UN Missions are 31, in which over sixty thousand six hundred and fifty two (61,094) Nepalese soldiers have served in support of UN peacekeeping endeavors. The Nepal Army has contributed outstanding Force Commanders, elite military contingent, impartial military observers and dedicated staff officers. Their devotion to duty and excellent performance has been widely acclaimed. Nepalese troops have taken part in some of the most difficult operations, and have suffered casualties in the service of the UN. Till now, No. of Nepalese Nepal Army's personnel lost lives in UN Peace keeping missions duty are 54 and 57 were disabled.

Nepalese troops have won universal admiration for their professional excellence. Its most significant contribution has been of peace and stability in Africa. It has demonstrated its unique capacity of sustaining large troop commitments over prolonged periods. Presently, Nepal is ranked as the fourth largest troop contributing country (TCC) to the UN. Time and again, Nepal has risked the lives of its soldiers in peacekeeping efforts of the UN, not for any strategic gain, but in the service of an ideal.

Missions

* United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL),
* UNOSOMII the UN Protective Force (UNPROFOR), UN Operational Mission Somalia II,
* UNMIH the United Nations Mission in Haiti.
* UNAMSIL - Currently, Nepal is sending an 800-man battalion to serve in the peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).
* UNMIS - The Nepalese Army has sent a protection company , comprising of 200 personnel in United Nations Mission In Sudan.
* RCHQ - The RCHQ, KASSALA is also manned by the Nepalese Staffs.

U.S./Nepal military relations

The U.S.-Nepali military relationship focuses on support for democratic institutions, civilian control of the military, and the professional military ethic to include respect for human rights. Both countries have had extensive contact over the years. Nepali Army units and Nepalese Army Air Service units have served with distinction alongside American forces in places such as Haiti, Iraq, and Somalia.

U.S.-Nepali military engagement continues today through IMET, Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC), and various conferences and seminars. The U.S. military sends many Nepalese Army officers to America to attend military schooling such as the Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College. The IMET budget for FY2001 was $220,000.

The EPIC program is an interagency program between the Department of Defense and the Department of State to increase the pool of international peacekeepers and to promote interoperability. Nepal received about $1.9 million in EPIC funding.

Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC) coordinates military engagement with Nepal through the Office of Defense Cooperation (ODC). The ODC Nepal is located in the American Embassy, Kathmandu.

tatistics

Military branches: Nepalese Army (includes Nepalese Army Air Service),Armed Police Force Nepal Nepalese Police Force

Military manpower - military age: 17 years of age

Military manpower - availability:
"males age 15-49:" 6,674,014 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - fit for military service:
"males age 15-49:" 3,467,511 (2003 est.)

Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
"males:" 303,222 (2003 est.)

Military expenditures - dollar figure: $57.22 million (FY02)

Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 1.1% (FY02)

References

Gurkhas

Nepal is also notable for the Gurkhas. Significant sections of the British Army and Indian Army are recruited from this ethnic group. This arrangement comes from the days of the British East India Company's rule of India when Company troops tried to invade Nepal and were beaten back. Both sides were impressed with the other, and Gurkhas were recruited into the Company's forces. The Gurkhas remained loyal during the Indian Mutiny of 1858 and were kept on in the Indian Army thereafter. Upon Indian independence in 1947, some units went to British service and some to Indian service, with a Britain-India-Nepal Tripartite Agreement signed between the three nations. The Gurkhas are feared troops, and their signature weapon is the extremely effective kukri.

See also

* Nepal
* Armed Police Force Nepal
* Nepal Police
* Nepalese Army Air Service

* http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/upload/img_400/13C69.jpg

External links

* [http://www.nepalarmy.mil.np/ Official website of the Nepal Army]
* [http://www.apf.gov.np/ Official website of the Armed Police Force of Nepal]

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