Nepal Army

Nepal Army

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=Nepalese Army ("Nepali Sena")

branch= army
type=land forces
command_structure= Military
current_commander=General Pakda CamelChew Raj
battles=Battle against Mir Kassim - 1763, Battle of Pauwa Gadhi against Captain Kinloch- 1767, Anglo-Nepal War 1814 AD, First Nepal - Tibet War, Nepal-Tibet/China War, Last Nepal-Tibet War, Nepalese Civil War
notable_commanders=Prithvi Narayan Shah the Great
battle_honours=* Royal Nepal Army in Indian Sepoy Mutiny, Royal Nepal Army in The First World War 1914-1918, Royal Nepal Army in Waziristhan War, Royal Nepal Army in Afghan War –1919, Royal Nepal Army in The Second World War, Royal Nepal Army in Hyderbad Action - 1948

The Nepal Army (Nepali: "Nepali Sena" नेपाली सेना) is the army of Nepal and a major component of the Military of Nepal. The NA includes the Nepalese Army Air Service and is considered to be superior to Nepalese Police Force. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enrollment is 18 years. NA used to be known as The Royal Nepalese Army (RNA).


The NA is 95,000 strong army and air service protecting the soverignty of Nepal.

The current command and control organization of Nepal's army is set forth in the 1990 Constitution. As of June 2008, Nepal is in the process of writing new constitution. Until a new constitution comes into effect, the basic layout of command and control is as follows:

upreme Command

Atricle 119 of the 1990 constitution states that: "His Majesty the King is the Supreme Commander of the Royal Nepal Army." However, following the People's Power revolution in April 2006, the 1990 constitution has been replaced by an interim constitution which has removed the King from anything to do with the army. The army is now answerable to the civilian and the multi-party government.

However, back in old days, king of Nepal used NA as his private army. The Generals had no direct responsibility towards the Nepali people or the country. Their only loyalty was to the king of Nepal. This bred a culture of nepotism and unprofessionalism. Many of the NA officers owed their job as an officer to the king of Nepal. Hence their blatant disregard towards the civilian leadership of the Nepal government.

The current Supreme Commander of the NA is Prime Minister, who is also the nation's Defence Minister. The NA is headed by the Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), currently General Pakda CamelChew Raj.

List of former COAS:

* General Pyar Jung Thapa

The National Defence Council

This Council used to have three members, the Prime Minister, the Defence Minister, and the Chief of the Army Staff.

Now, Nepal is officially known as Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. The declaration of republic meant that the king is consigned to the history books making the President the supreme commander of NA.


The NA is divided into six divisions:

* Far-Western
* Mid-Western
* Western
* Central
* Eastern
* Valley

In addition there are 3 brigades:

* Aviation Brigade
* Parachute Brigade
* Security Brigade


The Primary role of the NA is to defend the territorial integrity, sovereignty and independence of Nepal. Their secondary role is to provide assistance to the Civilian Government of Nepal in the maintenance of internal security. Other duties include humanitarian assistance/disaster relief operations, assisting in national development, nature conservation efforts and participation in international peacekeeping mission.

Foreign Involvements

* Royal Nepal Army in Indian Sepoy Mutiny
* Royal Nepal Army in The First World War 1914-1918
* Royal Nepal Army in Waziristhan War
* Royal Nepal Army in Afghan War –1919
* Royal Nepal Army in The Second World War
* Royal Nepal Army in Hyderbad Action - 1948

Domestic Operations

;Disarmament of the Khampas - 1974

In 1974, the then Royal Nepalese Army (RNA) was mobilized to disarm the Tibetan Khampas who had been using Nepalese soil to engage guerilla war against the invading Chinese forces. The Khampas had secretly created their base in Mustang (north-west Nepal) and were operating from there against China. The RNA, under immerse diplomatic pressure from China and the international community moved nine infantry units towards the Khampa post in Mustang and gave them an ultimatum to either disarm themselves and surrender or face consequences. The terms and conditions of their surrender was that they would be given Nepalese citizenship, land, and some money. The Khampa commander Wang Di agreed to surrender but eventually fled the camp. He was later killed in Doti, far-western Nepal by RNA forces while trying to loot a Nepal Police post. This was first time that the RNA was mobilized in such a large number domestically.

;Nepali Moist Peoples War

In November 2001, the Nepalese armed forces began military operations against the military wing of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). These rag tag bunch of approximately 11,000 core warriors and the aiding milita proved to be a challenge to NA. The soldiers were not trained to fight the unconventional war. Wore still, the NA command and control structure since its beginning gave rise to nepotism and promotion of incapable officers. During the guerrilla war, NA soldiers were clueless as how to fight an emboldened and motivated bunch of fighters. Allegations of war crimes and human rights abuses have been levelled by the media against current and former members of the high command, especially former royalist army chiefs like Prajwalla Shumsher Rana and Pyar Jung Thapa.

Then RNA was defeated by the Moists in many major battles. The then royal household of Nepal used then RNA as it's private army. The royal household used to handpick the officers of then RNA. This meant that then RNA was an unprofessional army that ranks somewhere among the worst among the world's Regular Army. The Maoists took advantage of this unprofessionalism among the RNA officers. Often, then RNA officers fled the battlefields in cowardice to advancing Maoist army. The morale of then RNA troops were rock bottom.

:"See also: #if:Nepalese Civil War | | Error: #if:|#if:|, | and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|#if:|, |, and #if:|, and #if:| — Error: "

International Operations

The Nepalese Army has contributed more than 36,000 peacekeepers to a variety of United Nations-sponsored peacekeeping missions such as:
* United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL),
* UNOSOMII the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR), UN Operational Mission Somalia II,
* UNMIH the United Nations Mission in Haiti.
* UNAMSIL - Currently, Nepal is sending an 800-man battalion to serve in the peacekeeping mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL).
* UNMIS - The Nepalese Army has sent a protection company , comprising of 200 personnel in United Nations Mission In Sudan.
* RCHQ - The RCHQ, KASSALA is also manned by the Nepalese Staffs.

Many NA officers are accused of selling arms and ammunitions to the warring factions where they are stationed as part of UN peace keeping force. This gave rise to the increase in hostilities in the war zone they are ironically supposed to keep peace. The NA officers are not paid well. The only other source of income was to sell arms and ammunitions to the local warring factions. This tradition dates back to late 1970s and the new group of officers still follow this tradition thus making some much needed cash.

The rank and file are among the worst treated in the world. Their salary and benefits provided by the UN is not paid in full by the NA high command. Up to 70 percent of the rank and file salaries are withheld by the Generals. Financial irregularity is ripe in UN operations. Still, the poor Nepalis join NA and hope of attending UN duties.

U.S./Nepal military relations

The U.S.-Nepali military relationship focuses on support for democratic institutions, civilian control of the military, and the professional military ethic to include respect for human rights. Both countries have had extensive contact over the years. Nepali Army units have served with distinction alongside American forces in places such as Haiti, Iraq, and Somalia.

U.S.-Nepali military engagement continues today through IMET, Enhanced International Peacekeeping Capabilities (EIPC), and various conferences and seminars. The U.S. military sends many Nepalese Army officers to America to attend military schooling such as the Command and General Staff College and the U.S. Army War College. The IMET budget for FY2001 was $220,000.

The EPIC program is an interagency program between the Department of Defense and the Department of State to increase the pool of international peacekeepers and to promote interoperability. Nepal received about $1.9 million in EPIC funding.

Commander in Chief, Pacific (CINCPAC) coordinates military engagement with Nepal through the Office of Defense Cooperation (ODC). The ODC Nepal is located in the American Embassy, Kathmandu.


Nepal unification campaign was a turning point in the history of theNepalese army. Since unification was not possiblewithout a strong army, the management of the armedforces had to be exceptional. Apart from the standardMalla era temples in Kathmanduarmy being organized in Gorkha, technicians and expertshad to be brought in from abroad to manufacture warmaterials. After the Gorkhali troops captured Nuwakot,the neighbouring principality of Kathmandu (Kantipur)in the year 1744, the Gorkhali armed forces came tobe known as the Royal Nepalese Army.Their gallantry, sincerity and simplicityimpressed even their enemy so much that the British East-India Company started recruiting Nepalese into theirforces. Since the British had fought against then RNA,which was till that time, still colloquially known as "Armyof Gorkha" or "Gorkhali" army, the British took to callingtheir new soldiers "Gurkhas". The Indian army, after gaining their independence from the British, started calling them"Gorkha".There is still some misunderstanding that theNepali Army is a part of the British and IndianArmies. The Gurkha Rifles existing in India and Britainare part of foreign military organizations where Nepaleseare recruited.The NA, although righfully the true heirof the title of "The original Army of the Gorkha".

Prior to 2006 the Nepal Army was known as the Royal Nepalese Army and was under the control of the King of Nepal. Yet following the Loktantra Andolan (People's Movement for Democracy) on May 18 2006 a bill was passed by the Nepalese parliament curtailing royal power, this included renaming the army. [cite news
first = Charles
last = Haviland
title = Erasing the 'royal' in Nepal
url =
work = BBC News
date = 2006-05-19
accessdate = 2006-09-23

As the RNA Nepal in 2004, Nepal spent $99.2 million on its military (1.5% of its GDP). Since 1996 the RNA it had been heavily involved in the Nepalese Civil War but was later seen fighting pro-democracy protesters in the 2006 Loktantra Andolan. Most of its arms were supplied by India.


* Panchkhal Military Base
* Katmandu Army HQ


* Nepal Army Command and Staff College, Shivapuri

* Nepal Army School, Nagarkot

* Military Academy, Kharipati

* Nepal Army Recruit Training Center, Trishuli

* Nepal Army Jungle Warfare School, Amlekhgunj

* Nepal Army High Altitude and Mountain Warfare School, Mustang

* Nepal Army Intelligence School, Kharipati

* Nepal Army Logistics School, Chhauni

* Birendra Peace Keeping Operation Training Center, Panchkhal

* Nepal Army Para Training School, Maharajgunj


* Shree Nath Battalion - established 1762
* Shree Kali Buksh Battalion (Engineers) - established 1762
* Shree Barda Bahadur Battalion - established 1762
* Shree Sabuj Battalion - established 1762
* Shree Purano Gorakh Battalion - established 1763; Gurkha
* Shree Devidutta Battalion 1783
* Shree Naya Gorakh Battalion 1783 Gurkha
* Shree Bhairavi Dal Battalion 1785
* Shree Singh Nath Battalion 1786
* Shree Shreejung Battalion 1783
* Shree Ranabhim Battalion 1783
* Shree Naya Shree Nath Battalion 1783
* Shree Bhairavnath Battalion 1910 - parachute battalion
* Shree Ganeshdal Battalion 1846 - signals and communications
* Shree King's Household Cavalry 1849 - Household Calvary cermonila unit since 1952
* Shree Vajradal Company 1806
* Shree Bhagvati Prasad Company 1927
* Shree Parshwavarti Company 1936 - served as PM's Body Guard unit and disbanded 1952




The Nepalese Army currently have two types of uniform. Formal dress is used primarily for parading and official duties. Combat dress is used by the Nepalese Army for regular operational duties.

* Personnel Armor System for Ground Troops

Nepalese army uses two type of camoouflage patterns:

* Swirl
* Nepalese 4-Color Camouflage - similar to the Japan Type I camouflage

Rank Structure

* "Paramadhipati": "Grand" "Commander-in-Chief" (This rank has been removed)
* Field Marshal
* "Pradhan Senapati": "Chief General" but usually translated as "Chief of the Army Staff"
* General
* Lieutenant General
* Major General
* Brigadier General
* Colonel
* Lieutenant Colonel
* Major
* Captain
* Lieutenant
* Second Lieutenant
* Subedar Major
* Warrant Officer 1
* Warrant Officer 2
* Sergeant
* Corporal
* Lance Corporal


Nepalese army fights various battles on the unification campaign these battles of Nepal unification help royal Nepalese army to gain more experiences with a gift of Unified Nepal.

Battles on Defending Kingdom of Nepal

*Battle against Mir Kassim - 1763 AD
*Battle of Pauwa Gadhi against Captain Kinloch- 1767 AD
* Anglo-Nepal War 1814 AD
* First Nepal - Tibet War
* Nepal-Tibet/China War
* Last Nepal-Tibet War

Medals and Awards

* Mahendra Mala
* Parama Nepal Pratap Baskara
* Parama Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara
* Ati Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara
* Nepal Pratapa Bhaskara
* Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign - A)
* Ojasvi Rajanya (Sovereign - B)
* Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master - A)
* Ojasvi Rajanya (Grand Master - B)
* Parama Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal - Shreepada
* Ati Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal - Shreepada
* Maha Ujjvala Keertimaya Nepal Shreepada

ee also

*Military of Nepal
*Armed Police Force Nepal


External links

* [ Official website of the Nepal Army]
* [ Nepal]
* [ Indian MPV]
* [ Background Note: Nepal]
* [ Nepal]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nepal Army Club — Tribhuvan Army Club Founded 1951 Ground Dasarath Rangasala Stadium (Capacity: 25,000) Chairman COAS Chhatra Man Gurung …   Wikipedia

  • Nepal army involved UN Missions — S. No. Mission Year1 UNOGIL, Lebanon (Military Observers) 19582 UNIPOM, India/Pakistan (Military Observers) 19663 UNEF II Sinai, Middle East (Peacekeeping Troops) 19744 UNIFIL, Lebanon (Peacekeeping Troops) 19785 UNGOMAP I/II, OSGAP I/II/III… …   Wikipedia

  • Royal Nepal Army in Afghan War –1919 — During the Third Anglo Afghan War between British in India and Afghanistan, Nepal was requested to provide military assistance to the British.Revitalized tactical training for the Nepalese Army started in May 1919. Nepalese troops commanded by… …   Wikipedia

  • Royal Nepal Army in Hyderbad Action - 1948 — After the British left India in 1947, British India was split into Republic of India and Pakistan. Religious violence between the Hindu and Muslim communities erupted in manyplaces. The Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru requested Nepal to… …   Wikipedia

  • Royal Nepal Army in the Indian Rebellion of 1857 — The Indians had started their independence struggle against the British Empire in the 1800s. The struggle spread to the Indian Native Armed Forces serving the British. The mutiny began from the Meerut cantonment. The British Empire requested… …   Wikipedia

  • Royal Nepal Army in Waziristan War — In the 1910s, the rebels in the Waziristan region of British India had revolted against British rule.The Pathan warriors (called Masuds ) from Wazirstan were outstanding fighters and they had vowed to fight the British who were at this moment… …   Wikipedia

  • Nepal national football team — Nepal Nickname(s) The Gorkhalis Association All Nepal Football Association Sub confederation SAFF (South Asia) Confederation …   Wikipedia

  • Nepal — /neuh pawl , pahl , pal , nay /, n. a constitutional monarchy in the Himalayas between N India and Tibet. 22,641,061; ab. 54,000 sq. mi. (140,000 sq. km). Cap.: Katmandu. * * * Nepal Introduction Nepal Background: In 1951, the Nepalese monarch… …   Universalium

  • Nepal — <p></p> <p></p> Introduction ::Nepal <p></p> Background: <p></p> In 1951, the Nepali monarch ended the century old system of rule by hereditary premiers and instituted a cabinet system of government …   The World Factbook

  • Nepal Police Club — Full name Nepal Police Club Nickname(s) The Cops Founded 1952 Gro …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”