New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures

New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures
New World Translation
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in various languages and versions.jpg
Full name: New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures
Abbreviation: NWT
NT published: 1950
Complete Bible published: 1961
Textual basis: OT: Biblia Hebraica.
NT: Westcott & Hort.
Translation type: Formal Equivalence with occasional ventures into Dynamic equivalence[1][2]
Copyright status: Copyright 1961, 1981, 1984 Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania
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The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures (NWT) is a translation of the Bible published by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society in 1961; it is used and distributed by Jehovah's Witnesses.[3] Though it is not the first Bible to be published by the group, it is their first original translation of ancient Classical Hebrew, Koine Greek, and Old Aramaic biblical texts. As of 2011, the Watch Tower Society has published 171 million copies of the New World Translation in 102 languages.[4][5]



Until the release of the NWT, Jehovah's Witnesses in English-speaking countries primarily used the King James Version.[6][7] According to the publishers, one of the main reasons for producing a new translation was that most Bible versions in common use, including the Authorized Version (King James), employed archaic language. The stated intention was to produce a fresh translation, free of archaisms.[8] Additionally, over the centuries since the King James Version was produced, more copies of earlier manuscripts of the original texts in the Hebrew and Greek languages have become available. The publishers claimed better manuscript evidence had made it possible to determine with greater accuracy what the original writers intended, particularly in more obscure passages. They said linguists better understood certain aspects of the original Hebrew and Greek languages than previously.[9]

In October 1946, the president of the Watch Tower Society, Nathan H. Knorr, proposed a fresh translation of the New Testament, which Jehovah's Witnesses usually refer to as the Christian Greek Scriptures.[10] Work began on December 2, 1947 when the "New World Bible Translation Committee" was formed, composed of Jehovah's Witnesses who claimed to be anointed.[11][12] The Watch Tower Society is said to have "become aware" of the committee's existence a year later. The committee agreed to turn over its translation to the Society for publication[13] and on September 3, 1949, Knorr convened a joint meeting of the board of directors of both the Watch Tower Society's New York and Pennsylvania corporations where he again announced to the directors the existence of the committee[14] and that it was now able to print its new modern English translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Several chapters of the translation were read to the directors, who then voted to accept it as a gift.[13]

New World Translation volumes

The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures was released at a convention of Jehovah's Witnesses at Yankee Stadium, New York, on August 2, 1950. The translation of the Old Testament, which Jehovah's Witnesses refer to as the Hebrew Scriptures, was released in five volumes in 1953, 1955, 1957, 1958, and 1960. The complete New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures was released as a single volume in 1961, and has since undergone minor revisions.[15] Cross references which had appeared in the six separate volumes were updated and included in the complete volume in the 1984 revision.[16]

In 1961 the Watch Tower Society began to translate the New World Translation into Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, and Spanish; the New Testament in these languages were released simultaneously on July 1963 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. By 1989 the New World Translation was translated into eleven languages, with more than 56,000,000 copies printed.[17]


The New World Translation was produced by the anonymous New World Bible Translation Committee, formed in 1947. This committee is said to have comprised unnamed members of multinational background.[18] The New World Bible Translation Committee requested that the Watch Tower Society not publish the names of its members,[19][20] stating that they did not want to "advertise themselves but let all the glory go to the Author of the Scriptures, God,"[21] adding that the translation, "should direct the reader... to... Jehovah God".[22] The publishers believe that "the particulars of [the New World Bible Translation Committee's members] university or other educational training are not the important thing" and that "the translation testifies to their qualification".[23] Former high ranking Watch Tower staff have claimed knowledge of the translators' identities.[24][25]

Translation Services Department

In 1989 a Translation Services Department was established at the world headquarters of Jehovah's Witnesses, overseen by the Writing Committee of the Governing Body. The goal of the Translation Services Department was to accelerate Bible translation with the aid of computer technology. Previously, some Bible translation projects lasted twenty years or more. Under the direction of the Translation Services Department, translation of the Old Testament in a particular language may be completed in as little as two years. During the period from 1963 to 1989, the English version of the New World Translation became available in ten additional languages. Since the formation of the Translation Services Department in 1989, there has been a significant increase in the number of languages in which the New World Translation has been made available.[26]


According to the Watch Tower Society, the New World Translation attempts to convey the intended sense of original-language words according to the context. The New World Translation employs nearly 16,000 English expressions to translate about 5,500 biblical Greek terms, and over 27,000 English expressions to translate about 8,500 Hebrew terms. Where possible in the target language, the New World Translation prefers literal renderings, and claims that it does not paraphrase the original text.[27]

Textual basis

The master text used for translating the Old Testament into English was Kittel's Biblia Hebraica. The Hebrew text, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (1977), was used for updating the footnotes in the 1984 version of the New World Translation. Other works consulted in preparing the translation include Aramaic Targums, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Samaritan Torah, the Greek Septuagint, the Latin Vulgate, the Masoretic Text, the Cairo Codex, the Codex Petropolitanus[disambiguation needed ], the Aleppo Codex, Christian David Ginsburg's Hebrew Text, and the Leningrad Codex.[28]

The Greek master text by the Cambridge University scholars B. F. Westcott and F. J. A. Hort (1881) was used as the basis for translating the New Testament into English. The committee also referred to the Novum Testamentum Graece (18th edition, 1948) and to works by Catholic Jesuit scholars José M. Bover (1943) and Augustinus Merk (1948). The United Bible Societies' text (1975) and the Nestle-Aland text (1979) were used to update the footnotes in the 1984 version. Additional works consulted in preparing the New World Translation include the Armenian Version, Coptic Versions, the Latin Vulgate, Sixtine and Clementine Revised Latin Texts, Textus Receptus, the Johann Jakob Griesbach's Greek text, the Emphatic Diaglott, and various papyri.[28]

Other languages

Translation into other languages is based on the English text, supplemented by comparison with the Hebrew and Greek.[29] As of 2011, the New World Translation has been published in 102 languages.

Translators are given a list of words and expressions commonly used in the English New World Translation with related English words grouped together (e.g. atone, atonement or propitiation); these are intended to alert the translators to various shades of meaning. A list of vernacular equivalents is then composed. If a translator has difficulty rendering a verse, the computer research system can provide information on Greek and Hebrew terms and provides access to supplemental publications. Using a search-and-replace tool, vernacular terms in the target language are then automatically inserted into the Bible text. Further editing and translation is then performed to produce a final version.[26]

The complete New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures is available in 60 languages as of October 2011: Afrikaans, Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Bulgarian, Cebuano, Chichewa, Chinese (Standard, Simplified, Pinyin), Cibemba, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Efik, English (also Braille), Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hungarian, Igbo, Iloko, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kinyarwanda, Kirghiz, Kirundi, Korean, Lingala, Macedonian, Malagasy, Maltese, Norwegian, Ossetian, Polish, Portuguese (also Braille), Romanian, Russian, Samoan, Sepedi, Serbian (Cyrillic and Latin scripts), Sesotho, Shona, Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish (also Braille), Sranantongo, Swahili, Swedish, Tagalog, Tsonga, Tswana, Turkish, Twi (Akuapem and Asante), Xhosa, Yoruba, and Zulu.

The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures is available in an additional 42 languages as of October 2011: American Sign Language (DVD), Amharic, Azerbaijani (Cyrillic and Latin scripts), Brazilian Sign Language (DVD), Cambodian, Chitonga, Colombian Sign Language (DVD), Estonian, Ewe, Fijian, Gun, Haitian Creole, Hiligaynon, Hindi, Hiri Motu, Italian Braille, Italian Sign Language (DVD), Kannada, Kaonde, Kazakh, Kiribati (Gilbertese), Latvian, Lithuanian, Luganda, Luvale, Malayalam, Mexican Sign Language (DVD), Myanmar, Nepali, Pangasinan, Papiamento (Curaçao), Punjabi, Russian Sign Language (DVD), Sango, Silozi, Tamil, Thai, Tok Pisin, Tongan, Tumbuka, Ukrainian, Uzbek, and Vietnamese.

When the Writing Committee approves the translation of the Bible into a new language, it appoints a group of baptized Jehovah's Witnesses to serve as a translation team. Team members generally have experience in translating the Watch Tower Society's publications, and receive additional training in the principles of Bible translation and in the use of computer programs developed specifically for the task. These systems do not perform actual translation, but assist the translators by keeping track of their translation decisions.


The layout resembles the 1901 edition of the American Standard Version. The translators use the terms "Hebrew-Aramaic Scriptures" and "Christian Greek Scriptures" rather than "Old Testament" and "New Testament", stating that the use of "testament" was based on a misunderstanding of 2 Corinthians 3:14.[30] When referring to dates in the supplemental material, the abbreviations "B.C.E." (Before the Common Era) and "C.E." (Common Era) are used rather than BC and AD.

The pronoun "you" is printed in small capitals (i.e., YOU) to indicate plurality, as are some verbs when plurality may be unclear. Square brackets [ ] are added around words that were inserted editorially, but were removed from the 2006 revision. Double brackets are used to indicate sources considered doubtful. Running headings are included at the top of each page to assist in locating texts and there is an index listing scriptures by subject.

The Old Testament of the New World Translation uses various circumlocutions intended to indicate progressive rather than completed actions, such as "proceeded to rest" rather than "rested" in Genesis 2:2. Greek verbs suggesting progressive action are treated in a similar way, for instance "keep on asking" rather than "ask" at Matthew 7:7.

Use of Jehovah

The name Jehovah is a translation of the Tetragrammaton (Hebrew: יהוה‎, transliterated as YHWH). According to Jewish tradition, the name of God was not spoken and the original pronunciation is unknown. The New World Translation uses the name Jehovah 6,973 times in the Old Testament, and also uses the name 237 times in the New Testament where the extant texts use terms for 'Lord' or 'God'. The translators believed that scribes substituted either Lord or God for Jehovah as they did to the Hebrew texts. They conclude that the lack of references to Jehovah in those quotations were the result of paraphrasing on the part of later copyists, as with the removal of God's name from the Old Testament.[31]


The New World Translation is distributed in print editions commonly referred to as "Large Print" (four volumes), "Reference", "Regular (or Standard) Hard Cover", "Regular (or Standard) Soft Cover", and "Pocket".[32][33] (As of 2011 the "Pocket" and "Soft Cover" editions are no longer being produced.) The regular editions incorporate the booklet, Bible Topics for Discussion (previously published separately in 1977 but updated for the 1981, 1984 and 2006 editions), which provides references to scriptures relating to various topics; several appendices containing arguments for various translation decisions, maps, diagrams and other information; and over 125,000 cross references. The reference edition contains the cross references and adds footnotes about translation decisions and additional appendices that provide further detail relating to certain translation decisions.[34] Many of the non-English translations lack footnotes and some add language-specific footnotes.

Kingdom Interlinear

The New World Bible Translation Committee included the English text from the NWT in its 1969 and 1985 editions of the Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures. It also incorporates the Greek text published by Westcott and Hort in The New Testament in the Original Greek and a literal word-for-word translation.[35][36]

Non-print editions

In 1978, the Watch Tower Society began producing recordings of the NWT on audio cassette,[37] with the New Testament released by 1981[38] and the Old Testament in three albums released by 1990.[39] In 2004, the NWT was released on compact disc in MP3 format in major languages.[40] Since 2008, audio downloads of the NWT have been made available in 18 languages from the Worldwide Association of Jehovah's Witnesses website in MP3 and AAC formats, including support for Podcasts.

A diskette edition of the NWT released in 1993

In 1983, the English Braille edition of the NWT's New Testament was released;[41] the complete English Braille edition was released by 1988.[42] NWT editions have since become available in several additional Braille scripts.[43] Production of the NWT in American Sign Language began in 2006, with the complete New Testament made available by 2010;[44] sign language editions are available for download from Jehovah's Witnesses' publication download website.[45]

In 1992 a digital edition, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References, was released, as a set of seven 3½-inch 720 KB diskettes or four 5¼-inch 1.2 MB diskettes, using Folio View software. In 1993, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures—With References/Insight on the Scriptures was released in English, as a set of 5¼-inch 1.2 MB or 3½-inch 1.44 MB diskettes, containing the New World Translation and Insight on the Scriptures. Since 1994, the NWT has been included in the digital research tool, Watchtower Library on CD-ROM, available only to baptized Jehovah's Witnesses.[46][47] The NWT is available online at the Watch Tower Society's official website in 41 languages.[48] It is available for download in dozens of languages in PDF format; the English version is also available in EPUB format.[49]

Critical review

The Bible in English
Old English (pre-1066)
Middle English (1066–1500)
Early Modern English (1500–1800)
Modern Christian (1800–)
Modern Jewish (1853–)
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Overall review

In its review of Bible translations released from 1955 to 1985, The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary listed the New World Translation as one of the major modern translations.[50]

The New Catholic Encyclopedia says of the NWT reference edition: "[Jehovah's Witnesses'] translation of the Bible [has] an impressive critical apparatus. The work is excellent except when scientific knowledge comes into conflict with the accepted doctrines of the movement." It criticizes the NWT's rendering of Kyrios as "Jehovah" in 237 instances in the New Testament.[51]

Old Testament

Samuel Haas, in his 1955 review of the 1953 first volume of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures, in the Journal of Biblical Literature, stated that although "this work indicates a great deal of effort and thought as well as considerable scholarship, it is to be regretted that religious bias was allowed to colour many passages."[52]

Professor Benjamin Kedar, a Professor of History and Director of the Institute for Advanced Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, said in 1989: "In my linguistic research in connection with the Hebrew Bible and translations, I often refer to the English edition of what is known as the New World Translation. In so doing, I find my feeling repeatedly confirmed that this work reflects an honest endeavor to achieve an understanding of the text that is as accurate as possible."[53]

Regarding the NWT's use of English in the 1953 first volume of the NWT (Genesis to Ruth), Dr. Harold H. Rowley (1890–1969) was critical of what he called "wooden literalism" and "harsh construction." He characterized these as "an insult to the Word of God", citing various verses of Genesis as examples. Rowley concluded, "From beginning to end this [first] volume is a shining example of how the Bible should not be translated."[54] Rowley's published review is dated January 1953, six months before the volume was actually released;[55][56] Rowley did not update his review following the July 1953 release or the 1961 revision, and he died before the release of later revisions in 1970, 1971, and 1984.[57]

New Testament

A 2003 study by Jason BeDuhn, associate professor of religious studies at Northern Arizona University in the United States, of nine of "the Bibles most widely in use in the English-speaking world," including the New American Bible, The King James Bible and The New International Version, examined several New Testament passages in which "bias is most likely to interfere with translation." For each passage, he compared the Greek text with the renderings of each English translation, and looked for biased attempts to change the meaning. BeDuhn reported that the New World Translation was "not bias free", but emerged "as the most accurate of the translations compared", and thus a "remarkably good translation", adding that "most of the differences are due to the greater accuracy of the NW as a literal, conservative translation". BeDuhn said the introduction of the name "Jehovah" into the New Testament 237 times was "not accurate translation by the most basic principle of accuracy", and that it "violate[s] accuracy in favor of denominationally preferred expressions for God", adding that for the NWT to gain wider acceptance and prove its worth its translators might have to abandon the use of "Jehovah" in the New Testament.[58]

Theologian and televangelist John Ankerberg accused the NWT's translators of renderings that conform "to their own preconceived and unbiblical theology."[59] Dr. John Weldon and Ankerberg cite several examples wherein they consider the NWT to support theological views overriding appropriate translation. Ankerberg and Weldon cite Dr. Julius R. Mantey, co-author of A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament and A Hellenistic Greek Reader, who also criticized the NWT, calling it "a shocking mistranslation."[59][60]

Dr. William Barclay, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, concluded that "the deliberate distortion of truth by this sect is seen in the New Testament translation. ... It is abundantly clear that a sect which can translate the New Testament like that is intellectually dishonest."[61]

Edgar J. Goodspeed, translator of the New Testament in An American Translation, wrote in a letter to the Watch Tower Society: "I am interested in the mission work of your people, and its world wide scope, and much pleased with the free, frank and vigorous translation. It exhibits a vast array of sound serious learning, as I can testify."[62]

Robert McCoy stated "One could question why the translators have not stayed closer to the original meaning, as do most translators ... In not a few instances the New World Translation contains passages which must be considered as 'theological translations.' This fact is particularly evident in those passages which express or imply the deity of Jesus Christ." [63]

Former American Bible Society board member Dr. Bruce M. Metzger concluded that "on the whole, one gains a tolerably good impression of the scholarly equipment of the translators,"[64] but identified instances where the translation has been written to support doctrine, with "several quite erroneous renderings of the Greek."[65] Metzger noted a number of "indefensible" characteristics of the translation, including its use of "Jehovah" in the New Testament.

Unitarian theologian Charles Francis Potter stated about the NWT: "Apart from a few semantic peculiarities like translating the Greek word stauros, as "stake" instead of "cross", and the often startling use of the colloquial and the vernacular, the anonymous translators have certainly rendered the best manuscript texts, both Greek and Hebrew, with scholarly ability and acumen."[66]

Religion writer and editor Alexander Thomson said of the NWT: "The translation is evidently the work of skilled and clever scholars, who have sought to bring out as much of the true sense of the Greek text as the English language is capable of expressing. ... We heartily recommend the New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, published in 1950 by the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society."[67]

Thomas Winter, an instructor of Greek at the University of Nebraska, considered the Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures to be a "highly useful aid toward the mastery of koine (and classical) Greek," adding that the translation "is thoroughly up-to-date and consistently accurate."[68]

Rendering of John 1:1

The New World Translation has been criticized for its rendering of John 1:1. Most English translations render[69] this verse: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God." By contrast, the NWT renders[70] the verse: "In [the] beginning the Word was, and the Word was with God, and the Word was a god." Controversy regarding the translation of John 1:1 is not unique to the NWT, but involves similar rendering of John 1:1 in such translations as Wilson's Emphatic Diaglott and Goodspeed's An American Translation.

See also


  1. ^ Jason D. Beduhn, Truth in Translation - Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament
  2. ^ All Scripture Is Inspired by God and Beneficial1990 pg. 326 pars. 32-33 Study Number 7—The Bible in Modern Times: New World Translation A Literal Translation, 1990
  3. ^ "Are All Religions Good?", The Watchtower, August 1, 2009, page 4, "Jehovah’s Witnesses, produce a reliable Bible translation known as the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. However, if you are not one of Jehovah’s Witnesses, you may prefer to use other translations"
  4. ^ New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, Revised 1984, Total Printed of All Editions of New World Translation: 171,231,300 copies (as of 2006 printing), bi12-HV, p.4
  5. ^ Awake, December 2011, page 24
  6. ^ The Watchtower, 1 November 1959, p. 672: "Up until 1950 the teachings of Jehovah’s witnesses were based mainly upon the King James Version of the Bible"
  7. ^ Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 99. ISBN 0802065457. "The King James Bible was used by the Witnesses prior to the release of their own version, which began with the Greek Scriptures, in 1950." 
  8. ^ "Announcements", The Watchtower, August 1, 1954, page 480
  9. ^ "Bible Knowledge Made Plain Through Modern Translation", The Watchtower, October 15, 1961, page 636
  10. ^ "Part Three—How the Bible Came to Us", The Watchtower, October 15, 1997, page 11, "With this objective, associates of the Society set out in 1946 to produce a fresh translation of the Scriptures. A translation committee of experienced anointed Christians was organized to produce the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures in English."
  11. ^ "Stand Complete and With Firm Conviction—The New World Translation Appreciated by Millions Worldwide", The Watchtower, November 15, 2001, page 7.
  12. ^ "How the Governing Body Differs From a Legal Corporation:, The Watchtower, January 15, 2001, page 30.
  13. ^ a b "New Bible Translation Completed, Released", The Watchtower, October 1, 1960, page 599.
  14. ^ "New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures", The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, page 315.
  15. ^ Watchtower October 1st, 1960 p. 601 par. 13
  16. ^ Foreword, New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, 1984.
  17. ^ All Scripture is Inspired of God and Beneficial 1990 p. 331
  18. ^ New York Times, August 3, 1950 p. 19.
  19. ^ The Watchtower, September 15, 1950, p. 320
  20. ^ Walsh vs Honorable James Latham, Court of Session Scotland, 1954, cross examination of Frederick Franz pp. 90-92
  21. ^ The Watchtower, November 15, 1950, p. 454
  22. ^ The Watchtower, December 15, 1974, p. 768.
  23. ^ The Watchtower, December 15, 1974, p. 768
  24. ^ Walter Martin, Kingdom of the Cults, Expanded Anniversary Edition, October 1997, Bethany House Publishers, p. 123. "While the members of the [NWT] committee have never been identified officially by the Watchtower, many Witnesses who worked at the headquarters during the translation period were fully aware of who the members were. They included Nathan H. Knorr (president of the Society at the time), Frederick W. Franz (who later succeeded Knorr as president), Albert D. Schroeder, George Gangas, and Milton Henschel."
  25. ^ Tony Wills, M.A., A People For His Name - A History of Jehovah's Witnesses and An Evaluation, Lulu, 2006. Originally published in 1967 by Vantage Press. "[Frederick] Franz is a language scholar of no mean ability-he supervised the translation of the Bible from the original languages into the New World Translation, completed in 1961." (p. 253) Of author Tony Wills, the Preface reads "The Author has been intimately associated with Jehovah's Witnesses for many years, close enough to be able to think as one, but never, at the same time, losing his objectivity."
  26. ^ a b A Milestone for Lovers of God's Word (Watchtower October 15, 1999 pp. 30-31)
  27. ^ How Can You Choose a Good Bible Translation? (Watchtower May 1, 2008 pages 18-22)
  28. ^ a b All Scripture is Inspired of God and Beneficial 1990 pp. 305-320
  29. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (1993) Chap. 27 p. 611, subheading Translation Into Other Languages.
  30. ^ Appendix 7E in the New World Translation reference edition
  31. ^ The Divine Name That Will Endure Forever. Brooklyn, New York: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 1984. pp. 23–27. 
  32. ^ "Announcements", Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1988, page 4
  33. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, page 614
  34. ^ "Study—Rewarding and Enjoyable", The Watchtower, October 1, 2000, page 16
  35. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", page 610
  36. ^ ""Between-the-Lines" Translations of the Bible", The Watchtower, November 15, 1969, page 692
  37. ^ Our Kingdom Ministry, September 1978, page 3
  38. ^ Our Kingdom Ministry, October 1981, page 7
  39. ^ The Watchtower, February 15, 1990, page 32
  40. ^ Watchtower Publications Index 1986-2007, "Compact Discs"
  41. ^ Our Kingdom Ministry, August 1983, pages 3-4
  42. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses - Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, published 1993 by Jehovah's Witnesses, "Chapter 27: Printing and Distributing God's Own Sacred Word", pages 614-615
  43. ^ Awake!, November, 2007 p. 30
  44. ^ 2007 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, published by Jehovah's Witnesses, pages 21-22
  45. ^
  46. ^ "The Compact Disc—What Is It All About?", Awake!, April 22, 1994, page 23
  47. ^ Our Kingdom Ministry, September 2007, page 3
  48. ^
  49. ^
  50. ^ Robert G. Bratcher, "English Bible, The" The HarperCollins Bible Dictionary (revised and updated edition of Harper's Bible Dictionary, 1st ed. c1985), HarperCollins Publishers/The Society of Biblical Literature, 1996, p. 292.
  51. ^ G. HÉBERT/EDS, "Jehovah's Witnesses", The New Catholic Encyclopedia, Gale, 20052, Vol. 7, p. 751.
  52. ^ Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 74, No. 4, (Dec. 1955), p. 283.
  53. ^ Interview quotation as cited by: "The Bible in Modern Times", "All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial", ©1990 Watch Tower, page 326
  54. ^ H.H. Rowley, How Not To Translate the Bible, The Expository Times, 1953; 65; 41
  55. ^ Life Magazine, July 1, 1953, Photo here
  56. ^ "“Walk in the Name of Jehovah Our God for Ever”", The Watchtower, September 1, 1953, page 528, "Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society released Volume I of the New World Translation of the Hebrew Scriptures to the New World Society Assembly of Jehovah’s Witnesses at Yankee Stadium, New York city, N. Y., Wednesday afternoon, July 22, 1953."
  57. ^ "The Bible in Modern Times", All Scripture..., ©1990 Watch Tower
  58. ^ Jason D. BeDuhn, Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament, 2004, pages 163, 165, 169, 175, 176. BeDuhn compared the King James, the (New) Revised Standard, the New International, the New American Bible, the New American Standard Bible, the Amplified Bible, the Living Bible, Today's English and the NWT versions in Matthew 28:9, Phillipians 2:6, Colossians 1:15-20, Titus 2:13, Hebrews 1:8, John 8:58, John 1:1.
  59. ^ a b See Ankerberg, John and John Weldon, 2003, The New World Translation of the Jehovah's Witnesses, accessible online
  60. ^ Dr. Mantey made this comment on videotape. See the video "Witnesses of Jehovah", distributed by Impact Resources, P.O. Box 1169, Murrieta, CA, 92564
  61. ^ R. Rhodes, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response, Zondervan, 2001, p. 94
  62. ^ "Loyally advocating the Word of God," The Watchtower (15 March 1982), p. 23.
  63. ^ "Jehovah's Witnesses and their New Testament." Andover Newton Quarterly. 3.3 (1963): 31.
  64. ^ Metzger>UBS Metzger, Bruce M, The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, The Bible Translator 15/3 (July 1964), p. 151.
  65. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, "Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Theology Today, (April 1953 p. 74); see also Metzger, "The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures,".
  66. ^ The faiths men live by, Kessinger Publishing, 1954, 239. ISBN 1-4254-8652-5.
  67. ^ Alexander Thomson, The Differentiator, 1952, 55,57 No. 2, 6
  68. ^ Thomas N. Winter, Review of New World Bible Translation Committee's The Kingdom Interlinear Translation of the Greek Scriptures, Classics and Religious Studies Faculty Publications, Classics and Religious Studies Department, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, April–May 1974: 376
  70. ^ New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures

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