Captain America

Captain America
Captain America
Captain America #109 (Jan. 1969).
Cover art by Jack Kirby and Syd Shores
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941)[1]
Created by Joe Simon
Jack Kirby
In-story information
Alter ego Steven "Steve" Rogers
Team affiliations Avengers
All-Winners Squad
"Secret Avengers" (Civil War)
Secret Defenders
Project: Rebirth
U.S. Army
New Avengers
Secret Avengers
Partnerships Bucky (James Barnes)
Nomad (Jack Monroe)
Bucky (Rick Jones)
Free Spirit
Jack Flag
Bucky (Rikki Barnes)
Demolition Man
Sharon Carter
Notable aliases Nomad, The Captain, Brett Hendrick, Roger Stevens, Weapon I, Spider-King
Abilities Physical attributes enhanced to peak of human potential
Expert martial artist and hand-to-hand combatant
All-terrain acrobatics
Master tactician and field commander
Vibranium-steel alloy shield

Captain America is a fictional character, a superhero that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character first appeared in Captain America Comics #1 (cover-dated March 1941), from Marvel Comics' 1940s predecessor, Timely Comics,[1] and was created by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby. Over the years, an estimated 210 million copies of "Captain America" comic books have been sold in a total of 75 countries.[2] For nearly all of the character's publication history, Captain America was the alter ego of Steve Rogers, a frail young man who was enhanced to the peak of human perfection by an experimental serum in order to aid the United States war effort. Captain America wears a costume that bears an American flag motif, and is armed with an indestructible shield that can be thrown as a weapon.[3]

An intentionally patriotic creation who was often depicted fighting the Axis powers of World War II, Captain America was Timely Comics' most popular character during the wartime period. After the war ended, the character's popularity waned and he disappeared by the 1950s aside from an ill-fated revival in 1953. Captain America was reintroduced during the Silver Age of comics when he was revived from suspended animation by the superhero team the Avengers in The Avengers #4 (March 1964). Since then, Captain America has often led the team, as well as starring in his own series.

Steve Rogers was purportedly assassinated in Captain America vol. 5, #25 (March 2007), although he was later revealed to be alive. The comic-book series Captain America continued to be published,[4] with Rogers' former sidekick, James "Bucky" Barnes, having taken up the mantle, and keeping it at the insistence of Rogers, who upon his return began operating as an intelligence agent in the Secret Avengers title, and in the limited series Steve Rogers: Super Soldier, before resuming the identity after Bucky was killed in the line of duty.

Captain America was the first Marvel Comics character adapted into another medium with the release of the 1944 movie serial Captain America. Since then, the character has been featured in several other films and television series, including Captain America: The First Avenger, released on July 22, 2011. Captain America was ranked 6th on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes in 2011.


Publication history

In 1940, writer Joe Simon conceived the idea for Captain America and made a sketch of the character in costume .[5] "I wrote the name 'Super American' at the bottom of the page," Simon said in his autobiography. "No, it didn't work. There were too many 'Supers' around. 'Captain America' had a good sound to it. There weren't a lot of captains in comics. It was as easy as that. The boy companion was simply named Bucky, after my friend Bucky Pierson, a star on our high school basketball team."[6]

Simon recalled in his autobiography that Timely Comics publisher Martin Goodman gave him the go-ahead and directed that a Captain America solo comic book series be published as soon as possible. Needing to fill a full comic with primarily one character's stories, Simon did not believe that his regular creative partner, artist Jack Kirby, could handle the workload alone:

I didn't have a lot of objections to putting a crew on the first issue.... There were two young artists from Connecticut that had made a strong impression on me. Al Avison and Al Gabriele often worked together and were quite successful in adapting their individual styles to each other. Actually, their work was not too far from [that of] Kirby's. If they worked on it, and if one inker tied the three styles together, I believed the final product would emerge as quite uniform. The two Als were eager to join in on the new Captain America book, but Jack Kirby was visibly upset. 'You're still number one, Jack,' I assured him. 'It's just a matter of a quick deadline for the first issue.'

'I'll make the deadline,' Jack promised. 'I'll pencil it [all] myself and make the deadline.' I hadn't expected this kind of reaction ... but I acceded to Kirby's wishes and, it turned out, was lucky that I did. There might have been two Als, but there was only one Jack Kirby.

I wrote the first Captain America book with penciled lettering right on the drawing boards, with very rough sketches for figures and backgrounds. Kirby did his thing, building the muscular anatomy, adding ideas and pepping up the action as only he could. Then he tightened up the penciled drawings, adding detailed backgrounds, faces and figures.[6]

1974 Comic Art Convention program featuring Simon's original sketch of Captain America.

Al Liederman would ink that first issue, which was lettered by Simon and Kirby's regular letterer, Howard Ferguson.[7]

Simon said Captain America was a consciously political creation; he and Kirby were morally repulsed by the actions of Nazi Germany in the years leading up to the United States' involvement in World War II and felt war was inevitable: "The opponents to the war were all quite well organized. We wanted to have our say too."[8]

Captain America Comics #1 — cover-dated March 1941 and on sale in December 1940, a year before the attack on Pearl Harbor, but a full year into World War II — showed the protagonist punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler in the jaw; it sold nearly one million copies.[9] While most readers responded favorably to the comic, some took objection. Simon noted, "When the first issue came out we got a lot of... threatening letters and hate mail. Some people really opposed what Cap stood for."[8] Though preceded as a "patriotically themed superhero" by MLJ's The Shield, Captain America immediately became the most prominent and enduring of that wave of superheroes introduced in American comic books prior to and during World War II[citation needed]. With his sidekick Bucky, Captain America faced Nazis, Japanese, and other threats to wartime America and the Allies. Stanley Lieber, now better known by his pen name Stan Lee, contributed to the character in issue #3 in the filler text story "Captain America Foils the Traitor's Revenge," which introduced the character's use of his shield as a returning throwing weapon.[10] Captain America soon became Timely's most popular character and even had a fan-club called the "Sentinels of Liberty."[8]

Circulation figures remained close to a million copies per month after the debut issue, which outstripped even the circulation of news magazines like Time during the period.[11] After the Simon and Kirby team moved to DC in late 1941, having produced Captain America Comics through issue #10 (January 1942), Al Avison and Syd Shores became regular pencillers of the celebrated title, with one generally inking over the other. The character was also featured in All Winners Comics #1-19 (Summer 1941 – Fall 1946), Marvel Mystery Comics #80-84 and #86-92, USA Comics #6-17 (Dec. 1942 – Fall 1945), and All Select Comics #1-10 (Fall 1943 – Summer 1946).

In the post-war era, with the popularity of superheroes fading, Captain America led Timely's first superhero team, the All-Winners Squad, in its two published adventures, in All Winners Comics #19 and #21 (Fall–Winter 1946; there was no issue #20). After Bucky was shot and wounded in a 1948 Captain America story, he was succeeded by Captain America's girlfriend, Betsy Ross, who became the superheroine Golden Girl. Captain America Comics ended with issue #75 (Feb. 1950), by which time the series had been titled Captain America's Weird Tales for two issues, with the finale being a horror/suspense anthology issue with no superheroes.

Atlas Comics attempted to revive its superhero titles when it reintroduced Captain America, along with the original Human Torch and the Sub-Mariner, in Young Men #24 (Dec. 1953). Billed as "Captain America, Commie Smasher!" Captain America appeared during the next year in Young Men #24-28 and Men's Adventures #27-28, as well as in issues #76-78 of an eponymous title. Atlas' attempted superhero revival was a commercial failure,[12] and the character's title was canceled with Captain America #78 (Sept. 1954).

Silver Age revival

In the Human Torch story titled "Captain America" in Marvel Comics' Strange Tales #114 (Nov. 1963),[13] writer-editor Stan Lee and artist and co-plotter Jack Kirby depicted the brash young Fantastic Four member Johnny Storm, the Human Torch, in an exhibition performance with Captain America, described as a legendary World War II and 1950s superhero who has returned after many years of apparent retirement. The 18-page story ends with this Captain America revealed as an impostor: it was actually the villain the Acrobat, a former circus performer the Torch had defeated in Strange Tales #106, who broke two thieves out of jail, hoping to draw the police away while trying to rob the local bank. Afterward, Storm digs out an old comic book in which Captain America is shown to be Steve Rogers. A caption in the final panel says this story was a test to see if readers would like Captain America to return.

Captain America was then formally reintroduced in The Avengers #4 (March 1964), which explained that in the final days of WWII, he had fallen from an experimental drone plane into the North Atlantic Ocean and spent decades frozen in a block of ice in a state of suspended animation. He quickly became leader of that superhero team. Following the success of other Marvel characters introduced during the 1960s, Captain America was recast as a hero "haunted by past memories, and trying to adapt to 1960s society."[14]

After then guest-starring in the feature "Iron Man" in Tales of Suspense #58 (Oct. 1964), Captain America gained his own solo feature in that "split book," beginning the following issue. Kirby, Captain America's co-creator, was illustrating his hero's solo adventures again for the first time since 1941. Issue #63 (March 1965), which retold Captain America's origin, through issue #71 (Nov. 1965) was a period feature set during World War II and co-starred Captain America's Golden Age sidekick, Bucky.

In the 1970s, the post-war versions of Captain America were retconned into separate, successive characters who briefly took up the mantle of Captain America after Steve Rogers went into suspended animation near the end of World War II.[15][16] The hero found a new generation of readers as leader of the all-star superhero team the Avengers, and in a new solo feature beginning in Tales of Suspense #59 (Nov. 1964), a "split book" shared with the feature "Iron Man". Kirby drew all but two of the stories in Tales of Suspense, which became Captain America with #100 (April 1968); Gil Kane and John Romita, Sr., each filled in once. Several stories were finished by penciller-inker George Tuska over Kirby layouts, with one finished by Romita Sr. and another by penciller Dick Ayers and inker John Tartaglione. Kirby's regular inkers on the series were Frank Giacoia (as "Frank Ray") and Joe Sinnott, though Don Heck and Golden Age Captain America artist Syd Shores inked one story each. The new title Captain America continued to feature artwork by Kirby, as well as a short run by Jim Steranko, and work by many of the industry's top artists and writers. It was called Captain America and the Falcon from #134-222 (although the Falcon's name was not on the cover for issues #193, 200, and 216).

This series — considered Captain America volume one by comics researchers and historians,[17] following the 1940s Captain America Comics and its 1950s numbering continuation — ended with #454 (Aug. 1996).

After the Silver Age

This series was almost immediately followed by the 13-issue Captain America vol. 2 (Nov. 1996 – Nov. 1997),[18] the 50-issue Captain America vol. 3 (Jan. 1998 – Feb. 2002),[19] the 32-issue Captain America vol. 4 (June 2002 – Dec. 2004),[20] and Captain America vol. 5 (Jan. 2005 – July 2009).[21] Beginning with the 600th overall issue counting these series, Captain America resumed its original numbering with issue #600, as if the series numbering had continued uninterrupted after #454.

As part of the aftermath of Marvel Comics' company-crossover storyline "Civil War", Steve Rogers was ostensibly killed in Captain America vol. 5, #25 (March 2007). Series writer Ed Brubaker remarked, "What I found is that all the really hard-core left-wing fans want Cap to be standing out on and giving speeches on the street corner against the George W. Bush administration, and all the really right-wing fans all want him to be over in the streets of Baghdad, punching out Saddam Hussein."[22] The character's co-creator, Joe Simon, remarked, "It's a hell of a time for him to go. We really need him now."[22] Artist Alex Ross designed a slightly revised Captain America costume that former sidekick Bucky Barnes began to wear as the new Captain America in vol. 5, #34 (March 2008)[23]

The storyline of Rogers' return began in issue #600.[24][25] Rogers, who was not dead but caroming through time, returned to the present day in the six-issue miniseries Captain America: Reborn (Sept. 2009 – March 2010).[26]

After Rogers' return, Barnes, at Rogers' insistence, continued as Captain America, beginning in the one-shot comic Captain America: Who Will Wield the Shield? (Feb. 2010). While Bucky Barnes continued adventuring in the pages of Captain America, Steve Rogers received his own miniseries (Steve Rogers: Super-Soldier) as well as taking on the leadership position in a new Secret Avengers ongoing series.

Spinoff series included Captain America Sentinel of Liberty (Sept. 1998 – Aug. 1999) and Captain America and the Falcon (May 2004 – June 2005). The 1940s Captain America appeared alongside the 1940s Human Torch and Sub-Mariner in the 12-issue miniseries Avengers/Invaders.[27][28] The 2007 mini-series Captain America: The Chosen, written by David Morrell and penciled by Mitchell Breitweiser, depicts a dying Steve Rogers' final minutes, at S.H.I.E.L.D. headquarters, as his spirit guides James Newman, a young American marine fighting in Afghanistan. The Chosen is not part of the main Marvel Universe continuity.[29][30]

Marvel stated in May 2011 that Rogers, following the public death of Bucky Barnes in the Fear Itself miniseries, would resume his Captain America identity in a sixth volume of Captain America, by writer Ed Brubaker and artist Steve McNiven.[31]

Fictional character biography


The front page of the first Captain America comic depicts Captain America punching Adolf Hitler in the jaw. A Nazi soldier's bullet deflects from Captain America's shield, while Adolf Hitler falls onto a map of the United States of America and a document reading 'Sabotage plans for U.S.A.'
Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941). Cover art by Joe Simon (inks and pencils) and Jack Kirby (pencils).

Steve Rogers was born July 4, 1917, in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, New York City, to Irish immigrants Sarah and Joseph Rogers.[32] Joseph Rogers died when Steve was only a child and his mother, Sarah, died of pneumonia while Steve was a teen. By early 1940, before America's entry into World War II, Rogers is a tall but scrawny fine arts student specializing in illustration. Disturbed by the rise of the Third Reich, Rogers attempts to enlist, only to be rejected due to being in poor shape. U.S. Army General Chester Phillips, looking for test subjects, offers Rogers the chance to serve his country by taking part in a top-secret defense project — Operation: Rebirth, which seeks to develop a means of creating physically superior soldiers. Rogers volunteers for the research and, after a rigorous selection process, is chosen as the first human test subject for the Super-Soldier serum developed by the scientist "Dr. Josef Reinstein",[33][34] later retroactively changed to a code name for the scientist Abraham Erskine.[35]

That night, Operation: Rebirth is implemented and Rogers receives injections and oral doses of the Super-Soldier Serum. He is then exposed to a controlled burst of "Vita-Rays" that activate and stabilize the chemicals in his system. Although the process is arduous physically, it successfully alters his physiology almost instantly from its relatively frail form to the maximum of human efficiency, greatly enhancing his musculature, reflexes, agility, stamina and intelligence. Erskine declares Rogers to be the first of a new breed of man, a "nearly perfect human being."[34]

The process he underwent has varied from account to account. In the original 1941 story, he was injected with the formula. When the origin was retold in Tales of Suspense #63, the Comics Code Authority and its prohibitions on demonstrations of drug use were in force, and the injection was replaced with drinking a formula.[36] In Captain America #109, the Vita-Rays were first introduced, although a dialogue comment preserved continuity by mentioning that he had also drunk the formula beforehand. The retelling of the story in Captain America #255, however, stated that all three were used in combination. In addition, the limited series, The Adventures of Captain America reveals that Rogers also underwent rigorous physical training in combat prior to his enhancement.

After the physical transformation, Nazi spy Heinz Kruger reveals himself and shoots Erskine. Because the scientist had committed crucial portions of the Super-Soldier formula to memory, duplicating it perfectly would be unlikely. The spy dies, killed either while running away to escape Rogers or because Rogers threw him into live machinery. In the 1941 origin story and the Tales of Suspense #63 version, he dies when running into the machinery but is not killed by Rogers; in the Captain America #109 and #255 revision, however, Rogers causes the spy's death by punching him into the machinery.[34]

The United States government, making the most of its one super-soldier and to hide all information about Operation: Rebirth and its failure, re-imagines him as a superhero who serves as both a counter-intelligence agent and a propaganda symbol to counter Nazi Germany's head of terrorist operations, the Red Skull. To that end, Rogers is given a uniform modeled after the American flag (based on Rogers' own sketches[32]) a bulletproof shield, a personal side arm, and the codename Captain America. He is also given a cover identity as a clumsy infantry private at Camp Lehigh in Virginia. Barely out of his teens himself, Rogers makes friends with the camp's teenage mascot, James Buchanan "Bucky" Barnes.[33]

Barnes accidentally learns of Rogers' dual identity and offers to keep the secret if he can become Captain America's sidekick. Rogers agrees and trains Barnes. Rogers meets President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who presents him with a new shield, forged from an alloy of steel and vibranium, fused by an unknown catalyst. The alloy is indestructible, yet the shield is light enough to use as a discus-like weapon that can be angled to return to him. It proves so effective that Captain America forgoes the sidearm.[35] Throughout World War II, Captain America and Bucky fight the Nazi menace both on their own and as members of the superhero team the Invaders (as seen in the 1970s comic of the same name).[37] Captain America also battles a number of criminal menaces on American soil, including a wide variety of costumed villains: the Wax Man,[38] the Hangman,[39] the Fang,[39] the Black Talon,[40] and the White Death,[40] among many others.

In late April 1945, during the closing days of World War II, Captain America and Bucky try to stop the villainous Baron Zemo from destroying an experimental drone plane. Zemo launches the plane with an armed explosive on it, with Rogers and Barnes in hot pursuit. They reach the plane just before it takes off, but when Bucky tries to defuse the bomb, it explodes in mid-air. The young man is believed killed, and Rogers is hurled into the freezing waters of the North Atlantic. Neither body is found, and both are presumed dead. It is later revealed that neither character actually died.[41]

Late 1940s to 1950s

Captain America continued to appear in comics for the next few years changing from World War II-era hero fighting against the Nazis to trying to defeat the United States' newest enemy, Communism. The revival of the character in the mid-1950s is short-lived, and events during that time period are later retconned to show that multiple people operated using the code name in order to explain the changes in the character. These Post World War II successors are listed as William Naslund and Jeffrey Mace.

The last of these other official Captains was a man who was so devoted to emulating Captain America that he had had his appearance surgically altered to resemble Rogers. His tenure and distinctive modified costume would result in him being later formally addressed as the "1950s Captain America".[42] Furthermore, he also treated himself and a protege to an acquired Nazi copy of the Super-Soldier serum to become the new Captain America and Bucky, but were unaware of the necessary Vita-Ray component. As a result, the raw chemicals administered began to have serious detrimental effects on the pair's minds, rendering them both violently paranoid and regarding even innocent people as communist sympathizers during the height of the Red Scare of the 1950s. After it became evident that the two were insane, they were captured and placed in indefinite cryogenic storage by the US Government until they could be cured of their mental illness.[43] The 1950s Bucky would be cured [44] and go on to be the original Cap partner for a time under the Nomad identity.

1960s to 1970s

Captain America #180 (Dec. 1974). Captain America becomes "Nomad". Cover art by Gil Kane and Frank Giacoia.

Years later,[41] the superhero team the Avengers discovers Steve Rogers' body in the North Atlantic, the Captain's uniform under his soldier's fatigues and still carrying his shield. After he revives, they piece together that Rogers had been preserved in a block of ice since 1945, surviving in such a state only because of his enhancements from Operation: Rebirth. The block had begun to melt after the Sub-Mariner, enraged that an Arctic Inuit tribe is worshiping the frozen figure, throws it into the ocean. Rogers accepts membership in the Avengers, and although long out of his time, his considerable combat experience makes him a valuable asset to the team. He quickly assumes leadership,[45] and has typically returned to that position throughout the team's history.

Captain America is plagued by guilt for having been unable to prevent Bucky's death—a feeling that does not ease for some time. Although he takes the young Rick Jones (who closely resembles Bucky) under his tutelage, he refuses for some time to allow Jones to take up the Bucky identity, not wishing to be responsible for another youth's death. Insisting that his hero finally move on from that loss, Jones eventually convinces Rogers to let him don the Bucky costume,[46] but this partnership lasts only a short time; a disguised Red Skull, impersonating Rogers with the help of the Cosmic Cube, drives Jones away.

Rogers also reunites with his old war comrade Nick Fury, who is similarly well-preserved due to the "Infinity Formula." As a result, Rogers regularly undertakes missions for the security agency S.H.I.E.L.D. for which Fury is public director.[47] Through Fury, Rogers befriends Sharon Carter, a S.H.I.E.L.D. agent,[48] with whom he eventually begins a romantic relationship.

Rogers later meets and trains Sam Wilson, who becomes the superhero the Falcon,[49] the first African-American superhero in mainstream comic books.[50] The characters established an enduring friendship and adventuring partnership, sharing the series title for some time as Captain America and the Falcon.[51] The two later encounter the revived but still insane 1950s Captain America.[15] Although Rogers and the Falcon defeat the faux Rogers and Jack Monroe, Rogers becomes deeply disturbed that he could have suffered his counterpart's fate.

The series also dealt with the Marvel Universe's version of the Watergate scandal, making Rogers so uncertain about his role that he abandons his Captain America identity in favor of one called Nomad, emphasizing the word's meaning as "man without a country". During this time, several men unsuccessfully assume the Captain America identity.[52] Rogers eventually re-assumes it after coming to consider that the identity could be a symbol of American ideals and not its government; it's a personal conviction epitomized when he later confronted a corrupt Army officer attempting to manipulate him by appealing to his loyalty, "I'm loyal to nothing, General... except the [American] Dream." Jack Monroe, cured of his mental instability, later takes up the Nomad alias.[53] During this period, Rogers also temporarily gains super strength.[54] Immediately after witnessing Number One's suicide, he is summoned to the future to participate in the Destiny War between Kang the Conqueror and Immortus (it is revealed over the course of the story that Rogers was selected from this time frame as, had he been taken from any other time period, his strong personality- shaken at this point by the events he had just witnessed- would have dominated the team and deprived them of the flexibility required to succeed in their mission, although his presence alone still brought cohesion to the group).[55] He also learns of the apparent death of Sharon Carter.[56]

1980s to 1990s

Captain America #350 (Feb. 1989). Rogers as "the Captain" vs. John Walker as Captain America. Cover art by Kieron Dwyer and Al Milgrom.

The early 1980s included runs from such creators as Roger Stern, John Byrne, and J. M. DeMatteis. Stern had Steve Rogers considers a run for President of the United States in Captain America #250 (June 1980), and introduced a new love interest, law student Bernie Rosenthal, in Captain America #248 (Aug. 1980). Stern also revisited and expanded Captain America's origin story.

DeMatteis revealed the true face and full origin of the Red Skull in Captain America #298-300, and had Captain America take on Jack Monroe, Nomad, as a partner for a time.[53] It is also around this time that the heroes gathered by the Beyonder elect Rogers as leader during their stay on Battleworld in the 1984 miniseries Secret Wars

Also during the 1980s, Mark Gruenwald wrote 137 issues of the book for 10 consecutive years from 1985 to 1995, the most issues by any single author in the character's history. Gruenwald created several new foes, including Crossbones and the Serpent Society. Other Gruenwald characters included new love interest Diamondback.,[57] Super Patriot (who would go on to become a replacement Captain America in a two-year story arc [58] and became USAgent at that arc's conclusion), and some short-lived new partners that included Demolition Man.[59]

Gruenwald explores numerous political and social themes as well, such as extreme idealism when Captain America fights the anti-nationalist terrorist Flag-Smasher;[60] and vigilantism when he hunts the murderous Scourge of the Underworld.[61] Homophobia was also dealt with as Steve Rogers runs into a childhood friend named Arnold Roth who is gay.[62][63]

Rogers receives a large back-pay reimbursement dating back to his disappearance at the end of World War II, and a government commission orders him to work directly for the U.S. government. Already troubled by the corruption he had encountered with the Nuke incident in New York City,[64] Rogers chooses instead to resign his identity,[65] and then takes the alias of "the Captain".[66] A replacement Captain America, John Walker, struggles to emulate Rogers' ideals until pressure from hidden enemies helps to drive Walker insane. Rogers returns to the Captain America identity[67] while a recovered Walker becomes the U.S. Agent.[68]

Sometime afterward, Rogers avoids the explosion of a methamphetamine lab, but the drug triggers a chemical reaction in the Super-Soldier serum in his system. To combat the reaction, Rogers has the serum removed from his body, and trains constantly to maintain his physical condition.[69]

A retcon later establishes that the serum was not a drug per se, which would have metabolized out of his system, but in fact a virus-like organism that effected a biochemical and genetic change. This additionally explained how arch-nemesis Red Skull, who at the time inhabited a body cloned from Rogers' cells, also has the formula in his body.

Because of his altered biochemistry, Rogers' body begins to deteriorate, and for a time he must wear a powered exoskeleton and is eventually placed again in suspended animation. During this time, he is given a transfusion of blood from the Red Skull, which cures his condition and stabilizes the Super-Soldier virus in his system. Captain America returns both to crime fighting and the Avengers.[70]

Following Gruenwald's departure on the book, Mark Waid took over and resurrected Sharon Carter as Cap's love interest. The book was then relaunched under Rob Liefeld as Cap became part of the Heroes Reborn universe for 13 issues before another relaunch restored Waid to the title in an arc that saw Cap lose his shield for a time using an energy based shield as a temporary replacement. Following Waid's run, Dan Jurgens took over and introduced new foe Protocide, a failed recipient of the Super Soldier serum prior to the experiment that successfully created Rogers.


In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, Rogers reveals his identity to the world and establishes a residence in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, as seen in Captain America vol. 4, #1-7 (June 2002 – Feb. 2003). Following the disbandment of the Avengers in the "Avengers Disassembled" story arc, Rogers, now employed by S.H.I.E.L.D., discovers Bucky is alive, having been saved and deployed by the Soviets as the Winter Soldier. Rogers also resumes his on-again, off-again relationship with S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Sharon Carter.

In the 2006-2007 company-wide story arc "Civil War", and its anchoring, seven-issue miniseries, Civil War (July 2006 - Jan. 2007), Rogers opposes the new mandatory federal registration of super-powered beings, and leads the underground anti-registration movement. He adopts the alias "Brett Hendrick", a mall security guard. After significant rancor and danger to the public as the two sides clash, Captain America voluntarily surrenders and orders the Anti-Registration forces to stand down.

Steve Rogers' presumed death. Art by Steve Epting.

In the story arc "The Death of Captain America", Rogers is indicted on criminal charges for his anti-registration efforts, and in Captain America vol. 5, #25 (April 2007) is shot outside a federal courthouse; taken to a hospital, he is pronounced dead. The assassination, orchestrated by the Red Skull, involves Crossbones as a sniper and Dr. Faustus, who poses as a S.H.I.E.L.D. psychiatrist and gives Carter a hypnotic suggestion to surreptitiously shoot Rogers at close range during the chaos surrounding the sniper shot.

The miniseries Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #1-5 (June–Aug. 2007) follows the stunned superhero community after the apparent assassination. Captain America is purportedly laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery, but Tony Stark (Iron Man) and others have actually returned Rogers' body to the Arctic where Rogers had been found years before.

In vol. 5, #30 (Sept. 2007), Stark receives a letter containing Rogers' request that Bucky become the next Captain America, which Bucky agrees to do four issues later. Adopting the original shield, the dons a new costume incorporating a pistol and a knife. The Norse god superhero Thor communicates with what appears to be Rogers' spirit on the first anniversary of Rogers' death, in Thor vol. 3, #11 (Oct. 2008).

Promotional art for Steve Rogers: Super Soldier #1 (Sept. 2010) by Carlos Pacheco and Tim Townsend.

Captain America: Reborn #1 (Aug. 2009) reveals that Rogers did not die, and that the gun Sharon Carter had been hypnotized to use had actually caused Rogers to phase in and out of space and time, appearing at events in his lifetime and fighting battles. The Skull returns Rogers to the present, where he takes control of Rogers' mind and body. Rogers eventually regains control, and with help from his allies, defeats the Skull in the fourth and final issues of this miniseries. In the subsequent one-shot comic Captain America: Who Will Wield the Shield?, Rogers formally grants Bucky his Captain America shield and asks his former sidekick to continue as Captain America. The American President grants Rogers a full pardon for his anti-registration actions.


Following the company-wide "Dark Reign" and "Siege" story arcs, the Steve Rogers character became part of the "Heroic Age" arc.[71] The U.S. president appoints Rogers, in his civilian identity, as head of the nation's security, replacing Norman Osborn. The Superhuman Registration Act is repealed and Rogers reestablishes the superhero team the Avengers. In the miniseries Steve Rogers: Super Soldier, he encounters Jacob Erskine, the grandson of Professor Abraham Erskine and the son of Tyler Paxton, one of Rogers' fellow volunteers in the Super-Soldier program. Shortly afterward, Rogers becomes leader of the Secret Avengers, a black-ops superhero team.

During the Fear Itself storyline, Steve Rogers is present when the threat of the Serpent is known.[72] Following the death of Bucky at the hands of Sin (in the form of Skadi), Steve Rogers ends up changing into his Captain America outfit.[73] When the Avengers and the New Avengers are fighting Skadi, the Serpent ends up joining the battle and uses his fists to break Captain America's shield[74] Captain America and the Avengers teams end up forming a militia for a last stand against the forces of the Serpent.[75] When it comes to the final battle, Captain America uses Thor's hammer to fight Skadi until Thor manages to kill the Serpent. In the aftermath of the battle, Iron Man presents Captain with his reforged shield now stronger for its uru-infused enhancements despite the scar it bears.[76] It is then revealed that Captain America, Nick Fury, and Black Widow are the only ones who know that Bucky actually survived the fight with Skadi as Bucky resumes his identity as Winter Soldier.[77]

Powers and abilities

Steve Rogers' physical transformation, from a reprint of Captain America Comics #1 (May 1941). Art by Joe Simon and Jack Kirby.

Captain America has no superhuman powers, although as a result of the Super-Soldier Serum and "Vita-Ray" treatment, he is transformed from a frail young man into a "perfect" specimen of human development and conditioning.[78] Captain America's strength, endurance, agility, speed, reflexes, durability, and healing are at the zenith of natural human potential. Rogers' body regularly replenishes the super-soldier serum; it does not wear off.[79]

The formula enhances all of his metabolic functions and prevents the build-up of fatigue poisons in his muscles, giving him endurance far in excess of an ordinary human being. This accounts for many of his extraordinary feats, including bench pressing 1200 pounds (545 kg) and running a mile (1.6 km) in approximately 73 seconds.[80] Furthermore, his enhancements are the reason why he was able to survive being frozen in suspended animation for decades. Rogers cannot become intoxicated by alcohol, drugs, or impurities in the air and is immune to terrestrial diseases.[citation needed] He is also highly resistant to hypnosis or gases that could limit his focus.[81] The secrets of creating a super-soldier were lost with the death of its creator, Dr. Abraham Erskine.[82] However, in the ensuing decades there have been numerous secret attempts to recreate Erskine's treatment, only to have them predominantly all end in failure. Even worse, the attempts have instead often created psychopathic supervillains of which Captain America's 1950s imitator and Nuke are the most notorious examples.

Rogers' battle experience and training make him an expert tactician and an excellent field commander, with his teammates frequently deferring to his orders in battle. Rogers' reflexes and senses are also extraordinarily keen. He has blended judo, western boxing, kickboxing, and gymnastics into his own unique fighting style and is a master of multiple martial arts. Years of practice with his indestructible shield make him able to aim and throw it with almost unerring accuracy. His skill with his shield is such that he can attack multiple targets in succession with a single throw or even cause a boomerang-like return from a throw to attack an enemy from behind. In canon, he is regarded by other skilled fighters as one of the best hand-to-hand combatants in the Marvel Universe.[83][84] Although the super-soldier serum is an important part of his strength, Rogers has shown himself still sufficiently capable against stronger opponents, even when the serum has been deactivated reverting him to his pre-Captain America physique.[85]

Rogers has vast U.S. military knowledge and is often shown to be familiar with ongoing, classified Defense Department operations. He is an expert in combat strategy, survival, acrobatics, military strategy, piloting, and demolitions. Despite his high profile as one of the world's most popular and recognizable superheroes, Rogers also has a broad understanding of the espionage community, largely through his ongoing relationship with S.H.I.E.L.D. He occasionally makes forays into relatively mundane career fields, including commercial arts, comic book artistry, education (high school history), and law enforcement.

Weapons and equipment

Captain America uses several shields throughout his history, the most prevalent of which is a nigh-indestructible disc-shaped shield made from an experimental alloy of steel and the fictional vibranium.[86] The shield was cast by American metallurgist Dr. Myron MacLain, who was contracted by the U.S. government, from orders of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, to create an impenetrable substance to use for tanks during World War II.[citation needed] This alloy was created by accident and never duplicated, although efforts to reverse-engineer it resulted in the discovery of adamantium.[citation needed]

Captain America often uses his shield as an offensive throwing weapon. The first instance of Captain America's trademark ricocheting shield-toss occurs in Stan Lee's first comics writing, the two-page text story "Captain America Foils the Traitor's Revenge" in Captain America Comics #3 (May 1941).[87]

The legacy of the shield among other comics characters includes the time-traveling mutant superhero Cable telling Captain America that his shield still exists in one of the possible futures; Cable carries it into battle and brandishes it as a symbol.[88]

When without his trademark shield, Captain America sometimes uses other shields made from less durable metals such as steel,[volume & issue needed] or even a photonic energy shield designed to mimic a vibranium matrix.[volume & issue needed] Rogers, having relinquished his regular shield to Barnes, carried a variant of the energy shield which can be used with either arm, and used to either block attacks or as an improvised offensive weapon able to cut through metal with relative ease.[89] Much like his vibranium shield, the energy shield can also be thrown, including ricocheting off multiple surfaces and returning to his hand.[90]

Captain America's uniform is made of a fire-retardant material, and he wears a lightweight, bulletproof "duralumin" scale armor beneath his uniform for added protection.[35] Originally, Rogers' mask was a separate piece of material, but an early engagement had it dislodged, thus almost exposing his identity. To prevent a recurrence of the situation, Rogers modified the mask with connecting material to his uniform, an added benefit of which was extending his armor to cover his previously exposed neck. As a member of the Avengers, Rogers has an Avengers priority card, which serves as a communications device.

Captain America has also used a custom specialized motorcycle, modified by the S.H.I.E.L.D. weapons laboratory, as well as a custom-built battle van, constructed by the Wakanda Design Group with the ability to change its color for disguise purposes (red, white and blue), and fitted to store and conceal the custom motorcycle in its rear section with a frame that allows Rogers to launch from the vehicle riding it.


Captain America has faced numerous foes in over 60 years of published adventures. Many of his recurring foes embody ideals contrary to the American values Captain America is shown to strive for and believe. Some examples of these opposing values are Nazism (Red Skull, Baron Zemo), Neo-Nazism (Crossbones, Doctor Faustus), technocratic fascism (AIM, Arnim Zola), Communism (Aleksander Lukin), anarchism (Flag Smasher and Viper), and international and domestic terrorism (HYDRA).

Other versions

In other media

Collected editions

The contents of Captain America Comics #1-10 were previously published as Captain America: The Classic Years two hardcover slipcase set in 1990. These were later re-issued as trade paperbacks in the late 1990s once again under the title Captain America: The Classic Years featuring new cover art by Kevin Maguire re-creating classic covers. Previous editions of War and Remembrance, The Bloodstone Hunt, Operation Rebirth, Man Without a Country, and To Serve and Protect were released prior to 2010 editions leading up to the Captain America: The First Avenger feature film.

Title Material collected ISBN
Marvel Masterworks Golden Age Captain America Comics, Vol. 1 Captain America Comics #1-4 0-7851-1619-2
Marvel Masterworks Golden Age Captain America Comics, Vol. 2 Captain America Comics #5-8 0-7851-2229-X
Marvel Masterworks Golden Age Captain America Comics, Vol. 3 Captain America Comics #9-12 0-7851-2878-6
Marvel Masterworks Atlas Era Heroes, Vol. 1 Includes Captain America stories from Astonishing #3-6, Young Men #24-28 0-7851-2408-X
Marvel Masterworks Atlas Era Heroes, Vol. 2 Includes Captain America stories from Men's Adventures #27-28, Captain America Comics #76-78 0-7851-2460-3
Essential Captain America, Vol. 1 Tales of Suspense #59-99; Captain America #100-102 0-7851-3006-3
Essential Captain America, Vol. 2 Captain America #103-126 0-7851-0827-0
Essential Captain America, Vol. 3 Captain America #127-156 0-7851-2166-8
Essential Captain America, Vol. 4 Captain America #157-186 0-7851-2770-4
Essential Captain America, Vol. 5 Captain America #187-205, Annual #3, Marvel Treasury Special: Captain America's Bicentennial Battles 0-7851-4535-4
Essential Captain America, Vol. 6 Captain America #206-230, Annual #4; Incredible Hulk #232 0-7851-5091-6
Captain America and the Falcon: Secret Empire Captain America #169-176 0-7851-1836-5
Captain America and the Falcon: Nomad Captain America #177-186 0-7851-2197-8
Captain America and the Falcon: Madbomb Captain America #193-200 0-7851-1557-9
Captain America: Bicentennial Battles Captain America #201-205; Bicentennial Battles #1 0-7851-1726-1
Captain America and the Falcon: The Swine Captain America #206-214, Annual #3-4 0-7851-2078-5
Captain America: War and Remembrance Captain America #247-255 0-7851-2693-7
Captain America: Deathlok Lives Captain America #286-288 0-7851-0019-9
Captain America: Scourge of the Underworld Captain America #318-320, back-up stories from #358-362; USAgent #1-4; 0-7851-4962-0
Captain America: The Captain Captain America #332-350; Iron Man #228 0-7851-4965-5
Captain America: The Bloodstone Hunt Captain America #357-364 0-87135-972-3
Captain America: Streets of Poison Captain America #372-378 0-7851-0057-1
Avengers: Galactic Storm, Book 1 Captain America #398-399, Avengers West Coast #80-81, Quasar #32-33, Wonder Man #7-8, Avengers #345-346, Iron Man #278 and Thor #445
Avengers: Galactic Storm, Book 2 Iron Man #279, Thor #446, Captain America #400-401, Avengers West Coast #82, Quasar #34-35, Wonder Man #9, Avengers #347, What If? #55-56
Captain America: Man and Wolf Captain America #402-408 0-7851-4961-3
Captain America: Fighting Chance: Denial Captain America #425-430 0-7851-3738-6
Captain America: Fighting Chance: Acceptance Captain America #431-437 0-7851-3739-4
Captain America: Operation Rebirth Captain America #444-448 0-7851-3126-4
Captain America: Man Without a Country Captain America #450-453 0-7851-0594-8
Heroes Reborn: Captain America Captain America vol. 2, #1-12 0-7851-2339-3
Captain America: To Serve and Protect Captain America vol. 3, #1-7 0-7851-0838-6
Captain America: American Nightmare Captain America vol. 3, #8-13, Annual 1998 0-7851-5085-5
Captain America: Red Glare Captain America vol. 3, #14-19, Captain America Spotlight
Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #1-12 0-7851-4963-7
Captain America: The New Deal Captain America vol. 4, #1-6 0-7851-1101-8
Captain America: The Extremists Captain America vol. 4, #7-11 0-7851-1102-6
Captain America: Ice Captain America vol. 4, #12-16 0-7851-1103-4
Captain America: Cap Lives Captain America vol. 4, #17-20; Tales of Suspense #66 0-7851-1318-5
Captain America: Homeland Captain America vol. 4, #21-28 0-7851-1396-7
Captain America and the Falcon: Two Americas Captain America and the Falcon #1-4 0-7851-1424-6
Avengers Disassembled: Captain America Captain America vol. 4, #29-32; Captain America and the Falcon #5-7 0-7851-1648-6
Captain America and the Falcon: Brothers and Keepers Captain America and the Falcon #8-14 0-7851-1568-4
Captain America: Winter Soldier, Book One Captain America vol. 5, #1-7 0-7851-1920-5
Captain America: Winter Soldier, Book Two Captain America vol. 5, #8-9, #11-14 0-7851-1921-3
Captain America: Red Menace, Book One Captain America vol. 5, #15-17; Captain America 65th Anniversary Special 0-7851-2321-0
Captain America: Red Menace, Book Two Captain America vol. 5, #18-21 0-7851-2225-7
Captain America: Civil War Captain America vol. 5, #22-24; Winter Soldier: Winter Kills 0-7851-2798-4
The Death of Captain America, Vol. 1: The Death of the Dream Captain America vol. 5, #25-30 0-7851-2423-3
The Death of Captain America, Vol. 2: The Burden of Dreams Captain America vol. 5, #31-36 0-7851-2424-1
The Death of Captain America, Vol. 3: The Man Who Bought America Captain America vol. 5, #37-42 0-7851-2971-5
Captain America: The Man with No Face Captain America vol. 5, #43-48 0-7851-3163-9
Captain America: Road to Reborn (HC) Captain America #600-601; vol. 5, #49-50 0-7851-4174-X
Captain America: Reborn (HC) Captain America: Reborn #1-6 0-7851-3998-2
Captain America: Two Americas Captain America #602-605; Who Will Wield the Shield? 0-7851-4510-9
Captain America: No Escape Captain America #606-610 0-7851-4512-5
Steve Rogers: Super Soldier Steve Rogers: Super-Soldier #1-4 0-7851-4878-7
Captain America: The Trial of Captain America Captain America #611-615 and #615.1, and material from CAPTAIN AMERICA 70TH ANNIVERSARY MAGAZINE 0-7851-5119-2
Captain America: Prisoner of War Captain America #616-619 0-7851-5121-0
Captain America: The Legacy of Captain America Captain America Comics (1941) #1; What If? (1977) #4; Captain America #155, #333; Captain America vol. 5, #34; material from Captain America (1968) #178-183 SC: 0-7851-5092-7
Captain America Vs. The Red Skull Captain America Comics (1941) #1; Tales Of Suspense #79-81; and Captain America #143, #226-227, #261-263 and #370; and material from Captain America Annual #13 and Captain America: Red, White & Blue #1 SC: 0-7851-5096-1


  1. ^ a b The 1995 Marvel Milestone Edition: Captain America archival reprint has no cover date or number, and its postal indicia says "Originally published... as Captain America #000." Timely's first comic, Marvel Comics #1, likewise had no number on its cover, and was released with two different cover dates.
  2. ^ "Death to 'America': Comic-book hero killed off". March 7, 2007. 
  3. ^ "Bullpen Bulletins: Stan's Soapbox" in Marvel Comics cover-dated December 1999
  4. ^ Brady, Matt (March 7, 2007). "Marvel's Statement on Captain America #25". Newsarama. Archived from the original on January 7, 2011. Retrieved March 7, 2007. 
  5. ^ 1974 Comic Art Convention program, cover
  6. ^ a b Simon, Joe; Jim Simon (1990). The Comic Book Makers. Crestwood/II. p. 50. ISBN 1-887591-35-4.  Reissued by Vanguard Productions in 2003.
  7. ^ Simon, p. 51.
  8. ^ a b c Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation: The Transformation of Youth Culture in America. Johns Hopkins. p. 36. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5. 
  9. ^ Per researcher Keif Fromm, Alter Ego #49, p. 4 (caption).
  10. ^ Thomas, Roy, Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe (Sterling Publishing, New York, 2006), p. 11. ISBN 978-1-4027-4225-5
  11. ^ Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. p. 37. ISBN 0-8109-3821-9. 
  12. ^ Wright, p. 123.
  13. ^ "Strange Tales #114 (Nov. 1963)". Grand Comics Database. Retrieved December 28, 2010. 
  14. ^ Wright, p. 215.
  15. ^ a b Captain America #153-156 (Sept.–Dec. 1972)
  16. ^ What If? #4 (Aug. 1977)
  17. ^ "Captain America (I) (1968–1996)". The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators. Retrieved March 20, 2007. 
  18. ^ "Captain America (II) (1996–1997)". The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators. Retrieved March 20, 2007. 
  19. ^ "Captain America (III) (1998–2002)". The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators.  "Captain America (1998 Series)". Grand Comics Database. 
  20. ^ "Captain America (IV) (2002–2004)". The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators.  "Captain America (2002 Series)". Grand Comics Database. 
  21. ^ "Captain America (V) (2005–2007)". The Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators.  "Captain America (2005 Series)". Grand Comics Database. 
  22. ^ a b "Captain America killed!". New York Daily News. March 7, 2007. 
  23. ^ "Captain America Lives". 
  24. ^ "Captain America Makes the New York Daily News". Newsarama. Retrieved December 28, 2010. 
  25. ^ "Captain America, a.k.a. Steve Rogers, is coming back to life two years after Marvel Comics killed him". New York Daily News. June 16, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2010. 
  26. ^ "Captain America, thought dead, comes back to life". June 15, 2009. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Wizard World Chicago 2007: Alex Ross Returns to Marvel". Marvel press release. August 11, 2007. 
  28. ^ Weiland, Jonah (August 14, 2007). "Ross' Return = Avengers/Invaders". Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  29. ^ Brady, Matt (June 14, 2007). "David Morrell Talks Captain America: The Chosen". Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  30. ^ Richards, Dave (August 13, 2007). "The Four Virtues: Morrell Talks 'Captain America: The Chosen'". Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  31. ^ Khouri, Andy. "Steve Rogers Returns to Duty with Brubaker & McNiven in 'Captain America' #1",, May 30, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
  32. ^ a b Adventures of Captain America: Sentinel of Liberty #1-4 (Oct. 1991 – Jan. 1992)
  33. ^ a b Captain America Comics #1 (March 1941)
  34. ^ a b c Captain America #109 (January 1969)
  35. ^ a b c Captain America #255 (March 1981). The name "Erskine" was first used in a Captain America novel by Ted White in The Great Gold Steal (Bantam Books, 1968).
  36. ^ Tales of Suspense #63 (March 1965)
  37. ^ Giant-Sized Invaders #1 (June 1975)
  38. ^ Captain America Comics #2 (April 1941)
  39. ^ a b Captain America Comics #6 (Aug. 1941)
  40. ^ a b Captain America Comics #9 (Nov. 1941)
  41. ^ a b The Avengers #4 (March 1964)
  42. ^ Captain America (Vol 1) #153
  43. ^ Captain America (Vol 1) #156
  44. ^ Captain America (Vol 1) #281
  45. ^ The Avengers #16 (May 1965)
  46. ^ Captain America #110 (Feb. 1969)
  47. ^ Tales of Suspense #78 (June 1966)
  48. ^ Tales of Suspense #75 (March 1966)
  49. ^ Captain America #117 (Sept. 1969)
  50. ^ Brothers, David. "A Marvel Black History Lesson Pt. 1",, February 18, 2011. WebCitation archive. Quoting Marvel Senior Vice President of Publishing Tom Brevoort: “The Falcon was the very first African-American super hero, as opposed to The Black Panther, who preceded him, but wasn't American."
  51. ^ Captain America #117-119 (Sept.–Nov.1969)
  52. ^ Captain America #176-183 (Aug. 1974 – March 1975)
  53. ^ a b Captain America #282 (June 1983)
  54. ^ Captain America #159 (March 1973)
  55. ^ Avengers Forever #11 (Nov. 1999)
  56. ^ Captain America #237 (Sept. 1979)
  57. ^ Captain America #310 (Oct. 1985)
  58. ^ Captain America 327-350
  59. ^ Gruenwald, Mark (w). Captain America 328 (April 1987)
  60. ^ Gruenwald, Mark (w). Captain America 312 (Dec. 1985)
  61. ^ Gruenwald, Mark (w). Captain America 318-320 (June–Aug. 1986)
  62. ^ Captain America #270 (June 1982)
  63. ^ "Out in all directions: the almanac of gay and lesbian America", Lynn Witt, Sherry Thomas, Eric Marcus. Hachette Digital, Inc., 1995. ISBN 0446518220, 9780446518222
  64. ^ Daredevil #227-233 (Feb.–Aug. 1986)
  65. ^ Gruenwald, Mark (w). Captain America 332 (Aug. 1987)
  66. ^ Gruenwald, Mark (w). Captain America 335 (Nov. 1987)
  67. ^ Gruenwald, Mark (w). Captain America 350 (Feb. 1989)
  68. ^ Gruenwald, Mark (w). Captain America 332-351 (Aug. 1987 – March 1989)
  69. ^ Captain America #378 (Oct. 1990)
  70. ^ Captain America #425-454 (March 1994 – Aug. 1996)
  71. ^ Richards, Dave (May 18, 2010). "Storming Heaven: Siege #4". Retrieved September 26, 2010. 
  72. ^ Fear Itself #1
  73. ^ Fear Itself #4
  74. ^ Fear Itself #5
  75. ^ Fear Itself #6
  76. ^ Fear Itself #7
  77. ^ Fear Itself #7.1
  78. ^ Lundin, Leigh (2011-10-16). "The Mystery of Superheroes". Orlando: 
  79. ^ Captain America #372-378 (May–Nov. 1990)
  80. ^ Captain America 65th Anniversary Special (May 2006)
  81. ^ Avengers/JLA #4 (May 2004)
  82. ^ Tales of Suspense #63 (March 1965)
  83. ^ Captain America #302 (Feb. 1985)
  84. ^ Captain America #375 (Aug. 1990)
  85. ^ Steve Rogers: Super-Soldier #3 (Nov. 2010)
  86. ^ Captain America #303-304 (March–April 1985)
  87. ^ Thomas, Roy (2006). Stan Lee's Amazing Marvel Universe. New York: Sterling Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 1-4027-4225-8.  The line reads: "With the speed of thought, he sent his shield spinning through the air to the other end of the tent, where it smacked the knife out of Haines' hand!" It became a convention starting the following issue, in which the art in a Simon and Kirby comics story illustrates the following caption: "Captain America's speed of thought and action save Bucky's life — as he hurls his shield across the room."
  88. ^ Cable & Deadpool #25 (April 2006)
  89. ^ Steve Rogers: Super-Soldier #4 (Dec. 2010)
  90. ^ Hawkeye: Blindspot #2

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