Museum ship

Museum ship
The Polish destroyer ORP Błyskawica is currently preserved as a museum ship in Gdynia.
For ships that are not original see Ship replica. For preserved incomplete ships see Ships preserved in museums.

A museum ship, or sometimes memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public, for educational or memorial purposes. Some are also used for training and recruitment purposes, a use found mostly with the small number of museum ships that are still operational, i.e., capable of regular movement.[1]

There are several hundred museum ships around the world, with around 175 of them organised in the Historic Naval Ships Association[2] though there are also many non-naval museum ships as well, from general merchant ships to tugs and lightships. Many, if not most, museum ships are also associated with a maritime museum.

Contents

Significance

Mikasa, one of the earlier ships of the Empire of Japan, and the only surviving predreadnought battleship.
Former crew members of USS Missouri pose for photos after the Anniversary of the End of World War II ceremony.

Despite the long history of sea travel, the ravages of the elements and the expense of maintenance has resulted in the destruction of nearly all the ships that were ever built, often by sinking, usually by being broken up and sold for scrap. Only a few have survived, sometimes because of historical significance, but more often simply due to luck and circumstance.

Since an old ship tied up at dockside, without attention, will still decay and eventually sink, the practice of recent years has been to form some sort of preservation society, solicit donations from governments or private individuals, organize volunteer labor from the enthusiasts, and open the restored ship to visitors, usually for a fee.

The restoration and maintenance of museum ships presents problems for historians who are asked for advice, and the results periodically generate some controversy[citation needed]. For instance, the rigging of sailing ships has almost never survived, and so the rigging plan must be reconstructed from various sources. Studying the ships also allows historians to analyse how life on and operation of the ships took place.[3] Numerous scientific papers have been written on ship restoration and maintenance, and international conferences are held discussing the latest developments.[4] Some years ago, the Barcelona Charter was signed by a variety of international owner organizations of traditional vessels, and provides certain accepted minimum criteria for the restoration and operation of traditional watercraft still in operation.[5]

Another consideration is the distinction between a 'real' museum ship, and a ship replica. As repairs accumulate over time, less and less of the ship is of the original materials, and the lack of old parts (or even 'appropriate' work tools) may lead to the use of modern 'short-cuts' (such as welding a metal plate instead of riveting it, as would be the case during the ships historical period).[6] Visitors without historical background are also often unable to distinguish between a historical museum ship and a (more-or-less historically relevant) ship replica, which may serve solely as a tourist attraction.[3]

Museum usage

The 17th century warship Vasa on display in the Vasa Museum

Typically the visitor enters via gangplank, wanders around on the deck, then goes below, usually using the original stairways, giving a sense of how the crew got around. The interior features restored but inactivated equipment, enhanced with mementos including old photographs, explanatory displays, pages from the ship's logs, menus, and the like. Some will add recorded sound effects, audio tours or video displays to add to the experience.

In some cases ships the radio room has been brought back into use, with volunteers operating amateur radio equipment. Often the callsign assigned is a variation on the original identification of the ship. For example, the submarine USS Cobia, which had the call NBQV, is now on the air as NB9QV. In other cases, such as the USS Missouri, a distinctive call (in this case KH6BB) is used. This radio work not only helps restore part of the vessel, but provides worldwide publicity for the museum ship.

A number of the larger museum ships have begun to offer hosting for weddings, meetings, and other events, sleepovers, and on a few ships still seaworthy, cruises. In the United States, this includes the USS Constitution's annual "turnaround", where the old ship is towed out into the harbor and brought back in facing the other way, so as to weather evenly. A place on the deck is by invitation or lottery only, and highly prized[citation needed].

The tourism appeal of a city waterfront graced by an interesting old vessel is considered by many to be sufficient enough that any port city should showcase one or more museum ships, which are often great favourites of locals and visitors. This may even include building a replica ship at great expense.[7]

Notable examples

Name Location Nationality Type Comments
BAE Abdón Calderón Guayaquil, Ecuador Ecuador
Ecuador
Gunboat Launched in 1886. In 1941, during the armed conflict with Peru, BAE Abdon Calderón had a successful confrontation with Peruvian destroyer Admiral Villar, a ship that had vastly superior characteristics. Today it is a museum ship in Guayaquil, Ecuador.
HNLMS Abraham Crijnssen Den Helder, Netherlands Netherlands
Netherlands
Minesweeper Escaped from Surabaya, Java during the Japanese invasion in 1942 disguised as a tropical island and reached Australia.
af Chapman Stockholm, Sweden Sweden
Sweden
Full Rigged Ship A full rigged metal ship, built 1888.
USS Alabama Mobile, USA United States
United States
Battleship Received nine WWII battle stars, later joined by USS Drum.
Aurora St. Petersburg, Russia Russia
Russia
Protected cruiser Launched in 1900, survived the Battle of Tsushima and signaled the start of the October Revolution.
Balclutha San Francisco, USA United States
United States
Tall ship Launched in 1886, U.S. National Historic Landmark.
HMS Belfast London, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Light cruiser Only surviving cruiser built during the 1930s. Mined in 1939 and later assisted in the sinking of the battleship Scharnhorst and provided gunfire support on D-Day and during the Korean War.
ORP Błyskawica Gdynia, Poland Poland
Poland
Destroyer Oldest surviving destroyer, escaped from Poland just before the German invasion began in 1939.
USS Bowfin Pearl Harbor, USA United States
United States
Submarine Fought in the Pacific Theater of World War II.
HMY Britannia Edinburgh, Scotland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Royal Yacht / Hospital ship (designed for potential conversion) The last British Royal Yacht.
USS Cairo (1861) Vicksburg, USA USA
United States
Ironclad warship Only preserved Union ironclad from the American Civil War, raised in 1964 and reconstructed at Vicksburg National Military Park.
Cap San Diego Hamburg, Germany Germany
Germany
Bulk carrier Combination cargo/passenger ship formerly used on the South American run.
MV Cape Don Sydney, Australia Australia
Australia
Lighthouse tender She was used to service lighthouse buoys and lightships on the Australian coast.
HMS Cavalier Chatham, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Destroyer Only preserved British World War II destroyer.
USS Cavalla Galveston, USA United States
United States
Submarine fought in the Pacific Theater of World War II.
INS Chapal (K94) Karwar, India India
India
Missile boat Commissioned in 1976, it is an example of the type of missile boats used with deadly effect in the Indo-Pakistan War of 1971.
Charles W. Morgan Mystic Seaport, USA United States
United States
Whaler Wooden 19th century whaler, only such U.S. ship remaining.
USS Cod Cleveland, USA United States
United States
Submarine fought in the Pacific Theater of World War II.
USS Constellation Baltimore, USA United States
United States
Sloop-of-War At one point considered to be one of USS Constitution's sister ships, she is the only surviving American Civil War-era warship.
USS Constitution Boston, USA United States
United States
Frigate Oldest commissioned warship afloat.
Cutty Sark Greenwich, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Clipper Only surviving clipper ship. Heavily damaged by fire in 2007, under restoration to reopen in 2012.[8]
Drazki Varna, Bulgaria Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Torpedo boat The only surviving example of a large steam-powered torpedo boat. Built in 1907, she saw action during the Balkan Wars including a successful torpedo attack on a Turkish cruiser.
Elissa Galveston, USA United States
United States
Tall ship One of the oldest tall ships still active, launched in 1877; U.S. National Historic Landmark.
Enrico Toti (S 506) Milan, Italy Italy
Italy
Submarine Completed 1968 - decommissioned 1992 - Museum ship in Milan, named after World War I Italian war hero Enrico Toti.
Falls of Clyde Honolulu, USA United States
United States
Full Rigged Ship World's last surviving iron-hulled, four masted full-rigged ship and worlds only sail-driven oil tanker.
HMS Gannet Chatham, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Sloop-of-war Only surviving example of a steam-powered sloop.
Georgios Averof Faliron, Greece Greece
Greece
Armored cruiser Former flagship of the Greek Navy. Last surviving armored cruiser in the world.
Gorch Fock Stralsund, Germany Germany, Soviet Union
Germany, Soviet Union
Barque Kriegsmarine school ship scuttled at the end of World War II, raised and re-used by the Soviet Union.
SS Great Britain Bristol, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Ocean liner A Brunel design, Great Britain was the first ocean-going ship to have screw propeller and an iron hull.
HMCS Haida Hamilton, Canada Canada
Canada
Destroyer Tribal class destroyer, one of the most successful ships of World War II.
Hiddensee Fall River, USA East Germany
East Germany
Missile Corvette The only Russian-designed Tarantul I class on public display in the world.
Hikawa Maru Yokohama, Japan Japan
Japan
Ocean liner / Hospital ship One of the few pre-war Japanese merchantmen to survive World War II , she served in the Imperial Japanese Navy as a hospital ship before returning to civilian use after the war.
HNoMS Hitra Haakonsvern, Norway Norway
Norway
Submarine chaser Used by the Shetland Bus, a Norwegian special command based in the Shetland Isles during World War II. Owned by the Royal Norwegian Navy Museum in Horten, while sailing under naval command in the summer season.
Holland 1 Gosport, United Kingdom United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Submarine Laid down in 1900 was the first submarine commissioned by the Royal Navy.
USS Hornet Alameda, USA United States
United States
Aircraft carrier World War II Essex-class aircraft carrier, launched on August 30, 1943. Famous for recovering the capsule of Apollo 11.
Huáscar Talcahuano, Chile Peru, Chile
Peru,Chile
Ironclad Launched in 1865, Huáscar is the oldest surviving ironclad turret ship. She survived a battle with a British squadron in 1877 and played a significant part in the 1879 War of the Pacific, later seized by the Chilean fleet.
USS Intrepid New York City, USA United States
United States
Aircraft carrier World War II Essex-class aircraft carrier, launched on April 26, 1943 and now part of the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum.
Jylland Ebeltoft, Denmark Denmark
Denmark
Screw frigate Veteran of the Battle of Heligoland, she is the last surviving wooden screw frigate.
INS Kursura (S20) Visakhapatnam, India India
India
Submarine Commissioned on December 18, 1969, it was one of the first submarines to serve in the Indian Navy. It was deployed during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
USS Laffey Charleston, USA United States
United States
Destroyer Hit by four bombs and six kamikazes off Okinawa, earning the nickname "The Ship That Wouldn't Die".
USS Lexington Corpus Christi, USA United States
United States
Aircraft carrier Served in World War II and subsequently served as a training ship for three decades' worth of US Navy air crews. Lexington is the oldest surviving aircraft carrier still intact.
Mary Rose Portsmouth, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Carrack Built 1510-12, she was one of the earliest purpose-built warships to serve in the Royal Navy. Sank 1545. Raised 1982.
USS Massachusetts Fall River, USA United States
United States
Battleship Served in World War II.
USS Midway San Diego, USA United States
United States
Aircraft carrier Served from 1946 to Desert Storm.
Mikasa Yokosuka, Japan Japan
Japan
Battleship Last surviving pre-dreadnought battleship. Admiral Togo's flagship at the Battle of Tsushima.
Minsk Shenzhen, China Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Aircraft carrier
USS Missouri (BB-63) Pearl Harbor, USA United States
United States
Battleship Site of the Japanese surrender ceremony that ended World War II.
USS Nautilus Groton, USA United States
United States
Submarine World's first nuclear-powered vessel.
Nazario Sauro (S 518) Genoa, Italy Italy
Italy
Submarine Decommissioned 2002; since September 2009, this unit has been a museum ship in Genoa.
USS New Jersey Camden, USA United States
United States
Battleship One of the longest-serving warships of the twentieth century. Most decorated battleship.
USS North Carolina Wilmington, USA United States
United States
Battleship Served in every post-Midway campaign of the Pacific Theater during World War II.
HMS Ocelot Chatham, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Submarine Was the last submarine built for the Royal Navy at historic Royal Dockyard in Chatham.
USS Olympia Philadelphia, USA United States
United States
Protected cruiser Commodore Dewey's flagship during the Battle of Manila Bay. Only surviving ship from the Spanish-American War and from the Great White Fleet.
USS Becuna Philadelphia, USA United States
United States
Submarine Launched in January 1944 and received four battle stars during World War II.
HMS Onyx Barrow-in-Furness, United Kingdom United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Submarine The only non-nuclear submarine of the Royal Navy to take part in the Falklands War.
Passat Travemünde, Germany Germany
Germany
Barque Four-masted flying P-Liner, sister ship of Pamir.
Peking New York City, USA United States
United States
Barque Four-masted flying P-Liner.
Pommern Mariehamn, Åland Finland
Finland
Barque Four-masted flying P-Liner and the world's last four-masted steel barque still in original condition as a cargo ship.
RMS Queen Mary Long Beach, USA United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Ocean Liner Famous Cunard liner. Now a museum, with its first-class staterooms used as hotel rooms; used frequently for film and television.
HNoMS Rap Horten, Norway Norway
Norway
Torpedo boat One of the first torpedo craft, a class of warship that revolutionized naval warfare during the late nineteenth century.
USS Pueblo Pyongyang, North Korea United States
United States
Technical research ship Captured by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 1968.
HMCS Sackville Halifax, Canada Canada
Canada
Corvette Flower class convoy escort. Last surviving example of one of the most important ship classes of World War Two.
USS Salem Quincy, USA United States
United States
Heavy cruiser Only surviving example of a heavy cruiser.
NS Savannah Mount Pleasant, USA United States
United States
Nuclear merchant ship The only American nuclear-powered freighter ever built and one of a handful of nuclear-powered civilian ships built worldwide.
USS Slater Albany, USA United States
United States
Destroyer escort Currently the only memorial/museum ship of this type afloat in North America.
HMS Småland Gothenburg, Sweden Sweden
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg
Destroyer Launched in 1956, the Småland became one of the first destroyers to carry missiles as part of her armament.
Star of India San Diego, USA United Kingdom, United States
United Kingdom,United States
Tall ship One of the oldest tall ships still active, the Star of India was launched in 1863. U.S. National Historic Landmark
Sundowner Ramsgate, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Pinnace Built as a steam launch for the Royal Navy, later purchased by Charles Lightoller, Second Officer of the Titanic. Participated in the evacuation of Dunkirk.
USCGC Taney Baltimore, USA United States
United States
Cutter One of only two U.S. ships still afloat that were present at the Pearl Harbor attack, the other being the harbor tug USS Hoga.
USS Texas Houston, USA United States
United States
Battleship Oldest surviving dreadnought battleship. Served in Veracruz Expedition, WWI, and WWII. Berthed in the San Jacinto Monument Historic Park.
HMS Trincomalee Hartlepool, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Frigate The oldest British warship still afloat.
HMS Unicorn Dundee, Scotland United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Frigate Only example of a wooden frigate 'in ordinary', or in a reserve fleet.
German submarine U-505 Chicago, USA Germany
Germany
Submarine Type IXC U-boat captured by the United States Navy in 1944.
U-534 Birkenhead, England Germany
Germany
Submarine Type IXC sunk 3 May 1945 in the Baltic and raised in 1993. It is now displayed in sections at the Woodside terminal of the Mersey Ferries at Birkenhead.[9]
U-995 Laboe, Germany Germany, Norway
Germany,Norway
Submarine Only remaining Type VIIC/41 U-boat. After World War Two she became the Norwegian KNM Kaura.
Wilhelm Bauer (U-2540) Bremerhaven, Germany Germany
Germany
Submarine Only remaining Type XXI U-boat. After World War Two she was raised from the Baltic Sea and renamed Wilhelm Bauer.
HMAS Vampire Sydney, Australia Australia
Australia
Destroyer Largest warship preserved in the Southern Hemisphere.
Vasa Stockholm, Sweden Sweden
Naval Ensign of Sweden.svg
Galleon The world's only almost fully preserved 17th century warship. Sank on her maiden voyage in 1628 and salvaged in 1961.
INS Vela (S40) Tamil Nadu, India India
India
Submarine Commissioned in 1973, it was one of the first submarines to serve in the Indian Navy.
HMS Victory Portsmouth, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Ship of the line Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar. Remains the flagship of the Royal Navy (though permanently in drydock) and is the oldest ship in commission in any navy.
INS Vikrant Mumbai, India India, United Kingdom
India, United Kingdom
Aircraft carrier Commissioned on 4 March 1961, the carrier served the Indian Navy till January 31, 1997 and played a key role in the blockade of East Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
HMS Warrior Portsmouth, England United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Armored Frigate Launched in 1860, Warrior was the first ocean-going iron hulled ship of its type.
USS Wisconsin Norfolk, USA United States
United States
Battleship Served in various conflicts since World War II.
USS Yorktown Mount Pleasant, USA United States
United States
Aircraft carrier Launched on January 21, 1943 and served throughout the Pacific during World War II
Delfín (S-61) Torrevieja, Spain Spain
Spain
submarine Comisionated 1 January 1974, opened as museum ship 8 May 2004.[10]
Frigate Dom Fernando II e Glória Almada, Portugal Portugal
Portugal
(Sailing) Frigate It was built in Daman[disambiguation needed ] and launched on October, 1843. It was the last sailing frigate of Portuguese Navy during is service time (1845 - 1878).It burnt in 1963 in the river Tagus and remained until 1992 when the restoration process began. In 1998 fully recovered it was part of the exhibit of Expo '98
HMAS Castlemaine Williamstown, Victoria, Australia Australia
Australia
Corvette Commissioned in 1942 , opened as museum ship in 1973

See also

References

  1. ^ Activities of the Historic Naval Ships Association (the international Historic Naval Ships Association website. Accessed 2008-06-06.)
  2. ^ About The Historic Naval Ships Association (the international Historic Naval Ships Association website. Accessed 2008-06-06.)
  3. ^ a b Museum ships built in 1999: Remarks on the reconstruction of historical inland and sea-going vessels (abstract) - Ingo Heidbrink, Ingo; Deutsches Schiffahrtsarchiv (DSA) 22, 1999, Page 43–58
  4. ^ Conference Proceedings (from the 'Third International Conference on the Technical Aspects of the Preservation of Historic Vessels' (1997) webpage on the San Francisco Maritime Park Association website)
  5. ^ The "Barcelona Charter", European Charter for the Conservation and Restoration of Traditional Ships in Operation - Ingo Heidbrink (editor), Bremen (Hauschildt Verlag, 2003
  6. ^ Conserving Unique and Historic Ships - Kearon, John; Head of Shipkeeping, Industrial and Land Transport Conservation, Merseyside Maritime Museum, paper from the 'Third International Conference on the Technical Aspects of the Preservation of Historic Vessels' (1997) webpage on the San Francisco Maritime Park Association website
  7. ^ A Proposal to Recreate the Royal Yacht Ha'Aheo o Hawai'i (Pride of Hawaii) (International Historic Watercraft Society, via a website of the USCIS Regional Center Immigrant Investor Program. Accessed 2008-03-26.)
  8. ^ "Mayor and PM reveal Cutty Sark restoration delay". BBC News. 4 February 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/london/8498236.stm. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  9. ^ About U-534 (from the 'merseyferries.co.uk' website. Accessed 2009-01-04.)
  10. ^ Museo flotante submarino S-61 Delfín (spanish)

Further reading

  • Aymar, B. (1967). A pictorial treasury of the marine museums of the world; A guide to the maritime collections, restorations, replicas, and marine museums in twenty-three countries. New York: Crown.
  • Evans, M. H., & West, J. (1998). Maritime museums: A guide to the collections and museum ships in Britain and Ireland. London: Chatham Pub.
  • Stammers, M. (1978). Discovering maritime museums and historic ships. Discovering series, no. 228. Aylesbury [England]: Shire Publications
  • Sullivan, D. (1978). Old ships, boats & maritime museums. London: Coracle Books.
  • Heidbrink, I. (1994). Schrott oder Kulturgut. Zur Bewertung historischer Wasserfahrzeuge aus der Perspektive des Historikers. Bestandserfassung - Bewertung - quellengerechte Erhaltung. Lage / Lippe: Fritz Heidbrink.

External links



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • US Brig Niagara (museum ship) — The modern U.S. Brig Niagara is a museum ship and sail training vessel located in Erie, Pennsylvania at the Erie Maritime Museum. The Niagara is a reconstruction of the first U.S. Brig Niagara , a brig which played a pivotal role in the Battle of …   Wikipedia

  • Museum and historic ships of the Great Lakes — This is a list of museum ships and boats of the Great Lakes, North America, including surviving hulls, museum and/or historic ships at risk, other surviving historic hulls and interesting partial ships of note, etc. Contents 1 Museum ships and… …   Wikipedia

  • Ship replica — A ship replica is a reconstruction of a no longer existing ship. Replicas can range from authentically reconstructed, fully seaworthy ships, to ships of modern construction that give an impression of a historic vessel. Some replicas may not even… …   Wikipedia

  • Ship — A ship IPA|/ʃɪp/ audio|en us ship.ogg|Audio (US) is a large vessel that floats on water. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size. Ships may be found on lakes, seas, and rivers and they allow for a variety of activities, such as …   Wikipedia

  • Ship commissioning — Hundreds attend the commissioning ceremony for the nuclear powered aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan …   Wikipedia

  • Ship decommissioning — Crew members and guest salute as the colors are paraded at the decommissioning ceremony of the salvage and rescue ship Grasp …   Wikipedia

  • Ship-Submarine Recycling Program — The Ship/Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) is the process the United States Navy uses to dispose of decommissioned nuclear vessels. SRP takes place only at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) in Bremerton, Washington, but the preparations can… …   Wikipedia

  • Ship's tender — A ship s tender, usually referred to as a tender, is a boat, or a larger ship used to service a ship, generally by transporting people and/or supplies to and from shore or another ship. Smaller boats may also have tenders, usually called dinghies …   Wikipedia

  • Museum of Cultural History — (Kulturhistorisk museum (KHM)) is an organisation at the University of Oslo, Norway. It was established in 1999 as Universitetets kulturhistoriske museum with the merging of the bodies Oldsaksamlingen (including the Viking Ship Museum at Bygdøy) …   Wikipedia

  • Museum of Fine Arts, Boston — Established 1870 Location 465 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 Visitor figures Over 1 million …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”