Flower class corvette

Flower class corvette

Royal Canadian Navy

Royal Netherlands Navy

United States Navy

Royal New Zealand Navy

Vessels lost in action

Battle credits

* "U-26" was sunk by warship|HMS|Gladiolus|K34 on 1940-07-01.
*Italian submarine "Nani" was sunk by warship|HMS|Anemone|K48 on 1941-01-07
*"U-70" was sunk by warship|HMS|Camellia|K31 and warship|HMS|Arbutus|K86 on 1941-03-07
*"U-110" was captured on 1941-05-09 by the destroyers warship|HMS|Bulldog|1930 and warship|HMS|Broadway|H90 and the corvette warship|HMS|Aubretia|K96. "U-110" was sunk the next day to preserve the secret.
*"U-147" was sunk by the destroyer warship|HMS|Wanderer|D74 and warship|HMS|Periwinkle|K55 on 1941-06-02
* "U-556" was sunk by warship|HMS|Nasturtium|K107, warship|HMS|Celandine|K75, and warship|HMS|Gladiolus|K34 on 1941-06-17
*"U-651" was sunk by the destroyers warship|HMS|Malcolm|D19, warship|HMS|Scimitar|H21, the corvettes warship|HMS|Arabis|K73 and warship|HMS|Violet|K35, and the minesweeper warship|HMS|Speedwell|J87 on 1941-06-29
*"U-401" was sunk by the destroyers warship|HMS|Wanderer|D74 and warship|HNoMS|St. Albans|I15 and the corvette warship|HMS|Hydrangea|K39 on 1941-08-03
*"U-501" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Chambly|K116 and warship|HMCS|Moosejaw|K164 on 1941-09-10
*Italian submarine "Fisalia" was sunk by warship|HMS|Hyacinth|K84 on 1941-09-28
*"U-204" was sunk by warship|HMS|Mallow|K81 and the sloop warship|HMS|Rochester|L50 on 1941-10-19
*"U-433" was sunk by warship|HMS|Marigold|K87 on 1941-11-16
*"U-131" was sunk by the destroyers warship|HMS|Exmoor|L08, warship|HMS|Blankney|L30, warship|HMS|Stanley|I73, the corvette warship|HMS|Pentstemon|K61, the sloop warship|HMS|Stork|L81, and a Martlet aircraft from warship|HMS|Audacity|D10 on 1941-12-17
*"U-567" was sunk by the sloop warship|HMS|Deptford|L53 and warship|HMS|Samphire|K128 on 1941-12-21
*"U-356" was sunk by the destroyer warship|HMCS|St. Laurent|H83, warship|HMCS|Chilliwack|K131, warship|HMCS|Battleford|K165 and warship|HMCS|Napanee|K118 on 1942-12-27
*"U-756" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Morden|K170 on 1942-09-01
*"U-94" was sunk by an American Catalina seaplane and warship|HMCS|Oakville|K178 on 1942-08-28
*"U-588" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Wetaskiwin|K175 and the destroyer warship|HMCS|Skeena|D59 on 1942-07-31
*"U-379" was sunk by warship|HMS|Dianthus|K95 on 1942-08-08
*Italian submarine "Perla" was captured by warship|HMS|Hyacinth|K84 on 1942-07-09
*"U-660" was scuttled after being damaged by warship|HMS|Lotus|K130 and warship|HMS|Starwort|K20 on 1942-11-12
*"U-124" was sunk by warship|HMS|Stonecrop|K142 and the sloop warship|HMS|Black Swan|L57 on 1942-04-02
*"U-82" was sunk by the sloop warship|HMS|Rochester|L50 and warship|HMS|Tamarisk|K216 on 1942-02-06
*"U-252" was sunk by the sloop warship|HMS|Stork|L81 and warship|HMS|Vetch|K132 on 1942-04-14
*"U-432" was sunk by the corvette warship|FFL|Aconit|K58 on 1943-03-11
*"U-444" was sunk by the destroyer warship|HMS|Harvester|H19 and the corvette warship|FFL|Aconit|K58 on 1943-03-11
*"U-609" was sunk by the corvette warship|FFL|Lobelia|K05 on 1943-02-07
*"U-536" was sunk by the frigate warship|HMS|Nene|K270, warship|HMCS|Snowberry|K166 and warship|HMCS|Calgary|K231 on 1943-11-20
*"U-753" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Drumheller|K167, the frigate warship|HMS|Lagan|K259, and a Canadian Sunderland seaplane on 1943-05-13
*Italian submarine "Tritone" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Port Arthur|K233 and the destroyer warship|HMS|Antelope|H36 on 1943-01-19
*"U-163" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Prescott|K161 on 1943-03-13
*Italian submarine "Avorio" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Regina|K234 on 1943-02-08
*"U-87" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Shediac|K110 and the destroyer warship|HMCS|St. Croix|I81 on 1943-03-04
*"U-224" was sunk by warship|HMCS|Ville de Quebec|K242 on 1943-01-13
*"U-135" was sunk by the sloop warship|HMS|Rochester|L50, the corvettes warship|HMS|Mignonette|K38 and warship|HMS|Balsam|K72, and an American PBY Catalina aircraft on 1943-07-15
*"U-306" was sunk by the destroyer warship|HMS|Whitehall|D94 and warship|HMS|Geranium|K16 on 1943-10-31
*"U-617" was destroyed while grounded by warship|HMS|Hyacinth|K84 and the minesweeper warship|HMAS|Wollongong|J172 on 1943-09-12
*"U-436" was sunk by the frigate warship|HMS|Test|K239 and warship|HMS|Hyderabad|K212 on 1943-05-26
*"U-192" was sunk by warship|HMS|Loosestrife|K105 on 1943-05-06
*"U-125" was sunk by the destroyer warship|HMS|Oribi|G66 and warship|HMS|Snowflake|K211 on 1943-05-06
*"U-634" was sunk by the sloop warship|HMS|Stork|L81 and warship|HMS|Stonecrop|K142 on 1943-08-30
*"U-638" was sunk by warship|HMS|Sunflower|K41 on 1943-05-05
*"U-631" was sunk by warship|HMS|Sunflower|K41 on 1943-10-17
*"U-282" was sunk by the destroyers warship|HMS|Vidette|D48 and warship|HMS|Duncan|D99 and the corvette warship|HMS|Sunflower|K41 on 1943-10-29
*"U-414" was sunk by warship|HMS|Vetch|K132. on 1943-05-25
*"U-523" was sunk by the destroyer warship|HMS|Wanderer|D74 and warship|HMS|Wallflower|K44 on 1943-08-25
*"U-757" was sunk by the frigate warship|HMS|Bayntun|K310 and warship|HMCS|Camrose|K154 on 1944-01-08
*"U-744" was sunk by the destroyers warship|HMS|Icarus|D03, warship|HMCS|Chaudiere|H99, warship|HMCS|Gatineau|H61, the frigate warship|HMCS|St. Catharines|K325, and the corvettes warship|HMCS|Fennel|K194, warship|HMCS|Chilliwack|K131, and warship|HMS|Kenilworth Castle|K42 on 1944-03-06
*"U-741" was sunk by warship|HMS|Orchis|K76 on 1944-08-15
*"U-641" was sunk by warship|HMS|Violet|K35 on 1944-01-19
*"U-845" was sunk by the destroyers warship|HMS|Forester|H74 and warship|HMCS|St. Laurent|H83, the corvette warship|HMCS|Owen Sound|K340 and the frigate warship|HMCS|Swansea|K328 on 1944-03-10
*"U-1199" was sunk by the destroyer warship|HMS|Icarus|D03 and warship|HMS|Mignonette|K38 on 1945-01-21

Post-war use

The relatively small Flowers were among the first warships to be declared surplus by Allied navies following the end of World War II. They had seen years of hard service in the North Atlantic and were made obsolete by the numerous large frigates, destroyers, and cruisers that entered service in the latter part of the war.

32 vessels from the RN, RCN, and USN were transferred to Argentina, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Greece, India, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, and Venezuela. These were typically operated according to their original design, as coastal patrol vessels, with many serving until the 1970s.

The Irish Navy bought three Flowers in 1946 (warship|LE|Macha, warship|LE|Cliona, and warship|LE|Maeve). The fledgling navy had intended to purchase an additional three corvettes, as well as a number of surplus minesweepers, but severe budget restrictions cancelled these plans, leaving the original three to serve alone through the 1960s and 1970s, despite antiquated armament, poor accommodation, and maintenance problems. Entry into the EEC in 1973 resulted in funding for replacement ships.

110 surplus Flowers were sold for commercial use. These saw various careers as mercantile freighters, smugglers, tugs, weather ships, and whalers. The remainder were scrapped. Of particular interest is the story of warship|HMCS|Sudbury|K162. She was declared surplus by the RCN and sold as a towboat specializing in deep-sea salvage. In November 1955, she rescued the freighter "Makedonia" in the North Pacific, towing the vessel for over one month through severe weather, becoming one of the most famous salvage ships of all time.

The surplus RCN Flowers warship|HMCS|Norsyd|K520 and warship|HMCS|Beauharnois|K540 were sold as mercantile freighters but were subsequently acquired in 1946 by the "Mossad Le'aliyah Bet", a branch of the Jewish Defense Association ("Haganah") in the British Mandate of Palestine. "Mossad Le'aliyah Bet" organized Jewish immigration from Europe into Palestine, in violation of unilateral British restrictions. The corvettes were intercepted in the Mediterranean Sea during the summer of 1946 by the destroyer warship|HMS|Venus|R50 and interned in Palestine. After Israel became independent in 1948, these commercial ships were commissioned into the Israeli Navy as the warships "Hashomer" and "Hagana" respectively.

Allied navies disposed of their Flowers so quickly following the war, the RN could not supply a single vessel to play "Compass Rose" in the 1953 film production of Nicholas Monsarrat's novel "The Cruel Sea". The Royal Hellenic Navy supplied warship|RHS|Kriezis|K32 (formerly the warship|HMS|Coreopsis|K32) for the role prior to her scrapping.

The only survivor of the entire class is warship|HMCS|Sackville|K181, owned by the Canadian Naval Memorial Trust. She was laid up in reserve in March 1946 and converted in 1952 to a research vessel for Canadian Department of Marine and Fisheries, a role she served in until the early 1980s when she was acquired by the trust.cite web | url = http://www.cbrnp.com/RNP/Flower/ARTICLES/Sackville.htm | title = HMCS "Sackville": The last flower (1941-2000) | work = History in Illustration | accessdate=2008-06-10 ] She has been restored to her wartime appearance and serves the summer months as a museum ship on loan to the Maritime Museum of the Atlantic in Halifax, Nova Scotia, while wintering securely in the naval dockyard at CFB Halifax under the care of Maritime Forces Atlantic, Maritime Command. "Sackville"'s presence in Halifax is considered very appropriate, given the port was an important North American convoy assembly port during the war. "Sackville" makes her first appearance each spring when she is towed by a naval tug from HMC Dockyard to a location off Point Pleasant Park on the first Sunday in May to participate in the "Commemoration of the Battle of the Atlantic" ceremonies held at a memorial in the park overlooking the entrance to Halifax Harbour. "Sackville" typically hosts several dozen RCN veterans on this day and has also participated in several burials at sea for dispersing the ashes of RCN veterans of the Battle of the Atlantic at this location.

Trivia

* Nicholas Monsarrat wrote the best-known fictionalised account of Flower-class corvette operations in his novel "The Cruel Sea". "Three Corvettes", a less well known volume by the same author is a collection of wartime essays of his personal experiences as an officer onboard a Flower, although only the first part deals with North Atlantic convoy escort duties.
* Derek Rayner wrote "Escort", a first-hand account of his experiences as an officer aboard a Flower.
* James B. Lamb wrote "The Corvette Navy", which accounts the use of these vessels by the RCN during World War II.
* Alex H. Cherry wrote "Yankee R N", the story of a Wall Street banker who volunteered for active duty in the RN, including details of Flower operations.
* Hugh Garner wrote "Storm Below" which provides a detailed account of "Flower"-class corvettes and the stresses of shipboard life during World War II.
* Robert Radcliffe wrote "Upon Dark Waters", a fictionalized account of Flower-class corvette HMS "Daisy", set in 1942 on the North Atlantic.
* Peter Coy, who served in HMS Narcissus in the North Atlantic between June 1942 and August 1944, wrote 'The Echo of a Fighting Flower' about her and B3 Escort Group, comprising 2 British and 4 Free French corvettes.

* Ship modellers have been attracted to this class of ship for a variety of reasons. The class has an extensive history of war service, and the original was small enough to mean a model of about convert|2|ft|m|abbr=on in length can support considerable detail.
* Since the class was used by many nations, and had almost unlimited modifications, there is a lot of scope for individual variation. The result is a wide variety of modelling kits are available from many manufacturers, and almost all United Kingdom, United States, and Canadian model boat clubs will have at least one owner of a Flower-class model.Fact|date=November 2007. Revell makes a 1/72 scale kit of warship|HMCS|Snowberry|K166.
* Many specialist model companies sell a variety of ancilary Flower detail items. Several model boat clubs are dedicated exclusively to modelling the class.

ee also

*Bathurst class corvette
*Whale catcher

Notes

References

* McKay, J. and J. Harland. "The Flower Class Corvette Agassiz." Conway Maritime Press, 1993. ISBN 0815779751.
* Lambert, J. and A. Raven. "Flower Class Corvettes in World War II." White Raven Press, 2000.
*

External links

* [http://theflowerclasscorvetteforums.yuku.com/ The Flower Class Corvette Forums] A dedicated discussion forum which maintains the largest online collection of Flower Class Corvette images and accessible historical documents.
* [http://uboat.net/ uboat.net] has pages on the [http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/class.html?ID=42 original] and [http://www.uboat.net/allies/warships/class.html?ID=41 revised] Flower classes.
* [http://www.fcca.demon.co.uk/ The Flower Class Corvette Association]
* [http://www.hmcssackville-cnmt.ns.ca/ HMCS "Sackville" - The Last Corvette]
* [http://imdb.com/title/tt0035757/ "Corvette K-225" -- a 1943 film] (the real K225 was HMCS "Kitchener")
* [http://www.cbrnp.com/RNP/Flower/contents.htm Flower Class Corvettes] by Bob Pearson & Chris Banyai-Riepl
* [http://imdb.com/title/tt0107414/ 1993 film "Lifeline to Victory"] -- filmed aboard "Sackville"
* [http://www.platenboring.prodigynet.co.uk/violet/ HMS Violet]
*http://www.mikekemble.com/ww2/walker.html/ Captain Walker RN
* [http://www.pq17.eclipse.co.uk/ Diary of a Petty Officer on HMS "La Malouine" during Convoy PQ.17.]


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