Bathurst class corvette

Bathurst class corvette

The "Bathurst" class corvettes were a class of minesweepers produced in Australia during World War II. 60 "Bathurst" class corvettes in total were commissioned; 36 for the Royal Australian Navy, 20 for the British Admiralty (although ordered by the UK they were crewed by Australians, operated in the antipodes and were absorbed into the RAN after the war), and 4 for the Indian Navy."Corvette Links"] They were based on the Royal Navy's "Bangor" class minesweeper, but all 60 ships were designed and constructed in Australia.Information plaque, "Corvettes" memorial, Royal Australian Navy Heritage Centre]

Design and construction

In the late 1930s, the Australian Commonwealth Naval Board identified the need to design a 'local defense vessel' that was easy to construct and operate.David Stevens (2005). "A Critical Vulnerability", pg 103] The ships had to be capable of both anti-submarine and mine-warfare duties. Early specifications required a design of approximately 500 tons, with a speed of at least ten knots, a range of 2,000 nautical miles, and a 4-inch gun, two depth charge throwers, and two depth charge chutes as minimum armaments.

In 1937, three ships were ordered by the RAN for use as Boom Defense Vessels. The plan was altered in early 1938 to require only two ships; the third, HMAS "Kangaroo" was earmarked to be constructed as a prototype local defense vessel. [David Stevens (2005). "A Critical Vulnerability", pp 103-104] The RAN's Director of Engineering was instructed to prepare plans for the ship in July 1938, which were completed six months later.David Stevens (2005). "A Critical Vulnerability", pg 104] The ship was to weigh 680 tons, with a speed of 15.5 knots, and a range of 2,850 miles. "Kangaroo" would have been armed with two 4-inch guns and depth charges, and equipped with asdic. The design was based loosely on the United Kingdom's "Bangor" class minesweepers and "Flower" class corvettes, but the Australian-designed vessel was larger and better suited for Australian conditions. Before construction could begin, the number of boom vessels was increased back to three, and "Kangaroo" was laid down to that design.

Although the "Kangaroo" prototype was never built, the design was retained, and in September 1939 the Australian Commonwealth Naval Board approved the construction of seven ships corresponding to the design.David Stevens (2005). "A Critical Vulnerability", pg 105] Additional orders were quickly placed by the RAN, the British Admiralty and the Royal Indian Navy, with 60 ships constructed over the course of World War II; 36 were commissioned into the RAN, 20 were manned by RAN personnel but were paid for by the Admiralty, and 4 were built for the Royal Indian Navy. The ships were officially designated "Australian Minesweepers" (AMS) to hide their intended anti-submarine role, although the "Bathurst"s were popularly referred to as corvettes.David Stevens et al. (2001). "The Royal Australian Navy", pg 108] Although the design was not perfectly suited for any specific role, the all-round general capability for minesweeping, patrol, and escort duties was seen as a good short term solution until better vessels could be requesitioned or constructed.Hector Donohue (1996). "From Empire Defence to the Long Haul", pg 29] David Stevens (2005). "A Critical Vulnerability", pg 148]

Construction of the ships required a significant expansion of the Australian shipbuilding industry. This was achieved by bringing disused dockyards back into production and establishing new facilities. [Mellor (1958), p 455.] The lead shipyard was Cockatoo Island Dockyard in Sydney, which laid down the first ship in February 1940, and produced a further seven vessels.David Stevens (2005). "A Critical Vulnerability", pg 152] Mellor (1958), p 457.] The other seven shipyards involved were Walkers Limited in Maryborough, Queensland (7 ships), Evans Deakin & Co in Brisbane (11 ships), Morts Dock & Engineering Co in Sydney (14 ships), Poole & Steele Limited in Sydney (7 ships), NSW State Dockyard at Newcastle, New South Wales (1 ship), HMA Naval Dockyard at Williamstown, Victoria (8 ships), and Broken Hill Pty Co Ltd at Whyalla, South Australia (4 ships).Geroge Gill (1968). "Royal Australian Navy, 1942-1945", pg 104] The initial rate of construction was slow, due to a variety of factors: industrial problems, restrictive work practices, and a lack of qualified labour primary among them. Despite initial predictions that two vessels per month would enter service through 1941, the RAN was advised at the end of 1940 that only seven would be completed by the end of the next year. Rate of construction increased by late 1941, although the increasing need of shipbuilding resources for repairs as the war progressed slowed the rate of construction back down. [David Stevens et al. (2001). "The Royal Australian Navy", pgs 121, 132]

Role

The "Bathurst" class ships were designed as minesweepers, but the demands of the war saw them perform many roles outside of their original design.cite web |url=http://www.navy.gov.au/w/index.php/HMAS_Toowoomba_%28I%29 |title=HMAS Toowoomba (I) |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work=HMA Ship Histories |publisher=Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy] They were primarily involved in convoy escort and anti-submarine warfare, although some vessels were used for hydrographic surveys, transporting troops and bombarding enemy positions. The "Bathurst"s were seen as 'maids of all work' by the RAN, even though the design was inappropriate for some roles; being too small, too slow, or inadequately armed or equipped for some tasks.

Armament and equipment

The most common armament for "Bathurst" class corvettes was 1 x 12-pounder gun, 3 x Oerlikon 20 mm cannons, 2 x Lewis .303 machine guns, and 2 x .303 Vickers machine guns. The corvettes carried up to 40 depth charges, which were deployed by 4 throwers and 2 chutes."HMAS Goulburn - HMA Ship Histories"] "HMAS Glenelg - HMA Ship Hisories"] Some of the corvettes were armed with a 4-inch Mk XIX HA gun instead of the 12-pounder gun, and at a point during the war many of the 12-pounder carrying corvettes were refitted with the 4-inch."HMAS Gympie - HMA Ship Histories"] Also, on many vessels, one of the Oerlikons was later replaced by a Bofors 40 mm gun.

Due to the variety of shipyards constructing the corvettes, as well as the varying roles "Bathurst" class ships were pressed into, there was no true standardisation of armament. Some ships varied significantly from the common armament profile. At one stage, HMAS "Geraldton" carried six Oerlikon cannons, a number later reduced to four."HMAS Geraldton (I) - HMA Ship Histories] HMAS "Junee" only carried a single 4-inch gun and a single 40 mm anti-aircraft gun, possibly the lightest armament on a "Bathurst" class corvette."HMAS Junee - HMA Ship Histories"]

The "Bathurst"'s were equipped with modified Type 128 asdic equipment, redesigned to be used without a gyroscopic stabiliser. [David Stevens (2005). "A Critical Vulnerability", pg 154-155]

Operators

Royal Australian Navy
*HMAS "Ararat"
*HMAS "Armidale"
*HMAS "Benalla"
*HMAS "Bendigo"
*HMAS "Bowen"
*HMAS "Bunbury"
*HMAS "Bundaberg"
*HMAS "Castlemaine"
*HMAS "Colac"
*HMAS "Cootamundra"
*HMAS "Cowra"
*HMAS "Deloraine"
*HMAS "Dubbo"
*HMAS "Echuca"
*HMAS "Fremantle"
*HMAS "Geelong"
*HMAS "Gladstone"
*HMAS "Glenelg"
*HMAS "Gympie"
*HMAS "Horsham"
*HMAS "Inverell"
*HMAS "Junee"
*HMAS "Kapunda"
*HMAS "Katoomba"

*HMAS "Kiama"
*HMAS "Latrobe"
*HMAS "Lithgow"
*HMAS "Mildura"
*HMAS "Parkes"
*HMAS "Rockhampton"
*HMAS "Shepparton"
*HMAS "Stawell"
*HMAS "Strahan"
*HMAS "Townsville"
*HMAS "Wagga"
*HMAS "Wallaroo"
*HMAS "Warrnambool"

Admiralty (later RAN)
*HMAS "Ballarat"
*HMAS "Bathurst"
*HMAS "Burnie"
*HMAS "Broome"
*HMAS "Cairns"
*HMAS "Cessnock"
*HMAS "Gawler"
*HMAS "Geraldton"
*HMAS "Goulburn"
*HMAS "Ipswich"
*HMAS "Kalgoorlie"
*HMAS "Launceston"
*HMAS "Lismore"
*HMAS "Maryborough"
*HMAS "Pirie"
*HMAS "Tamworth"
*HMAS "Toowoomba"
*HMAS "Whyalla"
*HMAS "Wollongong"

Indian Navy
*HMIS "Bengal"
*HMIS "Bombay"
*HMIS "Madras"
*HMIS "Punjab"

Fates

A total of 83 personnel were killed in service across the entire service life of the class.

The 56 corvettes commissioned as Australian vessels travelled a combined total of 6.7 million nautical miles (12.41 million kilometres, 7.71 million miles) during their service with the Royal Australian Navy.

urviving examples and monuments

Of the 60 vessels, only two examples remain. HMAS "Castlemaine" is a museum ship in Williamstown, Victoria. HMAS "Whyalla" is a land-based tourist attraction in Whyalla, South Australia.

A monument to the 56 Australian-operated corvettes is located at the Royal Australian Navy Heritage Centre, at Garden Island, Sydney. The monument, "Corvettes", was unveiled by Rear Admiral Peter Sinclair on November 12 1995. Also at Garden Island, Sydney, a stained glass window listing the names of the corvettes frames the upper balcony doors of the Naval Chapel.

Bibliography

*
* cite book |last=Gill |first=G. Hermon |title=Royal Australian Navy, 1942-1945 |origyear=1968
url=http://www.awm.gov.au/histories/chapter.asp?volume=25|format=PDF|accessdate=2007-05-14 |series=Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Series 2, Volume II |publisher=Australian War Memorial |location=Canberra |id=NLA registry number Aus 68-1798

*
* [http://www.navy.gov.au/w/index.php/Ship_Histories HMA Ship Histories] . Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy.
** cite web |url=http://www.navy.gov.au/w/index.php/HMAS_Geraldton_%28I%29 |title=HMAS Geraldton (I) |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work=HMA Ship Histories |publisher=Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy
** cite web |url=http://www.navy.gov.au/w/index.php/HMAS_Glenelg_%28I%29 |title=HMAS Glenelg (I) |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work=HMA Ship Histories |publisher=Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy
** cite web |url=http://www.navy.gov.au/w/index.php/HMAS_Goulburn_%28I%29 |title=HMAS Goulburn (I) |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work=HMA Ship Histories |publisher=Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy
** cite web |url=http://www.navy.gov.au/w/index.php/HMAS_Gympie_%28I%29 |title=HMAS Gympie (I) |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work=HMA Ship Histories |publisher=Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy
** cite web |url=http://www.navy.gov.au/w/index.php/HMAS_Junee_%28I%29 |title=HMAS Junee |accessdate=2008-08-21 |work=HMA Ship Histories |publisher=Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy

References


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Flower class corvette — Royal Canadian NavyRoyal Netherlands NavyUnited States NavyRoyal New Zealand NavyVessels lost in actionBattle credits* U 26 was sunk by warship|HMS|Gladiolus|K34 on 1940 07 01. *Italian submarine Nani was sunk by warship|HMS|Anemone|K48 on 1941… …   Wikipedia

  • Bathurst — may refer to:Places;In Australia: * Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia and the following things associated with the city ** Bathurst Regional Council, the local government area for the Bathurst urban area and rural surrounds ** Electoral… …   Wikipedia

  • Corvette — This article is about the type of warship. For the car, see Chevrolet Corvette. For other uses, see Corvette (disambiguation). Corvette French steam corvette Dupleix (1856–1887) …   Wikipedia

  • HMAS Bathurst — Two ships of the Royal Australian Navy have been named HMAS Bathurst after the city of Bathurst, New South Wales.* HMAS Bathurst (J158), name ship of the Bathurst class corvettes * HMAS Bathurst (ACPB 85), an Armidale class patrol boat …   Wikipedia

  • List of corvette classes — by country (see also List of frigate classes and List of frigate classes by country) Algeria ( Algerian Navy) * Nanuchka class Argentina (Argentine Navy) * Espora Class * Drummond Class (French built D Estienne d Orves class) Australia (Royal… …   Wikipedia

  • HMAS Bathurst (J158) — HMAS Bathurst (J158), named for the city of Bathurst, New South Wales, was the lead ship of 60 Bathurst class corvettes constructed during World War II and one of 20 built for the Admiralty but manned by personnel of and commissioned into the… …   Wikipedia

  • List of ship launches in 1940 — The list of ship launches in 1940 includes a chronological list of all ships launched in 1940. NOTOC !! style= text align: left; background: #aacccc; |Country! style= text align: left; background: #aacccc; |Builder! style= text align: left;… …   Wikipedia

  • Corvettes of the Royal New Zealand Navy — Historic ships of the Royal New Zealand Navy …   Wikipedia

  • HMAS Stawell — (J348/M348) was a Bathurst class corvette named for the town of Stawell, Victoria. Sixty Bathurst class corvettes were constructed during World War II, and Stawell was one of 36 initially manned and commissioned solely by the Royal Australian… …   Wikipedia

  • HMAS Armidale (J240) — HMAS Armidale (J240), named for the city of Armidale, New South Wales, was one of 60 Bathurst class corvettes constructed during World War II, and one of 36 initially manned and commissioned solely by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN).cite web |url …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”