A gunboat is literally a
boatcarrying one or more guns. The term is rather broad, and the usual connotation has changed over the years (sometimes encompassing vessels which would otherwise be considered ships).
Age of sail
age of sail, a gunboat was usually a small undecked vessel carrying a single smoothbore cannonin the bow. A gunboat could carry one or two masts or be oar-powered only, but the single-masted version of about 50 ft length was most typical. Some types of gunboats carried two cannons, or else mounted a number of swivel guns on the railings.
The advantages of this type of gunboat were that since it only carried a single cannon, that cannon could be quite heavy -- for instance a 32-pounder -- and that the boat could be maneuvered in shallow or restricted waters, where sailing was difficult for larger ships. A single hit from a frigate would demolish a gunboat, but a frigate facing a half-dozen gunboats in an estuary would likely be seriously damaged before it could manage to sink all of them. Gunboats were also easy and quick to build; the combatants in the 1776
Battle of Valcour Islandon New York's Lake Champlainwere mostly gunboats built on the spot.
All navies of the sailing era kept a number of gunboats on hand. Gunboats were a key part of the planned
Napoleon's invasion of Englandin 1804, and were heavily used by Denmark-Norway. Between 1803 and 1812, the US Navyhad a policy of basing the naval forces on coastal gunboats, and experimented with a variety of designs, but they were nearly useless in the War of 1812, and went back to being special-purpose vessels.
Civil War era
Gunboats experienced a revival in the
American Civil War, and was commonly used for armed sidewheel steamers. At first these were quickly converted from existing passenger-carrying boats, but later some boats were purposely built, such as the USS Miami (1861). They all frequently mounted a dozen guns or more, sometimes of rather large caliber, and were usually armored.
SMS "Panther", a famous gunboat diplomat from the
Early Modern era
In the later 19th century and early 20th century, "gunboat" was the common name for smaller armed vessels, often called "patrol gunboats". These could be classified, from the smallest to the largest, into
river gunboats, river monitors, coastal defense gunboats (such as the SMS Panther), and full-fledged monitors for coastal bombardments. When there would be few opportunities to re-coal sailboats were still used as gunboats; HMS Gannet, a sloop preserved at Chatham Historic Dockyard in the United Kingdom, is an example of this type of gunboat.
US Navy, these boats had the hull classification symbol"PG"; they usually displaced under 2,000 tons, were about 200 ft long, 10-15 feet draft and sometimes much less, and mounted several guns of caliber up to 5-6 inches. An important characteristic of these was the ability to operate in rivers, enabling them to reach inland targets in a way not otherwise possible before the development of aircraft. In this period, gunboats were used by the naval powers for police actions in colonies or weaker countries, for example in China. It is this category of gunboat that inspired the term " gunboat diplomacy".With the addition of torpedoes they became " torpedo gunboats".
World War II and beyond
During the Second World War the gunboat was for the
Royal Navya vessel identical to torpedo boats, but equipped with machine guns and larger weapons up to 57 mm in calibre for attacking enemy torpedo boats or small craft - the Motor Gun Boat(MGB).
World War II, the terms "motor gunboat" came to be used for smaller vessels, with displacements in the 50-ton range. US river gunboats in the Vietnam War, utilizing boats with mostly fiberglass hulls in the 9-ton range, became known as the " Brownwater Navy". [ [http://hnsa.org/class.htm#PT Historic Naval Ships Visitors Guide, "Escort and Patrol Vessels"] ]
Gunboats are still being built and operated around the world today, albeit mainly used for
* Chapter 4, "The Gunboat Navy", of
Howard Chapelle, " The History of the American Sailing Navy" (Norton, 1949)
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