War of the Pacific

War of the Pacific
War of the Pacific
Map of the War of the Pacific.en.svg
Map showing changes of territory due to the war
Date 14 February 1879 – 20 October 1883 (Chile-Peru Peace)

Bolivia-Chile armistice in 1884; peace with Bolivia signed 20 October 1904

Location Peru and Bolivia in Pacific coast of South America
Result Chilean victory, Bolivia became a landlocked country
  • Litoral Department (Antofagasta) ceded by Bolivia to Chile in 1904.
  • Tarapacá Department ceded by Peru to Chile in 1884.
  • Puna de Atacama ceded by Bolivia/Chile to Argentina in 1889/1899
  • Tarata occupied by Chile in 1885, return to Peru in 1925.
  • Arica province occupied by Chile in 1884, ceded by Peru in 1929.
  • Tacna (Sama River) occupied by Chile in 1884, return to Peru in 1929.
Peru Peru
Bolivia Bolivia
Chile Chile
Commanders and leaders
President of Peru

Peru Mariano Ignacio Prado (1876-1879)
Peru Nicolás de Piérola (1879-1881)
Peru Francisco García Calderón (12.Mar.1881-28.Sep.1881)
Peru Lizardo Montero Flores (1881-1883)
Peru Miguel Iglesias (North Peru 1882-1885)

President of Bolivia
Bolivia Hilarión Daza (1876-1879)
Bolivia Narciso Campero (1879-1884)

Commander in Chief of the Allied Army
Peru Juan Buendía
Bolivia Narciso Campero
Peru Pedro Silva
Peru Andrés A. Cáceres

Commander in Chief of the Peruvian Navy
Peru Miguel Grau †
Peru Aurelio García y García

President of Chile

Chile Anibal Pinto (1876-1881)
Chile Domingo Santa Maria (1881-1886)


Bolivian Army: 2,300 soldiers
Bolivian Navy: None
Peruvian Army: 4,700 soldiers
Remington and Minie rifles, Blakely cannon
Peruvian Navy: 2 ironclad, 2 coastal monitors, 1 corvette, 1 gunboat

December 1880
Peruvian Army: 28,000 soldiers[1]
Peruvian Navy: 2 coastal monitors, 1 corvette


Chilean Army: 4,000 soldiers
Comblain rifle, Krupp cannon
Chilean Navy: 2 ironclads, 4 corvettes, 1 gunboat, 1 schooner

December 1880
Chilean Army: 41,000[2]:263 soldiers
Chilean Navy: 3 ironclads, 4 corvettes, 2 gunboats, several armed steamers

Casualties and losses
10,467 Killed/Wounded
(9,103[3] POWs)
Pisagua, Iquique, Mollendo, Supe, Chorrillos, Miraflores, Concepcion, San Pablo, bombed or burned
2,825[3] Killed in Action
7,347[3] Wounded
No cities were affected

The War of the Pacific (Spanish: Guerra del Pacífico) took place in western South America from 1879 through 1883. Chile fought against Bolivia and Peru. Despite cooperation among the three nations in the war against Spain, disputes soon arose over the mineral-rich Peruvian provinces of Tarapaca, Tacna, and Arica, and the Bolivian province of Antofagasta. Chilean enterprises, which largely exploited the area, saw their interests at stake when Peru nationalized all nitrate mines in Tarapaca, and Bolivia imposed a 10 cent tax on the Antofagasta Nitrate & Railway Company. The foundations of the conflict were laid in a dispute between Chile and Bolivia over part of the Atacama Desert.

The war began on February 14, 1879 when Chilean armed forces occupied the port city of Antofagasta, after a Bolivian threat to confiscate Chilean Antofagasta Nitrate Company's property. Peru attempted to mediate, but when Bolivia announced that a state of war existed, the situation deteriorated. Bolivia called on Peru to activate the mutual defense pact, whereas Chile demanded that Peru immediately declare its neutrality. On April 5, after Peru resisted both demands, Chile declared war on both nations. The following day, Peru responded by acknowledging the casus foederis.

This "Saltpeter War" took place over five years in a variety of terrain, including the Atacama Desert and Peru's deserts and mountainous regions. The war's first battle was the Battle of Topáter. For most of the first year the focus was on the naval campaign, as Chile struggled to establish a sea-based resupply corridor for its forces in the world's driest desert. The Peruvian Navy met initial success, but the Chilean Navy prevailed. Afterwards, Chile's land campaign bested the badly equipped Bolivian and Peruvian armies, leading to Bolivia's complete defeat and withdrawal in the Battle of Tacna on May 26, 1880, and the defeat of the Peruvian army after the Battle of Arica on June 7. The land campaign climaxed in 1881, with the Chilean occupation of Lima. The conflict then became a guerrilla war engaging Peruvian army remnants and irregulars. This Campaign of the Breña was fairly successful as a resistance movement, but did not change the war's outcome. After Peru's defeat in the Battle of Huamachuco, Chile and Peru signed the Treaty of Ancón on October 20, 1883. Bolivia signed a truce with Chile in 1884.

Chile acquired the Peruvian territory of Tarapacá, the disputed Bolivian department of Litoral (cutting Bolivia off from the sea), as well as temporary control over the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica. In 1904, Chile and Bolivia signed the "Treaty of Peace and Friendship" establishing definite boundaries. The situation between Chile and Peru worsened when the 1893 plebiscite to determine the fate of the provinces of Arica and Tacna was not held. Colonization and violent Chileanization of the territories resulted in a break of relations in 1911. The 1929 Tacna–Arica compromise gave Arica to Chile and Tacna to Peru, but did not resolve the antipathy. Later political problems among these neighbors often referred back to this conflict.



The dry climate of the Peruvian and Bolivian coasts had permitted the accumulation and preservation of vast amounts of high-quality nitrate deposits such as guano (bird excrement) and saltpeter. In the 1840s, guano's newfound value as fertilizer and saltpeter's role in explosives made the Atacama desert strategically and economically important. Bolivia, Chile, and Peru sat on the largest reserves of a resource the world demanded. During the Chincha Islands War (1864–1866), Spain, under Queen Isabella II, attempted to exploit an incident involving Spanish citizens in Peru to re-establish Spanish influence over the guano-rich Chincha Islands, lost following the independence of Peru. Peru and Chile signed a treaty of alliance against Spain on December 5, 1865.[4] Together, with the minor aid of Bolivia and Ecuador (who had fought an inconclusive war with Peru from 1858 to 1860), they forced the Spanish to withdraw after clashes at Papudo, Abtao, and Callao.

South America (1879): Bolivia, Chile, and Peru held territorial disputes with their neighbors, except among each other. Bolivia and Chile resolved their territorial disputes in 1866. Peru and Chile did not hold a border.

During this time mutual interests sustained a Chile-Peru alliance, while Bolivia and Chile fell into a border dispute. Claiming territory according to the uti possidetis juris principle, the two disagreed on whether the territory of Charcas had access to the sea. Charcas had been part of the Viceroyalty of Peru and, later, part of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata. Eventually, the two countries negotiated the Boundary Treaty of 1866 ("Treaty of Mutual Benefits"). The treaty established the 24th parallel south as their mutual boundary.[5] The two countries gained equal rights to tax revenue on mineral exports from the territory between the 23rd and 25th parallels, which covered a large part of the Atacama Desert.

Atacama quickly became populated by Chilean investors backed by European (mainly British) capital. The natural barrier of the Andes mountains divided the Bolivian altiplano from Atacama, preventing the Bolivians from colonizing the area. Chilean and foreign enterprises in the region eventually extended their control all the way to the Peruvian saltpeter mines. During the 1870s, Peru capitalized on the guano exploitation and nationalized all industries in the region, leaving Peru with 58.8% of all saltpeter production, while Chile held 19% and Great Britain 13.5%.[6] After the War of the Pacific, Peru was left without saltpeter production, the Chilean production decreased to 15%, and Great Britain's production rose to 55%.[6]

Aliance Peru - Bolivia

In 1872, Peruvian foreign relations minister José de la Riva-Agüero believed Chile would use their acquisition of new ironclads to take posession of the Bolivian coastline. He desired for Peru to use its maritime influence to put an end to the conflict before matters got out of hand.[7] Marshal Ramon Castilla had also warned Peru of a possible Chilean attack and recommended that when Chile bought a warship, Peru should buy two; lack of money prevented the Peruvian government from following Castilla's advice.[8]

On February 6, 1873, Peru and Bolivia signed a treaty of alliance known as the "Treaty of Mutual Defense" which guaranteed their independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity. The last clause kept the treaty secret as long as both parties considered its publication unnecessary.[9] Nonetheless, Chile, through its minister plenipotenciary Carlos Walker, knew of the treaty since 1874. Walker even mentioned the treaty in his 1876 work, Pajinas De Un Viaje Al Traves De La America Del Sur. Chile once again received notification of the treaty through another minister in 1877, when Argentina's senate discussed the invitation to join the Peru-Bolivia defensive alliance.[10][11][12][13]

Boundary Treaty 1874

In 1874, Chile and Bolivia replaced the 1866 boundary treaty with a treaty granting Bolivia the authority to collect all tax revenue between the 23rd and 24th parallels, fixing the tax rates on Chilean companies for 25 years and calling for Bolivia to open up.[5][14] Chilean companies executed most of the exploitation of the Atacama coastal region. On December 26, 1874, the recently built ironclad Cochrane arrived in Valparaiso; it remained in Chile until the completion of the Blanco Encalada threw the balance of south Pacific power towards Chile.[15] In 1875 Peru postponed the Argentine signing of the alliance treaty.[16]

Course of the war


Eduardo Abaroa and Topáter defenders.

The crisis began in 1878 when the National Congress of Bolivia and a National Constituent Assembly determined an 1873 contract authorizing the Antofagasta Nitrate & Railway Company to extract saltpeter duty-free for 15 years to be moot because it had never been ratified by the Bolivian Congress, as required by the constitution. The Congress proposed to approve the contract if the company would pay a 10 cents per quintal tax,[17][18] but the company objected that the increased payments were illegal and demanded an intervention from the Chilean government.[19] In response, Chile said that the treaty[20] did not allow for such a tax hike. Bolivia suspended the tax in April 1878. In November Chile suggested the possibility of nullifying the treaty if Bolivia continued to insist on the taxes. Bolivia then said the tax was unrelated to the treaty and that the claim of the Nitrate Company should be addressed in Bolivian courts, and revived the tax.[19] When the company refused to pay the tax, Bolivia threatened to confiscate its property.

In December 1878, Chile dispatched a warship to the area. Bolivia announced that the company was to be seized and auctioned on February 4, 1879. On the day of the auction, 500 Chilean soldiers arrived by ship and occupied the port city of Antofagasta without a fight and experienced widespread support.[21] Antofagasta's population was 93–95% Chilean.[22] On February 18, while in Antofagasta, Chilean colonel Emilio Sotomayor intercepted a letter from Bolivian presidential Hilarión Daza to Bolivian prefect-colonel Severino Zapata. The letter allegedly mentioned Daza's worry of Chilean interference with Bolivia's nationalization of British saltpeter companies, and mentioned a previously secret treaty that Bolivia would, if necessary, demand that Peru honor should Chile declare war.[23]

News of the invasion reached Hilarión Daza on February 20, but he postponed mention of it until the end of the carnival festivities. On February 27, Daza made a public manifesto informing Bolivians and calling for patriotic support. The same day the Bolivian legislature authorized a formal declaration of war upon Chile, although it was not immediately announced. On March 1, Daza issued instead a decree which prohibited all commerce and communications with Chile "while the state-of-war provoked upon Bolivia lasts," provided Chileans ten days to leave Bolivian territory unless gravely ill or handicapped, embargoed Chilean furniture, property, and mining produce, allowed Chilean mining companies to continue operating under a government-appointed administrator, and provided all embargoes as temporary "unless the hostilities exercised by Chilean forces requires an energetic retaliation from Bolivia." Then, on March 14, in a meeting with foreign powers in Lima, Bolivia announced that a state of war existed with Chile. Bolivia called on Peru to activate the alliance treaty, arguing that Chile's invasion constituted a casus foederis. On March 23, while on their way to occupy Calama, north of 23rd parallel, 554 Chilean troops and cavalry defeated 135 Bolivian soldiers and civilians dug in at two destroyed bridges next to the Topáter river. This Battle of Topáter was the first of the war.

Peruvian mediation

Peruvian mediators of the Chile-Bolivia conflict. Left to right: Fernando Casos, Hernando de Lavalle, and José de Lavalle.

Peru sent a diplomatic team headed by José Antonio de Lavalle, a senior diplomat, to mediate with the Chilean government and request that Chile return Antofagasta to Bolivia. The Chilean government stalled, suspecting that Peru's attempt was not bona fide, and that it was only trying to delay until it completed its war preparations. Previous Peruvian demands had favored Bolivia, and Lavalle denied knowing about the existence of the treaty, which discomfited the Chileans.[24][25] However, not only did Peru hold a poorly equipped military, but also faced a financial crisis which prevented the possibility of any war preparations.[26] On March 14, Alejandro Fierro, Chile's minister of foreign affairs, sent a telegram to the Chilean representative in Lima, Joaquin Godoy, requesting immediate neutrality from the Peruvian government.[27] On March 17, Godoy formally presented the Chilean proposal in a meeting with Peruvian president Mariano Ignacio Prado.[28] The following day Prado told Godoy about the a secret treaty.[24]

On March 24, Peru responded to Chile and Bolivia by proposing that the Peruvian Congress debate both Chile's neutrality proposal and the Bolivian request for military action under the alliance on April 24.[29] On March 31, after receiving the treaty from Lima, Lavalle proceeded to read the whole text to Fierro and told him that it was not offensive to Chile.[24] Acknowledging the alliance, Chile responded by breaking diplomatic ties and formally declaring war on both countries on April 5, 1879. Peru responded on April 6, when President Prado declared the casus foederis of the Mutual Defense Treaty with Bolivia.[30]

Naval campaign

Given the few roads and railroad lines, the nearly waterless and largely unpopulated Atacama Desert was difficult to occupy. From the beginning naval superiority was critical.[31] Bolivia had no navy,[32] so on March 26 of 1879 Hilarión Daza formally offered letters of marque to any ships willing to fight for Bolivia.[33] The Armada de Chile and Marina de Guerra del Perú fought the naval battles.

Battle of Iquique, oil painting by Thomas Somerscales. Esmeralda vs. Huáscar.

Chilean naval power was based on the twin central battery ironclads Cochrane and Blanco Encalada (commissioned in 1874 and 1875, respectively), the corvettes Chacabuco, O'Higgins, and Esmeralda, the gunboat Magallanes, and the schooner Covadonga. Peruvian naval power relied on the broadside ironclad Independencia and the monitor Huáscar (both commissioned in 1868), the corvette Unión, the gunboat Pilcomayo, and the coastal monitors Atahualpa and Manco Cápac. Although both the Chilean and Peruvian ironclads seemed evenly matched, the Chilean ironclads had twice the armor and greater range and hitting power.[34]

Battle of Angamos, oil painting by Thomas Somerscales. Huáscar vs. Cochrane.

Early on Chile blockaded the Peruvian port of Iquique, on April 5.[35] This first naval encounter was the indecisive Battle of Chipana of April 12, 1879, in which the Chilean Magallanes escaped the Unión and Pilcomayo, but was unable to complete its reconnaissance mission. In the Battle of Iquique (May 21, 1879), Captain Miguel Grau commanding the Huáscar engage and sunk the Esmeralda; during the battle, the Chilean commander Arturo Prat was killed in attempt to board the Huascar. At the same time, the Independencia, led by Captain Juan Guillermo More, chased the schooner Covadonga, led by Lieutenant Commander Carlos Condell, until the heavier Independencia collide with a submerged rock and sank in the shallow waters near Punta Gruesa. The naval battle of Iquique gave a tactical victory to Peru: the blockade was defeated and one Chilean ship was sunk and the other retreated. Nevertheless, it was a Pyrrhic victory; the loss of the Independencia, one of Peru's most important ships, was a fatal blow. Prat's death, considered an act of heroism, increased Chilean patriotism and the number of military enlistments soared.[citation needed][36]

Grau's gallantry during the conflict, especially his treatment of Prat's family and rescue of Chilean sailors in Iquique,[37] gained him widespread recognition as the Caballero de los Mares ("Knight of the Seas").[38][39] His notability upheld Peruvian morale in the early stages of the conflict as,[40] despite being outnumbered, his monitor Huáscar held off the Chilean navy for six consecutive months.[41] During this time the Huáscar participated in the Battle of Antofagasta (May 26, 1879) and the Second Battle Antofagasta (August 28, 1879).[42] The climax finally came with the Admiral Juan Williams Rebolledo to resign.[45][46] Commodore Galvarino Riveros Cárdenas replaced Rebolledo[45][47] and devised a plan to catch the Huáscar.[48]

The Battle of Angamos, on October 8, 1879 proved decisive.[49] In this battle, the entire Chilean Navy finally managed to capture the Huáscar after several hours of fierce battle, despite her remaining crew attempt to scuttle her.[50] Miguel Grau Seminario died during the fighting, but his deeds made him a Peruvian national hero.[51] After the loss of the Huascar, the Peruvian navy still have some succesful actions, during the Naval Battle of Arica (February 27, 1880) and the Second Naval Battle of Arica (March 17, 1880),[52] but its remaining units were locked in its main port during the long Blockade of Callao until the fall of the capital, after the battles of San Juan and Miraflores, when the Peruvian naval officers scuttled the entire fleet to prevent its capture by the Chilean forces.[53]

Land campaign

Oil Painting by Juan Lepiani which represents the Battle of Arica on June 7, 1880. Colonel Francisco Bolognesi is the focus of the painting.

Once it had achieved naval superiority, the Chilean army initiated a series of military maneuvers in the Peruvian provinces of Tarapacá, Tacna, and Arica. The Campaign of Tarapaca began on November 2, 1879, when Chilean troops landed and attacked beach defenses in Pisagua, some 500 kilometres (310 mi) north of Antofagasta. That night, the Chilean army moved inland.[54] From Pisagua the Chileans marched south towards Iquique and on November 19, 1879, defeated the allied troops gathered in Agua Santa in the Battle of San Francisco and Dolores. Bolivian forces retreated to Oruro and the Peruvians fell back to Tiliviche, while the Chilean army captured Iquique. A detachment of Chilean soldiers, with cavalry and artillery, was sent to face the Peruvian forces in Tarapacá. Peruvian forces marched towards Arica to reach Bolivian troops led by Daza coming from Arica, but in Camarones Daza decided to return towards Arica. The two sides clashed on November 27 in the Battle of Tarapacá, where the Chilean forces were defeated,[55] but the Peruvian forces, unable to maintain the territory, retreated north to Arica.[56] Bruce W. Farcau comments that, "The province of Tarapacá was lost along with a population of 200,000, nearly one tenth of the Peruvian total, and an annual gross income of ₤ 28 million in nitrate production, virtually all of the country's export earnings."[57] The victory afforded Santiago an economic boon and a potential diplomatic asset.[58]

The Peruvian government was confronted with widespread rioting in Lima because of its failures.[59] On December 18, 1879, Peruvian president Prado went from Callao to Panama, allegedly with six million pesos in gold,[60] with the duty to oversee the purchase of new arms and warships for the nation. In a statement for the Peruvian newspaper El Comercio, he turned over the command of the country to vice president La Puerta, but a coup d'état led by Nicolás de Piérola overthrew the government and took power on December 23, 1879.[61] In Bolivia, after receiving a telegram on December 27, informing him that the army had overthrown him, Daza departed to Europe with $500,000. General Narciso Campero became Bolivia's new president.[62]

Meanwhile, Chile continued its advances in the Campaign of Tacna and Arica. On November 28, Chile declared the formal blockade of Arica.[2]:214 A Chilean force of 600 men carried out an amphibious raid at Ilo as a reconnaissance in force, to the north of Tacna, on December 31, and withdrew the same day.[63] On February 24, 1880 approximately 11,000 men in nineteen ships (protected by Blanco Encalada, Toro, and Magallanes and two torpedo boats) sailed from Pisagua and arrived off Punta Coles, near Pacocha, Ilo on February 26. The landing took several days without resistance. The Peruvian commander, Lizardo Montero, refused to try to drive the Chileans from the beachhead, as the Chileans had expected.[2]:217 On March 22, 3,642 Chilean troops defeated 1,300 Peruvian troops in the Battle of Los Ángeles,[2]:222 cutting any direct Peruvian supply from Lima to Arica or Tacna (Supply was possible only through the long way over Bolivia).[64] After the Battle of Los Ángeles, only three allied positions remained in southern Peru: General Leyva's 2nd Army at Arequipa (including some survivors from Los Ángeles), Bolognesi's 7th and 8th Divisions at Arica, and at Tacna the 1st Army. These forces were under Campero's direct command.[65] However, they were unable to concentrate troops or even to move from their garrisons.[66][67] After crossing 40 miles (64 km) of desert, on May 26 the Chilean army (14,147 men[2]:229) destroyed the allied army of 5,150 Bolivians and 8,500 Peruvians in the Battle of Tacna. The need for a port near the army to supply and reinforce the troops and evacuate the wounded compelled the Chilean command to concentrate on the remaining Peruvian stronghold of Arica. On June 7, after the Battle of Arica, the last Peruvian bastion in the Tacna Department fell. After the campaign of Tacna and Arica, the Peruvian and Bolivian regular armies ceased to exist,[2]:256 and Bolivia effectively left the war.[68]

To show Peru the futility of further resistance, on September 4, 1880 the Chilean government dispatched an expedition of 2,200 men[69] to northern Peru under the command of Captain Patricio Lynch to collect war taxes from wealthy landowners.[70][71] Lynch's Expedition arrived on September 10 to Chimbote[2]:260-and levied taxes of $100,000 in Chimbote, $10,000 in Paita, $20,000 in Chiclayo, and $4,000 in Lambayeque in local currencies; those who did not comply had their property impounded, destroyed or were killed. On September 11, the Peruvian government decreed that payment was an act of treason, but most landowners still paid, given the many death threats.[72]

Lackawanna Conference

Before the United States became formally involved, France, England, and Italy jointly proposed that Chile receive Tarapacá and withdrew their troops to the Camarones River; Chile accepted this solution.[73]

On October 22, 1880, delegates of Peru, Chile, Bolivia, and the United States Minister Plenipotentiary in Chile held a 5-day conference aboard the USS Lackawanna in Arica.[74] Chile had refused previous peace mediations from Ecuador (in May).[75] The Lackawanna Conference, also called the Arica conference, attempted to develop a peace settlement.

Chile demanded the Peruvian Tarapacá province and the Bolivian Atacama, an indemnity of $20,000,000 gold pesos, restoration of property taken from Chilean citizens, the Rimac's return, abrogating the treaty between Peru and Bolivia and Peru's formal commitment not to mount artillery batteries in Arica's harbor. Arica was to be limited to commercial use only. Chile planned to retain the territories of Moquegua, Tacna, and Arica until all peace treaty conditions were satisfied. Although willing to accept the negotiated settlement, Peru and Bolivia insisted that Chile withdraw its forces from all occupied lands as a precondition for discussing peace. Having captured this territory at great expense, Chile declined the terms and the negotiations failed.

Campaign of Lima

Infantry regiment of the Chilean Army, formed in Lurín, south of Lima, in January 1881

After the campaign of Tacna and Arica, the southern departments of Peru were in Chilean hands, and the armies of Peru and Bolivia could no longer fight. Nonenetheless, Chilean public pressure and expansionist ambitions demanded an invasion of Lima to "exterminate the enemy."[76][77] The defeated allies not only failed to realize their situation but, despite the empty Bolivian treasury, on June 16, 1880, the National Assembly voted to continue the war. On June 11, 1880, a document was signed in Peru declaring the creation of the United States of Peru-Bolivia.[78] This situation forced both the Chilean government and its high command to plan a new campaign to obtain an unconditional surrender.[79]

The Chilean forces confronted virtually the entire civilian population of Lima. The irregulars defended prepared positions, supported by a collection of old coastal guns located a few miles from the capital's arsenal and supply depots.[2]:258-259 President Pierola ordered the construction of two parallel defense lines at Chorrillos and Miraflores a few kilometers south of Lima. The line of Chorrillos was 10 miles (16 km) long, lying from Marcavilca hill to La Chira, passing through the steep terrain of San Juan and Santa Teresa.[2]:276- The Peruvian forces were approximately 10,000 untrained civilians between Arequipa and Lima. A small Chilean force went ashore near Pisco, approximately 200 miles (320 km) south of Lima, while the mass of the army disembarked in Chilca only 45 kilometres (28 mi) from the city. On January 13, 1881, the 23,129[80] Chilean troops charged 18,000[81] Peruvian defenders in Chorrillos. During the Battle of Chorrillos, the Chileans inflicted a harsh defeat and eliminated Lima's first defensive line. Following a triumph in the Battle of Miraflores, the Chilean army entered Lima on January 17, 1881.[2]:296 The Peruvian dictator Nicolás de Piérola retreated from the capital to try governing from the rear, and defied Chile's demand for territory and indemnity.[82]

After the Battle of Miraflores, Chilean soldiers started fires and performed sackings, rapes, and even fighting among themselves over war spoils in the towns of Chorrillos and Barranco. Chile ransacked the contents of the National Library of Peru in Lima and transported thousands of books (including many centuries-old original Spanish, Peruvian, and Colonial volumes) to Santiago de Chile, along with much capital stock.[citation needed] 3,000 wagons carried the plunder that hadn't already left by sea.[83] In November 2007, Chile returned 3,778 stolen books to the National Library.[84]

Without a Peruvian president who was willing to accept their terms, on February 22, 1881, the Chileans allowed a convention of Peruvian "notables" outside of Lima to elect Francisco García Calderón as president. Garcia Calderón was allowed to raise and arm two infantry battalions (400 men each) and two small cavalry squadrons to add credibility to the provisional government.[85]

Campaign of the Breña or Sierra

The occupation commander, Vice-admiral Patricio Lynch, sited his military headquarters in the Government Palace of Peru in Lima. After the confrontations in San Juan and Miraflores, Peruvian Colonel Andrés Avelino Cáceres escaped to the central Andes to organize resistance. This would come to be known as the Campaign of the Breña or Sierra, which organized a rebellion in Lima and eventually organized a widespread resistance.[86][87]

Despite the Bolivian tax crisis of 1879, Chile voted in a new Congress on schedule. In 1881 Domingo Santa Maria was elected President, assuming office on September 18, 1881. A new Congress was elected on schedule in 1882.[88] The new administration pushed for an end to the costly war. In February 1881, Chilean forces under Lt. Col. Ambrosio Letelier started the first Expedition, with 700 men, to defeat the last guerrilla bands from Huanuco (April 30) to Junin. After many losses the expedition achieved very little and returned to Lima in early July,[2]:309- where Letelier and his officers were courts-martialed for diverting money into their own pockets.[89]

To annihilate the guerrillas, in January 1882 Lynch started an offensive with 5,000 men[2]:315- first towards Tarma and then southeast towards Huancayo, reaching Izcuchaca. Lynch's army suffered enormous hardships and more than 5,000 Chilean soldiers were faced with major hurdles like cold temperatures, snow, and mountain sickness. On July 9, 1882 they fought the emblematic Battle of La Concepción. The Chileans had to pull back with a loss of 534 soldiers: 154 in combat, 277 of disease and 103 deserters.

During the James A. Garfield administration (March 4—September 19, 1881), the anglophobic Secretary of State James G. Blaine wanted to advance the US presence in Latin America. He believed that England had prodded Chile into war to secure England's mining interests. Blaine proposed that Chile accept a monetary indemnity and renounce claims to Antofagasta and Tarapacá. These American attempts reinforced Garcia Calderon's refusal to discuss the matter of territorial cession. When it became known that Blaine's representative, Stephen Hurlburt, would personally profit from the settlement, it was clear that Hurlburt was complicating the peace process.[90] Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen, Blaine's successor, publicly disavowed Blaine's policy, rejected any notion of intervening militarily in the dispute[2]:306 and accepted Chile's right to annex Tarapacá.[2]:329

Because Garcia Calderon refused to relinquish Peruvian control over Tarapacá, he was arrested. Before Garcia Calderon left Peru for Chile, he named Admiral Lizardo Montero as successor. At the same time President Pierola stepped back and supported Avelino Caceres for the Presidency. Caceres refused to serve and supported Lizardo Montero instead. Montero moved to Arequipa and in this way Garcia Calderon's arrest unified the forces of Pierola and Caceres.[54](p329)

On April 1, 1882 Miguel Iglesias, Defence Minister under Pierola, became convinced that the war had to be brought to an end or Peru would be completely devastated. He issued a manifesto, "Grito de Montan", calling for peace and in December 1882 convened a convention of representatives of the seven northern departments, where he was elected "Regenerating President"[2]:329-330[91] To support Iglesias against Montero, on April 6, 1883, Patricio Lynch started a new offensive to drive the Montoneros from central Peru and destroy Caceres' little army. The Chilean troops pursued Caceres northwest through narrow mountain passes until July 10, 1883, winning the definitive Battle of Huamachuco, the final Peruvian defeat.[2]:317-338[92]

After signing the peace treaty on October 20, 1883 with Iglesias' government, Lizardo Montero tried to resist in Arequipa with a force of 4,000 men, but when Chile's 3,000 fighters arrived, the troops in Arequipa revolted and allowed the Chileans to occupy the city. Montero opted for Bolivian asylum.[93] On October 29, 1883 the Chilean occupation of Lima ended.


Bolivian Litoral Department's flag.

Peace treaty with Peru

On October 20, 1883 hostilities between Chile and Peru formally came to an end under the Treaty of Ancón. Chile was to occupy the provinces of Tacna and Arica for 10 years, after which a plebiscite was to be held to determine nationality. For decades thereafter, the two countries failed to agree on the terms of the plebiscite. Finally, in 1929, through US mediation, under President Herbert Hoover, an accord was reached by which Chile kept Arica. Peru re-acquired Tacna and received some concessions in Arica.

Peace treaty with Bolivia

In 1884, Bolivia signed a truce that relinquished the entire Bolivian coast, the province of Antofagasta, and its nitrate, copper and other mineral deposits. A 1904 treaty made this arrangement permanent. In return, Chile agreed to build the Arica-La Paz railway, a railroad connecting the capital city of La Paz, Bolivia with the port of Arica, and Chile guaranteed freedom of transit for Bolivian commerce through Chilean ports and territory.

Military analysis

Military strength comparison

Ships of Chile and Peru at the beginning of the War of the Pacific[94][95]
Warship tons
Main Artillery Built
Chile Cochrane 3,560 3,000 9-12.8 up to 9 6x9 Inch 1874
Chile Blanco Encalada 3,560 3,000 9-12.8 up to 9 6x9 Inch 1874
Chile Esmeralda 854 200 8 wood 16x32-2x12-pounders 1855
Chile O'Higgins 1,101 300 12 wood 3x115-2x70-2x12-pounders 1874
Chile Chacabuco 1,101 300 11 wood 1x115-2x70-2x12-pounders 1874
Chile Covadonga 412 140 7 wood 2x70-3x40-pounders 1859
Chile Magallanes 772 260 11.5 wood 1x115-1x64-2x20-pounders 1874
Chile Abtao 1,051 300 8 wood 3x115-3x30-pounders 1870
Peru Huascar 1,130 1,200 10-11 2x300-pounders 1865
Peru Independencia 2,004 1,500 12-13 2x150-pounders 1865
Peru Manco Cápac (ex USS Oneota) 1,034 320 6 10 2x500-pounders 1864
Peru Atahualpa (ex USS Catawba) 1,034 320 6 10 2x500-pounders 1864
Peru Unión 1,150 320 13 wood 12x68-1x9-pounders 1864
Peru Pilcomayo 600 180 10.5 wood 2x70-4x40-pounders 1864

As the war began, the Peruvian Army numbered 5,241 men of all ranks, organized in seven infantry battalions, three squadrons of cavalry and two regiments of artillery.[96] The most common rifles in the army were the French Chassepot and the Minié rifles. The artillery, with a total of twenty-eight pieces, was composed mostly of British-made Blakely cannon and counted four machine guns. Much of the artillery dated from 1866, and had been bought for the Chincha Islands War against Spain.[97] The mounts used by the cavalry were small and inferior to the Chileans'.[97]

The Bolivian Army numbered no more than 2,175 soldiers, divided into three infantry regiments, two cavalry squadrons, and two sections of artillery.[98] The Colorados Battalion, President Daza's personal guard, was armed with Remington Rolling Block rifles, but the remainder carried odds and ends including flintlock muskets. The artillery had three rifled pounders and four machine guns, while the cavalry rode mules given a shortage of good horses.[97]

The regular Chilean Army was well equipped,[99][100][101][102] with 2,694 soldiers. By April 5, when Chile formally declared war, the army had grown to 7,906 men. The regular infantry was armed with the modern Belgian Comblain rifle, of which Chile had a stock of some 13,000. Chile also had Grass, Minie, Remington and Beaumont rifles which mostly fired the same caliber cartridge (11 mm). The artillery had seventy-five artillery pieces, most of which were of Krupp and Limache manufacture, and six machine guns. The cavalry used French sabers and Spencer and Winchester carbines.[103]


Chilean military operations.

Control of the sea was Chile's key to an inevitably difficult desert war: supply by sea, including water, food, ammunition, horses, fodder and reinforcements, was quicker and easier than marching supplies through the desert or across the Bolivian high plateau. While the Chilean Navy started an economic and military blockade of the Allies' ports, Peru took the initiative and used its smaller navy as a raiding force. The raids delayed the ground invasion for six months, and forced Chile to shift its fleet from blockading to hunting and capturing the Huascar. After achieving naval supremacy, sea-mobile forces proved to be an advantage for desert warfare on the long coastline. Peruvian and Bolivian defenders found themselves hundreds of kilometers from home while Chilean forces were usually just a few kilometers from the sea.

Chilean ground strategy focused on mobility. They landed ground forces in enemy territory to raid, landed in strength to split and drive out defenders and then garrisoned the territory as the fighting moved north. Peru and Bolivia fought a defensive war maneuvering through long overland distances and relying where possible on land or coastal fortifications with gun batteries and minefields. Coastal railways reached to central Peru and telegraph lines provided a direct line to the government in Lima. During the entire conflict the Chilean armed forces sought the systematic destruction of the Peruvian infraestructure, including the complete destruction of several towns after looting and killing the civil population, which also includes foreign citizens. They also receive the support of the Chinese coolies inmigrants, who joined the Chilean Army[104] during the campaign of Lima and in the raids to the north Peruvian cities.

Design of the Peruvian Toro, the first Latin American submarine design and the first fully functional submarine built in Latin America.

The occupation of Peru between 1881 and 1884 took a different form. The war theater was the Peruvian Sierra, where the remains of the Peruvian Army had easy access to population, resource and supply centers far from the sea; supporting an indefinite war of attrition. The occupying Chilean force was split into small garrisons across the theater and could devote only part of its strength to hunting down dispersed pockets of resistance and the last Peruvian forces in the Sierra. After a costly occupation and prolonged counterinsurgency campaign, Chile sought a diplomatic exit. Rifts within Peruvian society and Peruvian defeat in the Battle of Huamachuco resulted in the peace treaty that ended the occupation.

Chilean soldier executing an order of repaso following the Battle of Huamachuco.

The three nations claimed to adhere to the Geneva Red Cross Convention to protect the war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.[105] However, during the war, Chile commonly ordered a repaso (or repase), a method "to completely kill the dead" by executing all soldiers, regardless of injuries, of the opposing army left in the battlefied.[106] After the Battle of Tacna, Chilean troops went as far as to enter field hospitals and execute all soldiers of the opposing Peruvian and Bolivian armies.[107][108] The repaso further incremented the number of Peruvian casualties in the battles of San Juan, Chorrillos, and Miraflores.[109] In the aftermath of the Battle of Huamachuco, Chilean Colonel Alejandro Gorostiaga ordered a repase under the pretext that they formed part of an irregular army and could therefore not be considered prisoners of war.[110][111] Peruvian Colonel Leoncio Prado was among the few soldiers who were not killed during the Huamachuco repase,[112] but was executed shortly thereafter.


Both sides employed late 19th-century military technology such as breech-loading rifles and cannons, remote-controlled land mines, armor-piercing shells, naval torpedoes, torpedo boats, and purpose-built landing craft. The second-generation of ironclads (i.e. designed after the Battle of Hampton Roads) were employed in battle for the first time. That was significant for a conflict where no major power was involved, and attracted British, French, and U.S. observers. During the war, Peru developed the Toro Submarino ("Submarine Bull"). Though completely operational, she never saw action, and was scuttled at the end to prevent her capture.

The USS Wachusett (1861) commanded by Alfred Thayer Mahan, was stationed at Callao, Peru, to protect American interests during the war's final stages. Mahan formulated his concept of sea power while reading history in an English gentlemen's club in Lima, Peru. This concept became the foundation for his celebrated The Influence of Sea Power upon History.[113][114]


The War of the Pacific left traumatic scars on all three societies.


Eduardo Avaroa's statue pointing to the sea. The mural reads: "What once was ours, will be ours once again," and, "Hold on rotos [Chileans], because here come the Colorados of Bolivia."

For Bolivians, the loss of the Litoral (the coast) remained a deeply emotional and practical issue, as was particularly evident during the 2003 natural gas riots. Popular belief attributed many of the country's problems to its landlocked condition; recovering the seacoast was seen as the solution to these difficulties. Numerous Bolivian Presidents pressured Chile for sovereign access to the sea. Diplomatic relations with Chile were severed on March 17, 1978, in spite of considerable commercial ties. The leading Bolivian newspaper El Diario featured at least a weekly editorial on the subject, and the Bolivian people annually celebrated a patriotic "Dia del Mar" (Day of the Sea) to remember the crippling loss.


Politically, Narciso Campero ushered in a new era of civilian constitutional government that would last under the 1880 Constitution until defeat in the Chaco War radicalised opponents of the ruling elite.


Chilenization of Tacna. Black cross painted on a Peruvian household, despite raising the Chilean flag.

As the victor and possessor of a new coastal territory, Chile benefited from the war by gaining a lucrative territory with significant mineral income. The national treasury grew by 900% between 1879 and 1902 due to taxes coming from the newly acquired lands.[116] British involvement and control of the nitrate industry rose significantly.[117] High nitrate profits lasted for several decades, but fell sharply once synthetic nitrates were developed during World War I. This led to a massive economic breakdown (known as the Nitrate Crisis). Many industrial factories had closed in the early 1880s to provide labor for the extraction industry. Loss of industry dramatically slowed the country's industrial development. When the saltpeter mines closed or became unprofitable, the British companies left the country, destroying many jobs. The former Bolivian region remained the world's richest source of copper and its ports moved trade between nearby countries and the Pacific Ocean. The former Peruvian region suffered because no new sources of wealth appeared after the Nitrate Crisis. On August 28, 1929, Chile returned Tacna to Peru, who later discovered huge copper deposits.

During the war Chile waived most of its claim over the Patagonia in the 1881 Chile/Argentina treaty, to ensure Argentina's neutrality. After the war, the Puna de Atacama dispute grew until 1899, since both Chile and Argentina claimed former Bolivian territories. On August 28, 1929, Chile returned the province of Tacna to Peru. In 1999, Chile and Peru at last agreed to fully implement the Treaty of Lima, providing Peru with a port in Arica.[118]

Ericka Beckman argued that during and after the war there was a rise of racial and national superiority ideas among the Chilean ruling class.[119] Chilean historian Gonzalo Bulnes (son of president Manuel Bulnes) once wrote, "What defeated Peru was the superiority of a race and of a history".[120] During the occupation of Tacna and Arica (1884–1929) the Peruvian people and nation were treated in racist and denigrating terms by the Chilean press.[121]

In 2007 the Chilean government returned almost 4,000 books to Peru's national library, more than a century after they were taken by Chilean soldiers in hopes that the return of the books may go some way to improving the two nations relations.[122]


During the occupation of Peru civilians were directly involved in the war. This mural reads: "In this town six compatriots were executed by firing squad and history cannot be changed. Eternal glory to the heroes and martyrs of Quequeña!"

According to Bruce W. Farcau, "in Peru, the wounds run less deep than in neighboring Bolivia". On the other hand, George J. Mills argued that after Peru's defeat, "Peruvian resentment, born of the loss of her nitrate territories, is still smoldering."[123] According to military historian Robert L. Scheina, the Chilean plunder of Peruvian national literary and art treasures contributed to "demands of revenge among Peruvians for decades."[124] Brooke Larson pointed out that the War of the Pacific was the "first time since independence wars" that "Peru was invaded, occupied and pillaged by a foreign army" and that "no other Andean republic experienced such a costly and humiliating defeat as Peru did in the hands of Chile".[125]

In the aftermath of the war, the indigenous populations of Peru became scapegoats in the narratives of Peruvian criollo elites, exemplified in the writing of Ricardo Palma:

The principal cause of the great defeat is that the majority of Peru is composed of that wretched and degraded race that we once attempted to dignify and ennoble. The Indian lacks patriotic sense; he is born enemy of the white and of the man of the coast. It makes no difference to him whether he is a Chilean or a Turk. To educate the Indian and to inspire him a feeling for patriotism will not be the task of our institutions, but of the ages.[126]

The war period was one of profound political instability for Peru, ending only with the election of Cáceres as president in 1886.


  • English, Adrian J. (1985). Armed forces of Latin America: their histories, development, present strength, and military potential. Jane's Information Group, Incorporated. ISBN 0710603215. 
  • Sater, William F. (1986). Chile and the War of the Pacific. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4155-0. 

See also


  1. ^ 19,000 in San Juan, 4,000 in Lima, 1,000 in El Callao (Pierola letter to Julio Tenaud) 4,000 in Arequipa, Col. Jose de la Torre Basadre 1964
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sater 2007
  3. ^ a b c sater, pp. 348–349 tables 22 and 23. The figures consider neither Chilean POWs (from "Rimac" and "Esmeralda" survivors) nor deserters
  4. ^ Approving Treaty on offensive and defensive alliance concluded between the Republics of Peru and Chile. Lima: Congress of Peru. 1865 (Spanish)
  5. ^ a b Boundary treaty between Bolivia and Chile. 1866 (Spanish)
  6. ^ a b British influence on the salt: the origin, nature and decline. Soto Cárdenas, Alejandro. Santiago : Ed. University of Santiago de Chile, 1998. Page 50
  7. ^ See Private note of Riva-Agüero to Novoa, November 20, 1872. Godoy papers. Cited in Bulnes 1920, pp. 58,59
    It is desirable that once for all, and as soon as possible, the relations between the two Republics should be defined, because it is necessary to arrive at an arrangement satisfactory to both parties. If Chile dealing with this boundary question seizes the most favourable opportunity to take possession of that coast-line, it is necessary that their plans develop before Chile is in possession of the ironclads under construction, in order that in the definite settlement of this question, the influence, which we are in a position to exert by means of our maritime preponderance may have due weight.
  8. ^ Thomas Cleland Dawson, The South American Republics: Peru, Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Panama (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1904), 118
  9. ^ (See full English version of the treaty in Bulnes 1920
  10. ^ Charles Edmond Akers, A History of South America, Page 439
  11. ^ Sir Clements Robert Markham, The war between Peru and Chile, 1879-1882 (Sampson Low. Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1882), 86
  12. ^ Dolores Luna-Guinot, Conspiracy in Mendoza (Trafford Publishing, 2009), 316
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ Sir Clements Robert Markham, The war between Peru and Chile, 1879-1882 (Sampson Low. Marston, Searle & Rivington, 1882), 87
  15. ^ Basadre 1964, p. 2282 "The beginning of the Peruvian naval inferiority and lack of initiative for preventive war":
    Won by Chile's supremacy at sea that year of 1874 contributed to the endeavor to avoid any problem Peru
  16. ^ Basadre 1964, p. 2286, "Peru in 1874 and 1878 avoid the alliance with Argentina":
    In August, September and October 1875 ... Peru will hasten to take footdragging and even inhibitory for signing the treaty with that republic [Argentina] in order to retain their freedom of action. The existence of the Chilean ironclads perhaps explains the difference between this attitude and previous
    In 1878 [the Peruvian government] refused to deliver the items ship orders by the Argentine government and collaborate in the search for a peaceful solution…
  17. ^ Retrospective of landlocked sea. A critical view on how the conflict started. Jorge Gumucio. La Paz, Bolivia
  18. ^ Chile-Bolivia-Peru: The War of the Pacific. June 2004. Patricio Valdivieso. Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile
  19. ^ a b Employers, policy, and the Pacific War. Luis Ortega. Santiago de Chile. 1984. (Page 18. File Antony Gibbs & Sons AGA. Valparaiso to Londres. Private N 25. March 6, 1878)
  20. ^ (Spanish) Boundary Treaty of 1866 between Chile and Bolivia
  21. ^ Barros Arana 1881a, p. 59
  22. ^ Bulnes 1920, pp. 42
  23. ^ War of the Pacific Chilean historian Gonzalo Bulnes. Antofagasta and Tarapacá. 1911.
    Tengo una buena noticia que darle. He fregado a los gringos (se refiere a Mr. Hicks) decretando la reivindicacion de las salitreras i no podran quitarnoslas por mas que se esfuerce el mundo entero. Espero que Chile no intervendra en este asunto... pero si nos declara la guerra podemos contar con el apoyo del Peru a quien exijiremos el cumplimiento del Tratado secreto. Con este objeto voi a mandar a Lima a Reyes 0rtiz. Ya ve Ud. como le doi buenas noticias que Ud. me ha de agradecer eternamente i como le dejo dicho los gringos estan completamente fregados i los chilenos tienen que morder i reclamar nada mas.
  24. ^ a b c War of the Pacific. Francisco A. Machuca. Valparaíso "Mientras el señor Lavalle gozaba de relativa tregua, y estudiaba las causas de la poca prisa del Gobierno chileno para continuar las negociaciones, éste, en constante comunicación con nuestro Ministro Godoy, quedaba impuesto el 18 de Marzo, por comunicación del día anterior, 17, de la existencia del pacto secreto, y de una nota clara y terminante de nuestro Ministro al Gobierno de Lima...Por fin, el 31 de Marzo, el señor Lavalle se apersonó al señor Ministro de Relaciones y le dió conocimiento del tratado secreto, que acababa de recibir de Lima, en circunstancia que hacía días, el general Prado le había confesado su existencia a nuestro Ministro Godoy, en una conferencia tenida en Chorrillos."
  25. ^ Current History (1922) (page 450) The New York Times
  26. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=AV8O4Q0Ljz4C&pg=PA12&dq=Jose+Antonio+de+Lavalle+Peru+Chile&hl=en&ei=y9ohTpbVA4_TiAKkhOyiAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Jose%20Antonio%20de%20Lavalle%20Peru%20Chile&f=false Page 12
  27. ^ Bulnes 1920, pp. 147
  28. ^ Guerra del Pacífico, Tomo 1: De Antofagasta a Tarapacá. Page 148. Bulnes Gonzalo.
  29. ^ Peruvian Congress March 24, 1879
  30. ^ William Jefferson Dennis, pp. 79-80.
  31. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 65
    As the earlier discussion of the geography of the Atacama region illustrates, control of the sea lanes along the coast would be absolutely vital to the success of a land campaign there
  32. ^ Vargas Valenzuela, José (1974). Tradición naval del pueblo de Bolivia. Bolivia: Editorial Los Amigos del Libro. p. 61. http://books.google.com/?id=flgSAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved January 17, 2010. 
  33. ^ 2007, p. 102 and ff
    "… to anyone willing to sail under Bolivia's colors …"
  34. ^ Farcau 2000, pp. 55–56
  35. ^ López Urrutia, Carlos (2003). La Guerra del Pacífico, 1879-1884. Ristre Editorial. pp. 37–42. http://books.google.com/?id=0osTAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved January 17, 2010. 
  36. ^ Spila, Benedetto (1883). Chile en la guerra del Pacífico. Valparaíso, Chile: Impr. del Neuvo Mercurio. p. 94. http://books.google.com/?id=Gy8_AAAAIAAJ. Retrieved January 17, 2010. 
  37. ^ Farcau, Bruce W. (2000). The Ten Cents War: Chile, Peru, and Bolivia in the War of the Pacific, 1879-1884. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. p. 74. ISBN 0-275-96925-8. http://books.google.ca/books?id=BsxISMTwsSUC&pg=PA74&dq=farcau,+%22such+was+the+sense+of+chivalry+in+this+war%22&hl=en&ei=y-eNTu30AfTMsQL9_uy8AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&sqi=2&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  38. ^ Jose Vargas Valenzuela, Naval Tradition of the Peoples of Bolivia (Editorial Los Amigos del Libro, 1974), 61
  39. ^ José Puga, "Alistan estreno de filme chileno que hablará de la hidalguía de Miguel Grau" in El Comercio (Peru). 05 March 2009. Accessed 13 October 2011
  40. ^ Lawrence A. Clayton, Grace: W.R. Grace & Co., the formative years, 1850-1930, Page 108.
  41. ^ Mila Batres 1994, p. 71
  42. ^ Arosemena Garland, Geraldo (1962). El Almirante Miguel Grau. Lima, Peru: Ministerio de Educación Pública. pp. 188. http://books.google.com/?id=UKPUAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved January 17, 2009. 
  43. ^ Instituto de Estudios Histórico-Marítimos del Perú 2004, p. 188
  44. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 214
  45. ^ a b Instituto de Estudios Histórico-Marítimos del Perú 2004
  46. ^ Mellafe Maturana, Rafael; Mauricio Pelayo González (2007). La guerra del Pacífico: en imágenes, relatos, testimonios. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones Centro de Estudios Bicentenario. p. 130. ISBN 9789568147334. http://books.google.com/?id=KYQTAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  47. ^ López Urrutia, Carlos; Jorge Ortíz Sotelo (2005). Monitor Huáscar: una historia compartida (1865-2005). Lima, Peru: Asociación de Historia Marítima y Naval Iberoamericana. p. 49. http://books.google.com/?id=RmVjAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  48. ^ Historia del Ejército de Chile, Volume 6. Santiago, Chile: Estado Mayor General del Ejército. 1980. p. 54. http://books.google.com/?id=SPNjAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  49. ^ Luna Vegas, Emilio (1978). Cáceres, genio militar. Peru: Librería Editorial Minerva-Miraflores. p. 19. http://books.google.com/?id=u4K1AAAAIAAJ. Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
  50. ^ Valdés Vergara, Francisco (1908). Historia de Shile para la enseñanza primaria. California: Sociedad "Imprenta y litografía Universo". p. 319. http://books.google.com/?id=oFZJAAAAIAAJ&dq=Angamos+Hu%C3%A1scar+capturado+Chile+hundirlo+tripulaci%C3%B3n.. Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
  51. ^ Milla Batres 1994, p. 73
  52. ^ Elías Murguía, Julio J. (1980). Marinos peruanos en Arica. Peru: Instituto de Estudios Histórico-Maritimos del Perú. p. 38. http://books.google.com/?id=2KIKAQAAIAAJ. Retrieved July 22, 2009. 
  53. ^ Paz Soldán, Juan Pedro (July 1919). "El hundimiento de la Escuadra Peruana - 16 de enero de 1881". El Mercurio Peruano - Revista Mensual de Ciencias Sociales y Letras (Lima, Perú) III (13): 44–47. http://cavb.blogspot.com/2010/10/la-noche-que-los-comandantes-de-la.html. Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  54. ^ a b Sater 2007, p. 172-
  55. ^ 2007, p. 204
    "only the lack of allied cavalry prevented Buendia's [Peruvian] men from finishing off the few remaining survivors"
  56. ^ 2007, p. 205
    "The victorious troops had no choice, as Colonel Suarez ruefully admitted, but to abandon Tarapacá to the Chileans".
  57. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 119
  58. ^ 2007, p. 181
    "not only a economic bonanza but also a diplomatic asset that could barter in return for Peru ending the war".
  59. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 120
    "He [Prado] was met with widespread rioting in the capital in protest over the administration's abysmal handling of the war to date"
  60. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 120
    "…Prado suddenly gathered up his belongings … and took a ship …"
  61. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 121
    "Pierola … mounted an assault on the Palace but … leaving more than three hundred corpses …"
  62. ^ 2007, p. 208
    "Daza received a telegram from Camacho, informing him that the army no longer …"
  63. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 130
    "In the early morning hours of the 31. December 1879 …"
  64. ^ Sater 2007, p. 222
    "Baquedano could not simply bypass the Peruvian troops, whose presence threatened Moquegua as well as the communications network extending southeast across the Locumba Valley to Tacna and northwest to Arequipa and northeast to Bolivia"
  65. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 138 specifies 3,100 men in Arequipa, 2,000 men in Arica and 9,000 men in Tacna, but this figures contradict the total numbers given (below) by William F. Sater in page 229
  66. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 138
    "…it became evident that there was a total lack of the necessary transport for even the minimum amount of supplies and water"
  67. ^ 2007, p. 227
    "The allied force, he [Campero] concluded lacked sufficient transport to move into the field its artillery as well as its rations and, more significantly, its supplies of water"
  68. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 1147
  69. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 152
    "Lynch's force consisted f the 1° Line Regiment and the Regiments "Talca" and "Colchagua", a battery of mountain howitzers, and a small cavalry squadron for a total of twenty-two hundred man"
  70. ^ Barros Arana 1881b, p. 98
    "[The Chilean government thought that it was possible to demonstrate to the enemy the futility of any defense of Peruvian territory not only against the whole [Chilean] army but also against small [Chilean] divisions. That was the purpose of the expedition, which the claims, insults, and affliction in the official documents of Peru and in the press had made famous"
    (Original: "[El gobierno chileno] Creía entonces que todavía era posible demostrar prácticamente al enemigo la imposibilidad en que se hallaba para defender el territorio peruano no ya contra un ejército numeroso sino contra pequeñas divisiones. Este fué el objeto de una espedicion que las quejas, los insultos i las lamentaciones de los documentos oficiales del Perú, i de los escritos de su prensa, han hecho famosa.")
  71. ^ Basadre 1964, p. 2475
  72. ^ Barros Arana 1881a quotes Johann Caspar Bluntschli:
    "Bluntschili (Derecho internacional codificado) dice espresamente lo que sigue: Árt. 544. Cuando el enemigo ha tomado posesión efectiva de una parte del territorio, el gobierno del otro estado deja de ejercer alli el poder. Los habitantes del territorio ocupado están eximidos de todos los deberes i obligaciones respecto del gobierno anterior, i están obligados a obedecer a los jefes del ejército de ocupación."
  73. ^ Valdes Arroyo, Flor de Maria (2004). Las relaciones entre el Perú e Italia (1821-2002). Lima, Peru: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru. ISBN 9974-42-626-2. http://books.google.com/?id=DGexys3TxhQC&pg=PA97. , page 97, in Spanish language
  74. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 153
  75. ^ Imperial Skirmishes, page 132
  76. ^ John Lawrence Rector The history of Chile page 102
  77. ^ Jason Zorbas The influence of domestic politics on America's Chilean policy during the War of the Pacific page 22:
    "The Chilean public demanded that Lima be taken. Bloodlust ran high, as some of the press demanded that the Moneda (the Chilean equivalent of the White House) ""exterminate the enemy the same as Great Britain and Argentina had annihilated the Zulus and the Indians."" The government struggled to satisfy the public demands for an invasion. During the last months of 1880, the Chilean armed forces prepared for a full invastion [sic?] of Peru and as the new year arrived the Chilean forces were poised outside Lima and prepared to invade the capital"
  78. ^ Farcau 2000, pp. 149–150
    "Despite this expectations …"
  79. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 157
    "… until all vestiges of organized military force in Peru had been destroyed and the capital occupied"
  80. ^ La Guerra del Pacífico en imágenes, relatos, testimonios; p. 237
  81. ^ Basadre, Jorge (2000). "La Verdadera Epopeya". http://www.unjbg.edu.pe/basadre/. Retrieved 2008. 
  82. ^ 2007, p. 302
    "which he [Nicolás de Piérola] did not"
  83. ^ Hugh Chisholm. "Encyclopedia Brittanica: Lima". Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=OvYtAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA690&lpg=PA690&dq=Chile+destroyed+Lima&source=web&ots=NYWbeGRm5E&sig=fqU3QDhDg_ClzJ37DR5XIHV9uBI&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result. Retrieved 2008-12-04. 
  84. ^ Dan Collyns (November 7, 2007). "Chile returns looted Peru books". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7082436.stm. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  85. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 173
  86. ^ John Edwin Fagg Latin America: a general history" page 860
  87. ^ Steve J. Stern Resistance, rebellion, and consciousness in the Andean peasant world page 241
  88. ^ Sater 1986, p. 180
    "Even in the midst of the Bolivian crisis, congressional elections occurred in schedule. In 1881, the nation selected a new president, Domingo Santa Maria, and the following year, elected a new congress"
  89. ^ 2007, p. 312
    "Consequently, the court stripped Letelier of his rank, sentenced him to six years in jail, and demanded restitution"
  90. ^ 2007, pp. 304–306
    "The anglophobic secretary of state …"
  91. ^ Farcau 2000, pp. 181–182
  92. ^ Farcau 2000, pp. 183–187
  93. ^ Sater 1986, p. 220
    "Since Montero was not a party to the Treaty of Ancon …"
  94. ^ 2007, pp. 113–114
    "There are numerous differences of opinion as to the ships' speed and armament. Some of these differences can be attributed to the fact that the various sources may have been evaluating the ships at different times."
  95. ^ Cap. Jorge Ortiz Sotelo, Miguel Grau, page 70-71.
  96. ^ English 1985, p. 372
  97. ^ a b c Scheina 2003, p. 377
  98. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 57
  99. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 48
  100. ^ English 1985, p. 75
  101. ^ Stanislav Andreski Wars, revolutions, dictatorships: studies of historical and contemporary problems from a comparative viewpoint page 105:
    (...) Chile's army and fleet were better equipped, organised and commanded(...)
  102. ^ Helen Miller Bailey, Abraham Phineas Nasatir Latin America: the development of its civilization page 492:
    Chile was a much more modernized nation with better-trained and better-equipped
  103. ^ Scheina 2003, pp. 376–377
  104. ^ Dorothea, Martin. "Chinese Migration into Latin America – Diaspora or Sojourns in Peru?". Appalachian State University. p. 10. http://www.history.appstate.edu/sites/default/files/appalachian-spring-papers/2008/dorotheamartinpaper.pdf. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 
  105. ^ 2007, p. 90
    "Happily for the wounded the three warring nations adhered to the Geneva Convention."
  106. ^ [2] Page 477
  107. ^ [3] Page 90, 93
  108. ^ [4] Page 476-477
  109. ^ [5] Page 192
  110. ^ [6] Page 436
  111. ^ Cáceres, Andrés. "Memorias de la guerra del 79" pág. 231
  112. ^ [7] Page 40
  113. ^ The Ambiguous Relationship: Theodore Roosevelt and Alfred Thayer Mahan by Richard W. Turk; Greenwood Press, 1987. 183 pgs. page 10
  114. ^ Larrie D. Ferreiro 'Mahan and the "English Club" of Lima, Peru: The Genesis of The Influence of Sea Power upon History', The Journal of Military History - Volume 72, Number 3, July 2008, pp. 901-906
  115. ^ {{cite web More recently, Venezuelan president Hugo Chavez brought up the issue and his support for Bolivian irredentism by declaring "Quiero nadar en mares boliviano." (I want to swim in Bolivian seas). Chile for its part has said that there is no question of returning any part of Bolivia's Pacific coast, stating that wars of conquest were normal at that time, that the area has been completely assimilated racially and culturally into Chile, and that Bolivia should accept the outcome of the war as a fait accompli. | first = | last = | author = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = El día del mar se recordará con más que un tradicional desfile cívico | url = http://www.bolpress.com/art.php?Cod=2006031515 | archiveurl = | work = | publisher = Bolpress | location = | page = 1 | pages = | language = Spanish | trans_title = | format = | doi = | date = 15 | month = March | year = 2006 | archivedate = | accessdate = 2 October 2009 | quote = | ref = }}
  116. ^ Crow, The Epic of Latin America, p. 180
  117. ^ Foster, John B. & Clark, Brett. (2003). "Ecological Imperialism: The Curse of Capitalism" (accessed September 2, 2005). The Socialist Register 2004, p190-192. Also available in print from Merlin Press.
  118. ^ Dominguez, Jorge et al. 2003 Boundary Disputes in Latin America. United States Washington, D.C.: Institute of Peace.
  119. ^ Ericka Beckman Imperial Impersonations: Chilean Racism and the War of the Pacific University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
  120. ^ Farcau 2000, p. 169
  121. ^ William E. Skuban Lines in the sand: nationalism and identity on the Peruvian-Chilean frontier page 79:
    "because it is undoubtedly preferable to be Chilean than Peruvian, because has a cleaner and more glorious history, and its better to belong to the phalanx of the conquerors than that of the conquered, because the Chilean race is more virile, valiant, prouder, nobler and more enterprising than the Peruvian race, which due to reasons of climate will always be enervated" Chilean newspaper El Corvo quote in page 80
  122. ^ "Chile returns looted Peru books" BBC Newshttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/7082436.stm
  123. ^ Chile: physical features, natural resources, means of communication by George J. Mills, William Henry Koebel (page 39)
  124. ^ Scheina 2003, p. 388
  125. ^ Larson, Brooke. 2004. Trials of Nation Making: Liberalism, Race and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810-1910. Page 178.
  126. ^ Larson, Brooke. 2004. Trials of Nation Making: Liberalism, Race and Ethnicity in the Andes, 1810-1910. Page 196.

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