Infobox Settlement
official_name = Iquique
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imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Iquique


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subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = Chile
subdivision_type1 = Region
subdivision_name1 = Tarapacá
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established_title = Founded
established_date = 16th Century
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population_as_of = 2002
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population_total = 216,419
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timezone = PET
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = PET
utc_offset_DST = -5
latd = 20
latm = 13
lats =
latNS = S
longd = 70
longm = 9
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longEW = W
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Iquique (pronounced|iˈkike) is a city in northern Chile, capital of Tarapacá Region, on the Pacific coast, west of the Atacama Desert and the Pampa del Tamarugal. It had a population of 216,419 as of the 2002 census [ [ Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas] , Censos 2002, accessed 10 July 2007] . It is also the main commune of the Greater Iquique.

Iquique has one of the largest duty-free commercial port centers (or "Zona Franca") of South America and has been traditionally called "Zofri". There are around 2.4 km² of warehouses, banking branches, and restaurants.


The city's name comes from the Aymara word "Ique-ique", which translates to "laziness", but can also mean "sleep" or "bed."


Although the city was founded in the sixteenth century, there is evidence of habitation in the area by the Chango people as early as 7000 BC. During colonial times, Iquique was part of the Viceroyalty of Peru as much of South America was at the time, and remained part of Peruvian territory until the end of the 19th century. Iquique's early development was due in large part to the discovery of mineral riches, particularly the presence of large deposits of sodium nitrate (Chilean saltpeter, locally called "salitre") in the Atacama Desert (then part of Peruvian territory). Some of the greatest Peruvian heroes were neighbors in Iquique, namely Alfonso Ugarte (who was elected Mayor in 1876), Ramon Zavala, a rich saltpeter entrepreneur; Guillermo Billinghurst, later President of Peru (who after being overthrown in 1914 came to Iquique - then already under Chilean rule - to live out his last years), and Ramon Castilla, three times president of Peru, who was born in San Lorenzo de Tarapaca and died in the Desert of Tiviliche, Tarapaca, who lived in Iquique during his mandate as Governor of Tarapaca in 1825.

Territorial disputes between Bolivia and Chile triggered the War of the Pacific in 1879. The outcome of the war gave Chile this portion of the Peruvian territory. Over the years there was substantial emigration from other parts of Chile to this area which was called the "Norte Grande". In subsequent years the further exportation of Chilean saltpeter (mainly to European countries) significantly helped in the development of the city, attracting foreigners and rapidly expanding housing projects.

In December 1907, the city was marred by the Santa María de Iquique Massacre when the Chilean Army, under the command of Gen. Roberto Silva-Renard, opened fire on thousands of saltpeter miners, and their wives and children, who assembled inside the Santa María School. The workers had marched into town to protest their working conditions and wages. Somewhere between 500 and 2,000 people were killed. The folk group Quilapayún recorded an album in remembrance of the event (Cantata Santa María de Iquique) in 1970. In December 2007 a series of cultural and ceremonial activities have been planned, culminating in the week between 14 to 21 December, to commemorate the centenary year of the massacre.


In July 1835, Charles Darwin, during his voyage on the "Beagle", traveled to Iquique and described it as a town "very much in want of everyday necessities, such as water and firewood." These necessities had to be brought in from a considerable distances. Darwin also visited the saltpeter works.

In 1868 and again in 1877, the former Peruvian city was devastated by earthquakes. On 13 June 2005 there was yet another earthquake, with a magnitude of 7.9 on the Richter Scale.

The Battle of Iquique was fought in the harbor of Iquique on May 21, 1879, now commemorated as Navy Day, an annual public holiday in Chile.

The most recent accident involving a spacecraft RTG was the failure of the Russian Mars 96 probe launch on 16 November 1996. The two RTGs onboard carried in total 200 g of plutonium and are assumed to have survived reentry (as they were designed to do). They are thought to now lie somewhere in a northeast-southwest running oval 320 km long by 80 km wide which is centred 32 km east of Iquique, Chile.


External links

* [ PORTAL IQUIQUE - WAYKIKE - INFO AND NEWS, magazine] (in Spanish)
* [ Iquique's CityHall] (in Spanish)
* [ Digital Newspaper Iquique On Line] (in English)
* [ Somos Iquique Blog] (in Spanish)
* [ Iquique's photos on Flickr]
* [ Zona Franca de Iquique] (in Spanish)
* [ Primer Portal de la Region Tarapaca (Iquique y el Tamarugal)] (in Spanish)
* [ Santa Maria de Iquique Massacre Centenary] (in Spanish)

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Iquique — (spr. Ikike), Hafenstadt am Stillen Ocean in der Provinz Arequipa (Peru). In der Nähe große Guanolager …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Iquique — (spr. ikīke), Hauptstadt der chilen. Provinz Tarapacá, an einer geräumigen und sichern Bucht des Stillen Ozeans, unter 20°12 südl Br., in einer öden, wasserlosen Salzsteppe, zu der das Trinkwasser aus der 160 km entfernten Kordillere geleitet… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Iquique — (spr. ikīke), Hauptstadt der chilen. Prov. Tarapaca, (1902) 42.788 E.; Ausfuhrhafen von Salpeter, Iod, Silberbarren, Borax …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Iquique — es una ciudad de Chile, capital de la I Región de Tarapacá. La superficie territorial de la comuna alcanza 2.853,3 km2. Su población, conforme al censo de 2002, es de 216.419 habitantes. Integra junto con las comunas de Alto Hospicio, Huara,… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Iquique —   [i kike], Hauptstadt der Region Tarapacá, Chile, im Großen Norden, an der Küste, 159 800 Einwohner; katholischer Bischofssitz; archäologisch ethnologisches Museum; Fischfang und verarbeitung (Gefrierfisch, Konserven, Fischmehl und öl),… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Iquique — [ē kē′ke] seaport in N Chile: pop. 153,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Iquique — En este artículo se detectaron los siguientes problemas: Necesita ser wikificado conforme a las convenciones de estilo de Wikipedia. Carece de fuentes o referencias que aparezcan en una fuente acreditada. Requiere una revisión ortográfica y… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Iquique — 20.213888888889 70.1525 Koordinaten: 20° 13′ S, 70° 9′ W Iquique …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Iquique — 20° 14′ 10″ S 70° 08′ 08″ W / 20.236236, 70.13546 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Iquique — /ee kee ke/, n. a seaport in N Chile. 64,900. * * * ▪ Chile       city, northern Chile. It is located on a rocky peninsula in the rainless Atacama Desert, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Its anchorage is protected from the open sea by the low,… …   Universalium

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