- Apostle (Christian)
The term apostle is derived from Classical Greek ἀπόστολος (pron.:"apóstolos"), meaning one who is sent away, from στέλλω ("stello", to send) + από ("apo", away from). The literal meaning in English is therefore an "emissary", from the Latin mitto (to send) + ex (away from). The purpose of such "sending away" (not strictly "forth" which implies "forward", πρό ("pro" in Greek), and pro in Latin) is to convey messages. Thus "a messenger" is an appropriate alternative translation. In the case of the Christian apostles, the message they were sent away to convey was the message of the "good news of the Gospel of Jesus Christ", and they were sent by the Holy Spirit at Pentecost to the Jews. Before their sending away at Pentecost the Twelve had been mere "Disciples", from Latin discipulus, one who learns, from disco, to learn. Pentecost was for them thus a form of graduation, from Latin gradus, a step, on which occasion, having been filled with the gift of the Holy Spirit, they stepped-up from being students to teachers. Apostle is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew word shaliah. Jesus is stated in the Bible to have had Twelve Apostles who by the Great Commission spread the message of the Gospel after his resurrection. There is also a tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of Seventy Apostles.
Saul of Tarsus, not one of the Twelve or the Seventy and a recent convert, claimed the title of Apostle to the Gentiles, even though other apostles actively recruited Gentiles (non Jews) and Peter's role was never restricted to just Apostle to the Jews (see also Circumcision controversy in early Christianity, Incident at Antioch, Primacy of Simon Peter, and Paul of Tarsus and Judaism), indeed traditionally the first Gentile convert is considered to be Cornelius the Centurion, who was recruited by Peter. Paul claimed a special commission from the resurrected Jesus, separate from the Great Commission given to the Twelve. Paul did not restrict the term apostle to the Twelve, referring to his mentor Barnabas and others as apostles, either because he didn't know it or resisted it. This restricted usage appears in Revelation. In modern usage, major missionaries are sometimes termed apostles, as in Saint Patrick, Apostle of Ireland.
The period of Early Christianity during the lifetimes of the apostles is called the Apostolic Age. In the 2nd century, association with the apostles was esteemed as evidence of authority (later called orthodoxy). Paul's epistles were accepted as scripture (see Development of the New Testament canon), and two of the four gospels were associated with apostles, as were other New Testament works. Various Christian texts, such as the Didache and the Apostolic Constitutions, were attributed to the Twelve Apostles. Bishops traced their lines of succession back to individual apostles, who were said to have established churches across great territories. Christian bishops have traditionally claimed authority deriving, by apostolic succession, from the Twelve. Early church fathers came to be associated with apostles, such as Pope Clement I with Peter the Apostle (see Apostolic Fathers). The Apostles' Creed, popular in the West, was said to have been composed by the apostles themselves.
The word "apostle" has two meanings, the broader meaning of a messenger and the narrow meaning of an early apostle directly linked to Jesus Christ. The more general meaning of the word is translated into Latin as 'missio', and from this word we get 'missionary.'
The word apostle comes from the Greek word ἀπόστολος (apostolos). According to the Bauer lexicon, Walter Bauer's Greek-English Lexicon of the NT: "…Judaism had an office known as apostle (שליח)". See also Proselytes. The Friberg Greek Lexicon gives a broad definition as one who is sent on a mission, a commissioned representative of a congregation, a messenger for God, a person who has the special task of founding and establishing churches. The UBS Greek Dictionary also describes an apostle broadly as a messenger. The Louw-Nida Lexicon gives a very narrow definition of a special messenger, generally restricted to the immediate followers of Jesus, or extended to some others like Paul or other early Christians active in proclaiming the gospel.
The Apostles are portrayed in the New Testament as having been Galilean Jews. The names of the majority of them are Hebrew names, although some had Greek names. That the Twelve Apostles were all Jews is supported in several ways. Jesus’ statements that his mission is directed only to those of the house of Israel,
The Gospel of Mark
There is also evidence that follows those marked Apostle. Paul made his case to the Corinthian Church that he was an apostle by the evidence of God's power working through him. Paul states, "The things that mark an apostle—signs, wonders and miracles—were done among you with great perseverance."
The Twelve Apostles
The Twelve Apostles comprise the following:
- Peter (whom some denominations consider the "Prince of the Apostles");
- James the Greater
- James the Lesser
- Judas Iscariot
- Simon Peter: Renamed by Jesus to Peter (meaning rock), his original name was Simon bar Jonah;
- Andrew: The brother of Simon/Peter, a Bethsaida fisherman, and a former disciple of John the Baptist.
- James, son of Zebedee: The brother of John.
- John: The brother of James. Jesus named both of them Bo-aner'ges, which means "sons of thunder'.'"
- Philip: From the Bethsaida of Galilee
- Bartholomew, son of Talemai; usually identified with Nathanael, who is mentioned in .
- Matthew: The tax collector. The similarity between , and may indicate that Matthew was also known as Levi.
- Thomas: Judas Thomas Didymus - Aramaic T'oma' = twin, and Greek Didymos = twin. Doubting Thomas.
- James, son of Alphaeus: Generally identified with "James the Less", and also identified by Roman Catholics with "James the Just".
- Thaddeus: In some manuscripts of Matthew, the name "Lebbaeus" occurs in this place. Thaddeus is traditionally identified with Jude; see below.
- Simon the Zealot: Some have identified him with Simeon of Jerusalem.
- Judas Iscariot: The disciple who later betrayed Jesus.
The list in the Gospel of Luke differs from Matthew and Mark at two points:
- It lists "Judas, son of James" instead of "Thaddeus." In order to harmonize the accounts, some traditions have said that Luke's "Judas, son of James" refers to the same person as Mark and Matthew's "Thaddeus," though it is not clear whether this has a good basis. (For more information see Jude the Apostle).
- In the Authorized Version of the Bible refers to the first Judas (not Judas Iscariot) as the brother of James, not the son of James, but the words "the brother" are in italics in that Bible translation and thus the translators indicated there are no corresponding Greek words for "the brother" in that verse.
- The wording in Luke may be translated "Simon the Cananean" instead of "Simon the Zealot". These are generally thought to be the same person. (See Simon the Zealot).
Gospel of John
The Gospel of John, unlike the Synoptic Gospels, does not offer a formal list of apostles, though it refers to "the Twelve" in a single scene . However, the gospel does not present any elaboration, what "the Twelve" actually was, making the scene at the end of the chapter 6 appear suspiciously disjointed with the rest of the narrative. There is also no separation of "apostles" and "disciples" in the gospel. All in all, only the following disciples are mentioned:
- Andrew (identified as Peter's brother)
- the sons of Zebedee (presumably meaning John and James, though they are not named)
- Thomas (also called Didymus)
- Judas Iscariot
- Judas (not Iscariot)
Of these, only Nathanael is not in the lists in the other gospels. He has traditionally been identified with Bartholomew, though this identification is disputed by some. As a complete name "Nathanael Bar-tholomew" would be consistent with contemporary naming conventions. (See Bartholomew the Apostle).
Apart from Bartholomew, the three not mentioned at all in John's gospel are James son of Alphaeus, Matthew, and Simon the Canaanite/Zealot.
Calling by Jesus
The three Synoptic Gospels record the circumstances in which some of the disciples were recruited, Matthew only describing the recruitment of Simon, Andrew, James, and John. All three Synoptic Gospels state that these four were recruited fairly soon after Jesus returned from being tempted by the devil.
Despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, they are all described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets to do so. Traditionally the immediacy of their consent was viewed as an example of divine power, although this statement isn't made in the text itself. The alternative and much more ordinary solution is that Jesus was simply friends with the individuals beforehand, as implied by the Gospel of John, which states that Andrew and an unnamed other had been a disciple of John the Baptist, and started following Jesus as soon as Jesus had been baptized. The Bible identifies Jesus as a tekton
Albright and Mann extrapolate from Simon's and Andrew's abandonment of their nets, that Matthew is emphasizing the importance of renunciation by converting to Christianity, since fishing was profitable, though required large start-up costs, and abandoning everything would have been an important sacrifice. Regardless, Simon and Andrew's abandonment of what were effectively their most important worldly possessions was taken as a model by later Christian ascetics.
Matthew describes Jesus meeting James and John, also fishermen and brothers, very shortly after recruiting Simon and Andrew. Matthew and Mark identify James and John as sons of Zebedee. Luke adds to Matthew and Mark that James and John worked as a team with Simon and Andrew. Matthew states that at the time of the encounter, James and John were repairing their nets, but readily joined Jesus without hesitation. This parallels the accounts of Mark and Luke, but Matthew implies that the men have also abandoned their father (since he is present in the ship they abandon behind them), and Carter feels this should be interpreted to mean that Matthew's view of Jesus is one of a figure rejecting the traditional patriarchal structure of society, where the father had command over his children; most scholars, however, just interpret it to mean that Matthew intended these two to be seen as even more devoted than the other pair.
The synoptics go on to describe that much later, after Jesus had later begun his ministry, Jesus noticed, while teaching, a tax collector in his booth. The tax collector, Levi according to some Gospels, Matthew according to others, is asked by Jesus to become one of his disciples. Matthew/Levi is stated to have accepted and then invited Jesus for a meal with his friends. Tax collectors were seen as villains in Jewish society, and the Pharisees are described by the synoptics as asking Jesus why he is having a meal with such disreputable people. The reply Jesus gives to this is now well known: it is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners.
After Judas Iscariot betrayed Christ and then in guilt committed suicide before Christ's resurrection (in one Gospel account), the apostles numbered eleven. When Jesus had been taken up from them, in preparation for the coming of the Holy Spirit that he had promised them, Peter advised the brethren:Judas, who was guide to those who took Jesus... For he was numbered with us, and received his portion in this ministry... For it is written in the book of Psalms, 'Let his habitation be made desolate, Let no one dwell therein', and, 'Let another take his office'... So one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us, beginning from the baptism of John until the day he was taken up from us, must become with us a witness to his resurrection—
So, between the ascension of Christ and the day of Pentecost, the remaining apostles elected a twelfth apostle by casting lots, a traditional Jewish way to determine the Will of God. The lot fell upon Matthias.
This is one of several verses used by the Orthodox Churches (including Catholic, Anglican, and Eastern Orthodox Churches) in support of their teaching of Apostolic Succession, and by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in support of the Great Apostasy.
First Epistle to the Corinthians
Paul of Tarsus, in his First Epistle to the Corinthians, appears to give the first historical reference to the Twelve Apostles:For what I received I passed on to you as of first importance: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, that he was buried, that he was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that he appeared to Cephas, and then to the Twelve. After that, he appeared to more than five hundred of the brothers and sisters at the same time, most of whom are still living, though some have fallen asleep. Then he appeared to James, then to all the apostles, and last of all he appeared to me also, as to one abnormally born—
The text has some unresolved issues. Paul does not refer to "the Twelve" anywhere else in his writings, nor did he ever limit the usage of the word "Apostle" to the Twelve disciples who by definition were the ones appointed as Apostles.
Deaths of the Twelve Apostles
Christian tradition has generally passed down that all but one were martyred, with John surviving into old age. Only the death of James, son of Zebedee is described in the New Testament, and the details of the other deaths are the subject of pious legends of varying authenticity. In some cases there is near unanimity in the tradition, and in other cases, there are widely varying and inconsistent accounts.
Judas Iscariot, originally one of the Twelve, died during Jesus' trial. Matthew 27:5 says that he hanged himself, and Acts 1:18 says that he fell, burst open, and his "bowels gushed out." Matthias was elected to take his place as one of the Twelve.
According to Christian tradition:
Original Twelve picked by Jesus:
- Peter, crucified upside-down in Rome c. AD 64.
- James, son of Zebedee was beheaded in AD 44, first of the Twelve to die (since the addition of Matthias)
- John, son of Zebedee, no biblical record of death, he is believed to have died of natural causes due to old age. Members of the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints believe that John was immortalized and he will live to see the Second Coming of Christ.
- Andrew, Peter's brother, was crucified upon a diagonal or X-shaped cross.
- Philip was crucified in AD 54.
- Bartholomew (also known as Nathaniel) was flayed alive (skinned) and then beheaded; some sources locate his death at Derbend on the Caspian Sea.
- Matthew killed by an axe in AD 60.
- Thomas was killed by a spear in Mylapore, Madras, India in AD 72.
- James, son of Alphaeus, stoned at age 90 then clubbed to death.
- Jude was crucified.
- Simon the Zealot was crucified in AD 74.
- Judas Iscariot, according to Matthew, hanged himself after betraying Jesus. In Acts, he is described as falling in a field and bursting open. Apologists explain this apparent discrepancy by presuming that he decayed on the tree resulting in a bloating with gas and a weakening of the skin. Then when he was let down from the tree he burst open upon impact. A third account by Papias records Judas "walking the world", his body having become swollen before being crushed by a chariot." "
Replacement for Judas Iscariot picked by the surviving eleven:
- Matthias, Judas' replacement, was stoned and beheaded.
Tombs of the Apostles
Out of the eleven Apostles excluding Judas Iscariot, the burial sites of only seven have been identified.
St. Philip Martyrium, Hierapolis, near Denizli, Turkey. It is said that St. Philip is buried in the center of the building, but his grave has not been discovered. On Wednesday, 27 July 2011 the Turkish news agency Anadolu reported that archeologists had unearthed the Tomb of Saint Philip during excavations in the Turkish city of Hierapolis. The Italian professor Francesco D'Andria stated that scientists had discovered the tomb, within a newly revealed church. He stated that the design of the Tomb, and writings on its walls, definitively prove it belonged to the martyred Apostle of Jesus.
The Apostle to the Gentiles: Paul of Tarsus
In his writings, Paul, though not one of the original twelve, described himself as an apostle, one "born out of time" (e.g.,and other letters). However, he was called or appointed "apostle" by the resurrected Jesus himself during his Road to Damascus vision.
Other Apostles in the New Testament
In Barnabas is referred to as an apostle.,
Andronicus and Junia
InPaul states that Andronicus and Junia were "of note among the apostles," subjectively this has been traditionally interpreted in one of two ways:
1) That Andronicus and Junia were "of note among the apostles," that is, distinguished apostles.
2) That Andronicus and Junia were "well known among the Apostles" meaning "well known to the Apostles".
In the first view it is believed that, Paul is referring to a female apostle. Unhappy with reference to a female apostle, editors and translators have often changed the name to "Junias," the masculine version of Junia, as in the Revised Standard Version. While "Junia" was a common name, "Junias" was not. This alteration is part of a pattern by which later editors changed Paul's epistles to make them less favorable toward women in positions of authority.
In the second view, it is believed that Paul is simply making mention of the outstanding character of these two people which was acknowledged by the Apostles.
Historically it has been virtually impossible to tell which of the two views were correct. The second view has however, in recent years, been defended from a scholarly perspective by Daniel Wallace and Michael Burer. Following a careful examination of this Greek phrase (episēmoi + the preposition en) in biblical Greek, patristic Greek, papyri, inscriptions as well as Hellenistic and classical Greek texts, they convincingly reveal that the normal way one would attempt to convey the meaning 'to the Apostles' rather than 'among the Apostles' was employed by Paul. Thus, revealing the second interpretation to be correct.
Silas is referred to as an apostle inand along with Timothy and Paul. He also performs the functioning of an apostle as Paul's companion in Paul's second missionary journey in
Timothy is referred to as an apostle inand along with Silas and Paul. However, in he is only called a "brother" when Paul refers to himself as "an apostle of Christ". Timothy performs many of the functions of an apostle in the commissioning of Paul in 1st and 2nd Timothy, though in those epistles Paul refers to him as his "son" in the faith.
Apollos is included as "us apostles" in(see , , and ) along with Paul and Cephas (Peter).
Later Christianizing apostles
Roman Catholic tradition
A number of successful pioneering missionaries are known as Apostles. In this sense, in the traditional list below, the apostle either first brought Christianity to a land or a people, or spread the faith in places where a few struggling Christian communities did already exist.
- Apostle to the Abyssinians: Saint Frumentius
- Apostle to the Caucasian Albania: Saint Yelisey
- Apostle of the Alleghanies: Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin, 1770–1840
- Apostle of Andalusia: Juan de Avila, 1500–1569
- Apostle of the Ardennes: Saint Hubertus, 656–727
- Apostle to the Armenians: Saint Gregory the Illuminator, 256–331
- Apostle to Berkshire: Thomas Russell
- Apostle to Brazil: José de Anchieta, 1533–1597
- Apostle to Carantania: Saint Vergilius of Salzburg, Bishop, (745–84)
- Apostle to the English: Saint Augustine of Canterbury, died 604
- Apostle of the Eucharist: Saint Peter Julian Eymard
- Apostle to the Franks: Saint Remigius, c. 437–533
- Apostle to the Frisians: Saint Willibrord, 657–738
- Apostle of Gaul: Saint Irenaeus, 130–200
- Apostle of Gaul: Saint Denis (3rd century)
- Apostle of Gaul: Saint Martin of Tours, 338–401
- Apostle to the Gauls: Saint Saturninus, died c. 257
- Apostle to the Georgians: Saint Nino, 320s
- Apostle to the Gentiles: Saint Paul
- Apostle to the Germans: Saint Boniface, 680–755
- Apostle of Holstein: Saint Vicelinus, 1086–1154
- Apostle to Hungary: Saint Anastasius, 954–1044
- Apostle to India: Saint Thomas
- Apostle to India: Saint Francis Xavier; 1506–1552
- Apostle to the "Indians" (Amerindians): John Eliot, 1604–1690
- Apostle to the Indies (West): Bartolomé de las Casas, 1474–1566
- Apostle to the Indies (East): Saint Francis Xavier, 1506–1552
- Apostle to Ireland: Saint Patrick, 373–463
- Apostle to the Iroquois, Francois Piquet, 1708–1781
- Apostle of Mercy: Saint Faustina Kowalska, 1905–1938
- Apostle to Noricum: Saint Severinus
- Apostle to the North: Saint Ansgar, 801–864
- Apostle to the Parthians: Saint Thomas
- Apostle of the Permians: Saint Stephen of Perm, 1340–1396
- Apostle of Peru: Alonzo de Barcena, 1528–1598
- Apostle to the Picts: Saint Ninian, 5th century
- Apostle to the Polish: Saint Adalbert
- Apostle to the Pomeranians: Saint Otto, 1060–1139
- Apostle to the Scots: Saint Columba, 521–597
- Apostles to the Slavs: Saints Cyril and Methodius, c 820–869
- Apostle of Spains: Saint James the Greater (d. 44)
- Apostle of the Wends: Saint Evermode, d.1178
Analogous use for non-Catholic missionaries:
- Apostle to the Americas: Saint Innocent, 1797–1879
- Apostle to the Cherokees: Cephas Washburn
- Apostle to China: Hudson Taylor
- Apostle to the Goths: Bishop Ulfilas (Arian)
"Apostle to the Apostles"
Mary Magdalene Harvard theologian Karen King cites references in the Gospel of John that the risen Jesus gives Mary Magdalene special teaching and commissions her as an "Apostle to the Apostles." Mary is the first to announce the resurrection and to fulfill the role of an Apostle─someone sent by Jesus with a special message or commission, to spread the gospel ("good news") and to lead the early church. The first message she was given was to announce to Peter and the others that "He is risen!"(Mt. 28:7 Mk. 16:9-11 Lk. 24:10 Jn. 20:2) Although the term is not specifically used of her in the New Testament, Eastern Christianity refers to her as "Equal to the Apostles"), and later traditions name her as "the apostle to the apostles." King writes that the strength of this literary tradition makes it possible to suggest that historically Mary was a prophetic visionary and leader within one sector of the early Christian movement after the death of Jesus .
"Equal to the Apostles"
Some Eastern Orthodox saints are given the title isapostolos ("equal-to-the-apostles"; Russian: равноапостольный), e.g., Saint Cosmas. Beginning with Saint Constantine, this was also a frequent title of Byzantine Emperors.
The Emperor Constantine the Great, sometimes considered founder of the Byzantine Empire, formally recognized Christianity in the Roman Empire in the Edict of Milan in 313 (see also Constantine I and Christianity). According to Philip Schaff's History of the Christian Church: "Soon after his death, Eusebius set him above the greatest princes of all times; from the fifth century he began to be recognized in the East as a saint; and the Greek and Russian church to this day celebrates his memory under the extravagant title of "Isapostolos", the "Equal of the apostles". The Latin church, on the contrary, has never placed him among the saints, but has been content with naming him "the Great," in remembrance of his services to the cause of Christianity and civilization. Comp the Acta Sact. ad 21 Maii, p. 13 sq. Niebuhr remarks: "When certain oriental writers call Constantine 'equal to the Apostles', they do not know what they are saying; and to speak of him as a 'saint' is a profanation of the word".
Latter Day Saint Apostles
Latter Day Saints believe that since Jesus Christ established his Church "upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets" (Eph 2:20; Eph 4:11-14), these will always be part of the living ministering and presiding officers of the Church. For this reason The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and other Latter Day Saint sects usually have at least twelve apostles. When one apostle dies, a new apostle is usually named to take that position. An LDS Church article of faith on this subject says: "We believe in the same organization that existed in the Primitive Church, namely, apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, and so forth."
The fivefold ministry states that the apostle continues to be a valid and active office in the contemporary church. C. Peter Wagner has been especially prominent in the New Apostolic Reformation, which argues that God is restoring the lost offices of prophet and apostle.
- Navarre RSV Holy Bible. Four Courts Press, Dublin, Ireland, 1999.
- Albright, W.F. and C.S. Mann. "Matthew." The Anchor Bible Series. New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971.
- Pope Benedict XVI, "The Apostles", published 2007, in the US: ISBN 978-1-59276-405-1; different edition published in the UK under the title: "Christ and His Church – Seeing the face of Jesus in the Church of the Apostles", ISBN 978-1-86082-441-8.
- Carson, D.A. "The Limits of Functional Equivalence in Bible Translation - and other Limits Too." The Challenge of Bible Translation: Communicating God's Word to the World. edited by Glen G Scorgie, Mark L. Strauss, Steven M. Voth.
- Carter, Warren. "Matthew 4:18-22 and Matthean Discipleship: An Audience-Oriented Perspective." Catholic Bible Quarterly. Vol. 59. No. 1. 1997.
- Clarke, Howard W. The Gospel of Matthew and its Readers: A Historical Introduction to the First Gospel. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003.
- "Fishers of Men." A Dictionary of Biblical Tradition in English Literature. David Lyle Jeffrey, general editor. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1992.
- France, R.T. The Gospel According to Matthew: an Introduction and Commentary. Leicester: Inter-Varsity, 1985.
- Manek, Jindrich. "Fishers of Men." Novum Testamentum. 1958 pg. 138
- Schweizer, Eduard. The Good News According to Matthew. Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1975
- Wuellner, Wilhelm H. The Meaning of "Fishers of Men". Westminster Press, 1967.
- The Lost Gospel - The Book of Q. by Burton L Mack
- Apostles' Fast
- Apostolic Fathers
- Apostolic succession
- Commissioning the twelve Apostles
- Apostolic Council
- Dispersion of the Apostles
- Great Commission
- List of Members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles (Latter-day Saint)
- New Apostolic Church
- New Testament
- Old Apostolic Church
- Seventy Disciples
- Disciples of Jesus in Islam
- Twelve Imams
- ^ Liddell & Scott's Greek-English Lexicon, Oxford, 1944
- ^ Cassell's Latin Dictionary, Revised by Marchant & Charles
- ^ a b c d "Apostle." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005.
- ^ Revelation 21:14.
- ^ "Apostolic Age." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005.
- ^ As was not uncommon for Jews at the time, some of them had two names, one Hebrew/Aramaic and the other Greek. Hence the lists of Jesus' twelve Apostles contains 14 names not 12; the 4 Greek names are Andrew, Philip, Thaddaeus and Lebbaeus. Reference: John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew.
- ^ At least by their "shining" example, see e.g., "The Lord says:... I will also give you for a light to the nations, that you may be my salvation to the end of the earth";
- ^ βασιλειαν
- ^ θρονων
- ^ κρινοντες
- ^ cf. also , , , .
- ^ "Peter, St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005.
- ^ In , Judas hangs himself. In , Judas falls and bursts open, not unequivocally a suicide. "Judas Iscariot." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005.
- ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. "Mark" pp. 285-296.
- ^ Green, Joel B; Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall (1992). Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. The IVP Bible Dictionary Series. InterVarsity Press. pp. 180. ISBN 978-0-8308-1777-1.
- ^ St. Matthew at the Catholic Encyclopedi
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: The Brethern of the Lord: "His [James the brother of the Lord] identity with James the Less
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia.
- ^ "An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon." The Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon. Clarendon Press: Oxford, p. 797.
- ^ "John the Revelator" from The Friend
- ^ See, for example, his entry in the Oxford Dictionary of Saints.
- ^ (Papias Fragment 3, 1742-1744).
- ^ cf. ; , , ,
- ^ May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977.
- ^ Crossan, J. D. and Reed, J. L., In Search of Paul, Harper San Francisco (2004), pp. 115-116. ISBN 978-0-06-051457-0.
- ^ a b c d Ehrman, Bart. Peter, Paul, and Mary Magdalene: The Followers of Jesus in History and Legend. Oxford University Press, USA. 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-530013-0.
- ^ See Daniel B. Wallace and Michael H. Burer, "Was Junia Really an Apostle?" NTS 47 (2001): 76-91.
- ^ King, Karen I. "Women in Ancient Christianity: the New Discoveries." Public Broadcasting System (PBS) Frontline: From Jesus to Christ—The First Christians. Online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/first/women.html. Accessed 01–11–2008
- ^ "Articles of Faith of the LDS Church". LDS public page. LDS Church. http://mormon.org/articles-of-faith/. Retrieved 03-Oct-2011.
- ^ This is the title on the dust jacket, whereas on the title page the full title is given as "The Origins of the Church – The Apostles and Their Co-Workers".
- Apostles article from The Catholic Encyclopedia
- Apostle in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
- Apostle article from Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge
- Liddell & Scott
- Strong's G652
- Apostle and Apostleship article from Jewish Encyclopedia
- The Twelve Apostles The Biographies of The Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, the son of God.
- Apostles.com Biographies of Christ's Apostles
- Fishing in First Century Judea
- The Fishing Economy in Galilee
- The Twelve Apostles an Eastern Orthodox perspective by Rev. George Mastrantonis
- Apostle article from OrthodoxWiki
- Christian History: The Twelve Apostles
- Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of The Church of Jesus-Christ of Latter-Day Saints.
Commissioning of the Twelve
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New Wine into Old Wineskins
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