- Independent Catholic Churches
Independent Catholic Churches are
Christian denominations (or ) which claim apostolic succession for their bishops but are not a part of the Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Old Catholic Churches under the Archbishop of Utrecht or the Anglican Communion. Independent Catholic bishops are sometimes referred to as " episcopi vagantes" ("wandering bishops") because of their lack of affiliation with a larger communion of churches.
Although the term
Old Catholicwas first used in 1853 to describe those Catholics belonging to Utrecht in the Netherlands, most scholars date the "modern" Old Catholicmovement to the 1870s. After the First Vatican Councilin 1870 considerable groups of Austrian, German and SwissCatholics rejected the declaration of papal infallibilityand left to form their own churches independent of the pope. These churches were supported by the Old Catholic Archbishop of Utrechtwho ordained their priests and bishops. Later they united more formally under the name Utrecht Union of Churches [ [http://www.concentric.net/~Cosmas/indcath.htm Independent Catholicism ] ] .
The "Independent" Catholic Movement came to
Great Britainin 1908 when Arnold Harris Mathew was consecrated a bishop in the Old Catholic Church of Utrecht. Utrecht incorrectly believed that Mathew had a significant following in the United Kingdom, and also that there would be a wave of clergy wanting to leave the Church of England as a result of Pope Leo XIII's declaration that Anglican orders were null and void. Mathew believed that Old Catholicism would provide a home for these disaffected clergy; the mass conversions never materialised. Before breaking with the Union of UtrechtMathew ordained several individuals to the episcopacy and priesthood, from whom a number of new churches quickly developed, including the Liberal Catholic Church, the first bishop of which was James Wedgwood, consecrated by F.S.Willoughby, who had in turn been consecrated by Mathew. [ [http://www.concentric.net/~Cosmas/indcath.htm Independent Catholicism ] ] Joseph René Vilatteis credited with being the first person to bring the Independent Movement to North America. [ [http://www.concentric.net/~Cosmas/indcath.htm Independent Catholicism ] ] An Old Catholic priest, in 1892 Vilatte travelled to Ceylonwhere he obtained ordination to the episcopacy by Archbishop Alvarez of the Independent Catholic Church of Ceylon. Over the following twenty-eight years Vilatte consecrated a number of men to the episcopacy; these bishops, or their successors, went on to found many different jurisdictions in the United States, including the American Catholic Church, the African Orthodox Church, the Apostolic Christian Church, the Free Church of Antiochand the Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch, Malabar Rite [ [http://www.concentric.net/~Cosmas/indcath.htm Independent Catholicism ] ] .
Independent Catholic groups
Many, but not all, Independent Catholic clergy claim descent from the Old Catholics of Utrecht, although Utrecht does not accept their orders, and considers them to be invalid. Like Orthodoxy, Utrecht holds that ordinations can only be done within the Church as a whole and with appropriate permission. Some Independent groups in North America began life as
Protestantand/or Charismatic congregations; for example, the Charismatic Episcopal Churchcame into being when charismatic fellowships rediscovered both sacramentalism and the historical apostolic succession. Another similar group, the Evangelical Orthodox Church, found its way into mainstream Eastern Orthodoxy: one part joined the Antiochan Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America in 1987, other parishes later entered the Orthodox Church in America, whilst a remnant, which does not claim traditional apostolic succession, has kept the name EOC and continues as an independent communion. Since the orders of the EOC were not regarded as valid by the Orthodox bishops, the reception of clergy into mainstream Orthodoxy was always accompanied by their ordination.
Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Churchwas founded in the 1940s as Bishop Carlos Duarte Costawithdrew from the Roman Catholic Church in protest against the Church's perceived support of Naziswho fled to Latin America. Duarte Costa went on to consecrate other bishops in Europe as well as North and South America. Several Independent Catholic bodies today claim to trace their apostolic succession through Duarte Costa.
A number of liturgical churches are sometimes regarded as Independent Catholics, but do not fit neatly in this category.
Continuing Anglican Churchesare sometimes included in this grouping, but this is controversial, especially with regard to the larger Anglican bodies, and these Continuing Churches do not count themselves as being within the Independent Catholic movement. Traditionalist Roman Catholic groups are sometimes regarded as Independent Catholics (i.e. not in communion with the pope), but these groups do not see themselves in this manner; rather they regard themselves as being the true Church, believing that Catholicism has embraced teachings which are schismatic, or even hereticalsince the Second Vatican Council. A similar controversy exists regarding the Old Calendar Eastern Orthodoxjurisdictions, including the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Churchand bodies which split from mainstream Orthodoxy specifically in order to maintain the Old Liturgical Calendar. There have been attempts to construct broader categories to include many of these groups, the most well known of which is the " Independent Sacramental Movement," but most of these conservative/traditional churches would still be uncomfortable with such a characterisation. Evangelical Catholicgroups such as the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church(formerly the Evangelical Community Church-Lutheran,) consider themselves to be Lutheran, rather than Catholic, as their origins are Lutheran. On the contrary, others, such as the Antiochian Catholic Church in America, do describe themselves as Catholic, while claiming that their doctrine is based, with variations, on that of a Church that has been unrelated to the Catholic Church for centuries.
Polish National Catholic Churchis occasionally referred to as an Independent Catholic Church; however, the PNCC rejects this designation. The PNCC derives its orders from the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht, but is no longer in communion with Utrecht or the Episcopal Church in the United States of America. These relationships ended because the PNCC rejects the ordination of both women and sexually active gays. Whilst no longer in communion with any other body, the PNCC remains a relatively substantial denomination, maintaining active dialogue with the Catholic and Orthodox Churches, and is a member of the World Council of Churches.
A very few Independent groups have grown to a larger size (e.g. The Ecumenical Catholic Communion) but the majority consist of one or two bishops, a few priests and deacons, and a small number of adherents. In numerous cases, bishops have been consecrated without having any priests under their jurisdiction, and some bishops have undergone several consecrations in an attempt to secure a more diverse claim to
Faith and practice
Virtually all members of the Independent Movement worship according to a set
liturgy, usually derived from a mainstream historical Christian rite, such as the Syriac, Byzantine, or Roman. Sometimes they use a liturgy that is a combination of two or more of these historical liturgies or one that is unique to the group in question. By definition, all such groups are episcopal in polity, being led by bishops and priests who are assisted by deacons. All hold to some type of sacramental understanding of the Christianfaith related to that broadly held in common by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Assyrian, and AnglicanChurches. Many also affirm the text of the Nicene Creed, but interpretations vary widely.
However, Independent groups disagree on the
ordination of women, the ordinationof sexually active gays and lesbians, the acceptability of same-sex marital unions, abortion, contraception, divorce, and other issues that are controversial also in more mainstream sections of Christianity. Unlike most of their more conventional counterparts, these groups, usually being quite small, tend to be internally fairly homogeneous on these and other issues; in other words, divisions on these and other questions are between these groups, not so much within them.
These Independent congregations represent a variety of doctrines. Some, such as the
Liberal Catholic Church,the Free Church of Antioch, the Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch – Malabar Rite (the "Church of Antioch"), and the recently formed [http://www.youngrite.org Young Rite] are characterised by a theosophical or New Ageorientation. In the mind of the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Utrecht churches such beliefs as theosophy and reincarnation would render invalid any ordinations regardless of the rite employed in the ceremony. Other independent groups are quite conservative, following extremely traditionalist Catholic or Old Calendar Orthodox positions; still others describe themselves as " Evangelical Catholic" and High Church Lutherans.
Many have embraced the model of parish organisation in which a bishop, not a priest, is the
pastorof a parish. This model enables those who wish to become bishops to rationalise the process even when there are no other members of the clergy in the group. Thus, a high percentage of Independent clergy end up seeking ordination to the episcopacy. Congregations tend to be minuscule and sometimes even non-existent e.g. the website of the Liberal Catholic Apostolic Church states that it has no laity at present (January 2008). [ [http://www.ancientcatholicchurch.org/index.html The Ancient Catholic Church | Official website of the independent Catholic denomination founded by Archbishop Harold Nicholson ] ]
It is rare to find Independent clergy who are supported financially in their work. In the
United Kingdomthere are several who make a substantial income by conducting marriages and/or funerals, from high churchto humanistor even paganin character, leading to the charge that these people see ministry as a career rather than as a vocation. However, most Independent clergy pursue their ministry as a part-time, volunteer calling, whilst engaging in some other occupation in order to support themselves and their families.
Independent clergy have often received multiple ordinations/consecrations in an attempt to ensure a broad and diverse claim to
apostolic succession. Though perhaps less prevalent than in the past, the practice continues; for example, Archbishop Peter Paul Brennan of the African Orthodox Church, one of four who were conditionally ordained to the episcopate by the excommunicated CatholicArchbishop Emmanuel Milingoon 24 September 2006, claims to have been first consecrated on 10 June 1978, and subsequently conditionally re-consecrated a number of times prior to the ceremony conducted by Archbishop Milingo. [http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0605467.htm] . This understanding of holy orders is completely unacceptable to the leaders of Utrecht, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy whose churches are universally regarded as being the guardians of apostolic succession (they all recognise one another's orders).
The claims of many within the Independent movement to continuity with holy orders as found in the churches mentioned are based at least in part on an understanding of apostolic succession that has been held by some within the Latin Church since the time of the
Donatistcontroversy in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.According to those who hold this understanding, a person becomes a bishop if consecrated in an approved rite by another (validly ordained) bishop even when he is outside the boundaries of Catholicism. However, most Catholic theologians consider this view to be mechanical and reductionist; thus, they teach that such ceremonies have no effect on the grounds that an ordination is for service within a concrete Christian Church. Therefore an ordination ceremony that concerns only the individual himself does not correspond to the understanding of ordination held by the Catholic Church and is subsequently without efficacy. Naturally, Independent clergy reject this characterisation, seeing their bishops as always ordained for the service of others and for the Christian community, whether in a defined jurisdiction or more broadly. The Old Catholics of the Union of Utrecht, the Coptic Churchand the various Orthodox churchescompletely reject the validity of the ordinations of heretics or schismatics, and thus do not recognise the orders of Independent clergy, to whom they apply these categories.
Whilst the leadership of the Catholic Church has more than once declared that certain episcopal consecrations have no canonical effect, it has sometimes stated that it was not thereby expressing a judgement on the validity of those consecrations, but merely on their canonical efficacy. Thus, when it declared devoid of canonical effect the consecration ceremony conducted by Archbishop
Pierre Martin Ngô Đình Thụcfor the Carmelite Order of the Holy Face group on 31 December 1975, it refrained from pronouncing on its validity. It made the same statement with regard to later ordinations by those bishops, saying that, "as for those who have already thus unlawfully received ordination or any who may yet accept ordination from these, whatever may be the validity of the orders ("quidquid sit de ordinum validitate"), the Church does not and "will not recognise their ordination" ("ipsorum ordinationem"), and will consider them, for all legal effects, as still in the state in which they were before, except that the ... penalties remain until they repent" (Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Decree "Episcopi qui alios" of 17 September 1976- "Acta Apostolicae Sedis" 1976, page 623).
With regard to Archbishop
Emmanuel Milingo's episcopal ordination on four men - all of whom, by virtue of previous Independent Catholic involvement, claimed already to be bishops - on 24 September 2006: the Roman Catholic Church, as well as stating that, in accordance with Canon 1382 of the Code of Canon Law, all five men involved incurred automatic ("latae sententiae") excommunication through their actions, declared that "...the Church does not recognise and does not intend in the future to recognise these ordinations or any ordinations derived from them, and she holds that the canonical state of the four alleged bishops is the same as it was prior to the ordination"." [ [http://184.108.40.206/news_services/bulletin/news/18881.php?index=18881&po_date=26.09.2006&lang=sp#Testo%20in%20lingua%20inglese Declaration of the Press Office of the Holy See on the present ecclesial situation of Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo] ] It is therefore clear that the Holy Seeis of the belief that these four men remain lay persons and are not clergy; by this statement Catholicism follows the same theological line as the Utrecht and Orthodox churches in its understanding of ordination. It is highly significant that any Independent clergy who have been granted reconciliation with the Holy Seehave been welcomed as lay persons rather than as priests or bishops. In contrast, Rome neither questioned the validity nor the canonical effect of the consecrations that the late Archbishop Marcel Lefebvreperformed in 1988 for the service of the relatively numerous followers of the Traditionalist Roman Catholic Society of St. Pius Xthat he had founded. Lefebvre was obviously capable of forming the necessary intention whilst some have questioned the mental capacity of Archbishops Ngô and Milingo to perform ordinations according to the understanding of the Catholic Church. Ngô was advanced in age and possibly suffering from dementia and Milingo had undergone a marriage conducted by the Unification Church, which would raise questions about his theology; the Vatican statement concerning Milingo also refers to him as "elderly", with attendant implications.
The official view of the
Eastern Orthodox Churches has been summarised as follows: "While accepting the canonical possibility of recognising the existence (υποστατόν) of sacraments performed outside herself, (the Eastern Orthodox Church) questions their validity (έγκυρον)" "and certainly rejects their efficacy (ενεργόν")." [ [http://www.myriobiblos.gr/texts/english/pheidas_limits_2.html Professor Dr. Vlassios Pheidas: "Τhe limits of the church in an orthodox perspective"] ] It sees"the canonical recognition (αναγνώρισις) of the validity of sacraments performed outside the Orthodox Church (as referring) to the validity of the sacraments only of those who join the Orthodox Church (individually or as a body)." ["ibidem"] This applies to the validity and efficacy of the ordination of bishops and the other sacraments, not only of the Independent Catholic Churches, but also of all other Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and the Assyrian Church of the East.
In the final analysis, it may be said that the evaluation of Independent Catholic sacraments is solely a matter for these groups themselves. The views of other denominations e.g. the Catholic, Orthodox, Coptic and Utrecht churches may be of interest but these churches hold no authority over the independent groups. Yet, others would argue that the views of Utrecht, Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy and Oriental Orthodoxy"are" of significant importance as is it they who have been the guardians of the definition of apostolic succession, which members of the Independent movement seek so earnestly to claim - even while being rejected by these same churches.
Antiochian Catholic Church in America
Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada
Evangelical Catholic Church
The Evangelical Old Catholic Communion
Free Church of Antioch
Independent Sacramental Movement
Liberal Catholic Church
Old Catholic Church
Orthodox-Catholic Church of America
* [http://www.americancatholicchurch.org American Catholic Church - Diocese of California]
* [http://www.ctgs.us American Independent Catholic Church] A Mission Community In Colorado
* [http://www.geocities.com/frgregacca Antiochian Catholic Church in America] Independent Catholic Church in the Oriental Orthodox tradition.
* [http://www.aihmfriars.org Augustinians of the Immaculate Heart of Mary] An Independent Catholic Religious Order
* [http://www.undiscoveredself.com/sppm/ Beloved Disciple Eucharistic Catholic Church (Toronto)]
* [http://www.oldcatholic.com The Catholic Apostolic National Church]
* [http://www.cacina.org Catholic Apostolic Church in North America (CACINA)]
* [http://www.catholicchurchinamerica.org Catholic Church in America (CCA)]
* [http://www.catholicchurchofamerica.com Catholic Church of America]
* [http://www.holycatholicchurch.webs.com Catholic Church of Christ Jesus]
* [http://freechurchofantioch.org/ The Free Church of Antioch]
* [http://www.churchofantioch.org Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch - Malabar Rite]
* [http://www.iccec.org/index1.html Charismatic Episcopal Church]
* [http://www.christiansynod.org Christian Church - Synod of Saint Timothy]
* [http://www.communityofcharity.org Community of Charity Reform Catholic Church] aka Independent Old Catholic Church
* [http://www.thecontemporarycatholicchurch.org Contemporary Catholic Church]
* [http://members.aol.com/EvCathCh/index.HTML Evangelical Catholic Church]
* [http://www.thekingsfamily.org/ Evangelical Episcopal Church]
* [http://www.catholiccommunion.org/ Ecumenical Catholic Communion]
* [http://www.free-catholic.org/ Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion] The EFCC is an ecumenical, free, catholic communion of individual Christians and various ministries who support catholic unity. It is open to traditional, conservative, moderate, progressive, and liberal thought, doctrine, and liturgical expression.
** [http://www.shepherds-heart.org/ Diocese of the Shepherd's Heart] EFCC Diocese in Hollister Missouri, affiliated with the [http://www.free-catholic.org Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion]
** [http://www.shepherds-heart.org/ Order of the Shepherd's Heart - EFCC] EFCC Religious Order in Hollister Missouri, affiliated with the [http://www.free-catholic.org Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion]
** [http://www.free-catholic.org/ Diocese of Saint Brendan] EFCC Diocese in Cambridge Ohio, affiliated with the [http://www.free-catholic.org Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion]
** [http://www.free-catholic.org/ Diocese of St. Michael the Archangel] EFCC Diocese in Grand Island Nebraska, affiliated with the [http://www.free-catholic.org Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion]
** [http://www.free-catholic.org/ Diocese of St. Willibrord] EFCC Diocese in Springfield Missouri, affiliated with the [http://www.free-catholic.org Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion]
** [http://www.free-catholic.org/ Diocese of the Road to Emmaus] EFCC Diocese in Chicago Illinois, affiliated with the [http://www.free-catholic.org Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion]
* [http://acschurch.org/Home.htm Apostolic Catholic and Spiritual Church]
* [http://www.fraternityofmercy.org Fraternity of Mercy]
* [http://www.goedeherder.be Gemeenschap van de Goede Herder]
* [http://www.hifm.org [Hosanna Interfaith Catholic Ministries] An Independent, Progressive, Inclusive Church and the Ecumenical Benedictine Order of Saints John & Therese
* [http://www.hrcac.org.uk/ Holy Roman Catholic Apostolic Church]
* [http://www.indcatholicchurch.org The Independent Catholic Church] A liturgically traditional Catholic jurisdiction that is open, inclusive and non-judgemental of its members.
* [http://www.inclusivecatholics.com Independent Catholic Christian Church]
* [http://www.igrejacatolicaromanareformada.pt.to Independent Catholic in Brazil]
* [http://www.nationalcatholicchurch.org National Catholic Church of North America]
* [http://www.orccna.org/index.htm Old Roman Catholic Church of North America (ORCCNA)]
* [http://www.oocb.org/ Order of Contemporary Benedictines]
* [http://www.saintspeterandpaulrcm.com Sts. Peter and Paul Roman Catholic Mission, York, PA]
* [http://www.orthodoxcatholicchurch.org/ Orthodox-Catholic Church of America]
* [http://www.holyinnocents.com Order of the Holy Innocents]
* [http://www.reformedcatholicchurch.org Reformed Catholic Church]
* [http://www.saint-matthew.org/ St. Matthew Church, Orange, CA]
* [http://www.Independentcatholicorthodoxalliance.org.uk Traditional Catholic Orthodox Church]
* [http://www.taac.us The Ancient Apostolic Communion]
* [http://www.evocc.org The Evangelical Old Catholic Communion (EVOCC)]
* [http://www.independentoldcatholic.org The Liberal Rite]
* [http://www.oldcatholic.info The Old Catholic Church in Europe (OCCE)]
* [http://www.united-catholic-church.org United Catholic Church]
* [http://www.unitedecc.org United Ecumenical Catholic Church]
* [http://www.unitycatholic.org Unity Catholic Church / Servants of the Good Shepherd]
* [http://www.free-catholic.org/ Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion] The Ecumenical Free Catholic Communion is a grouping/gathering/umbrella organization/friendly association/communion/family of ecclesiastical jurisdictions, led by validly consecrated bishops within the Apostolic Succession, all of which are completely autocephalous or self-governing. The EFCC has come together for purposes of unity, collegiality, friendship, comradery, fellowship, and support. The communion attempts to pool and share resources like a “clearinghouse” and is trying to gather particular benefits that can only be secured through being part of a larger group than any one of the associate member jurisdictions are by themselves.
* [http://www.independentcatholics.org/ Independent Catholic Churches International]
* [http://www.independentoldcatholic.org/ilcf.html Independent Liberal Catholic Fellowship] An ecumenical, independent fellowship of clergy and denominations in the liberal Catholic tradition
* [http://www.ind-movement.org The World of Autocephalous Churches] Go-to site for information and links regarding independent Catholic Churches, especially those in North America.
* [http://www.independentmovement.us Independent Movement Database] - A database of information on the Independent Movement.
* [http://www.sophiacircle.org The Sophia Circle] Non prescriptive circle of esoterically-minded bishops
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