Zachary Taylor

Zachary Taylor
Zachary Taylor
12th President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1849[a] – July 9, 1850
Vice President Millard Fillmore
Preceded by James Polk
Succeeded by Millard Fillmore
Personal details
Born November 24, 1784(1784-11-24)
Barboursville, Virginia, U.S.
Died July 9, 1850(1850-07-09) (aged 65)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political party Whig Party
Spouse(s) Margaret Smith
Children Ann Mackall
Octavia Pannill
Margaret Smith
Mary Elizabeth
Profession Major general
Religion Episcopal
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance United States
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1808–1848
Rank Major general
Battles/wars War of 1812
Black Hawk War
Second Seminole War
Mexican–American War
 • Battle of Monterrey
 • Battle of Buena Vista

Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was the 12th President of the United States (1849–1850) and an American military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the 1848 presidential election, defeating Lewis Cass. Taylor was the last President to hold slaves while in office, and the second and also last Whig to win a presidential election.

Known as "Old Rough and Ready," Taylor had a forty-year military career in the United States Army, serving in the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, and the Second Seminole War. He achieved fame leading American troops to victory in the Battle of Palo Alto and the Battle of Monterrey during the Mexican–American War. As president, Taylor angered many Southerners by taking a moderate stance on the issue of slavery. He urged settlers in New Mexico and California to bypass the territorial stage and draft constitutions for statehood, setting the stage for the Compromise of 1850. Taylor died just 16 months into his term, the third shortest tenure of any President. He is thought to have died of gastroenteritis. Only Presidents William Henry Harrison and James Garfield served less time. Taylor was succeeded by his Vice President, Millard Fillmore.


Early life

Zachary Taylor was born on a farm on November 24, 1784, in Orange County, Virginia, to a prominent family of planters of English ancestry.[1] He was the third of five surviving sons in his family (a sixth died in infancy), and had three younger sisters.[2] His mother was Sarah Dabney (Strother) Taylor, and his father, Richard Taylor, had served as a lieutenant colonel in the American Revolution.[3] Taylor was a descendant of Elder William Brewster,[4][5] the Pilgrim colonist leader and spiritual elder of the Plymouth Colony, and passenger aboard the Mayflower and one of the signers of the Mayflower Compact; and Isaac Allerton Jr.,[6][7] a Colonial merchant and colonel who was the son of Mayflower Pilgrim Isaac Allerton and Fear Brewster. James Madison was Taylor's second cousin, and both Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Robert E. Lee were kinsmen.[8] During his youth, he lived on the frontier in Louisville, Kentucky, residing in a small cabin in a wood during most of his childhood, before moving to a brick house as a result of his family's increased prosperity.[9] He shared the house with seven brothers and sisters, and his father owned 10,000 acres (40 km2), town lots in Louisville, and twenty-six slaves by 1800.[9] Since there were no schools on the Kentucky frontier, Taylor had only a basic education growing up, provided by tutors his father hired from time to time.[10] He was reportedly a poor student; his handwriting, spelling, and grammar were described as "crude and unrefined throughout his life."[9]

Military career

Zachary Taylor led the defense of Fort Harrison near modern Terre Haute, Indiana.

On May 3, 1808, Taylor joined the U.S. Army, receiving a commission as a first lieutenant of the Seventh Infantry Regiment from his cousin James Madison. He was ordered west into Indiana Territory, and was promoted to captain in November 1810. He assumed command of Fort Knox when the commandant fled, and maintained command until 1814.[11]

During the War of 1812, Taylor successfully defended Fort Harrison in Indiana Territory, from an attack by Indians under the command of Shawnee chief Tecumseh.[10] As a result, Taylor was promoted to the temporary rank of major,[10] and led the 7th Infantry in a campaign ending in the Battle of Wild Cat Creek. Taylor was also commander of the short-lived Fort Johnson (1814), the last toehold of the U.S. Army in the upper Mississippi River Valley until it was abandoned[12] and Taylor's troops retreated to Fort Cap au Gris. Reduced to the rank of captain when the war ended in 1814, he resigned from the army, but reentered it after he was commissioned again as a major a year later.[10] In 1819, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel and was promoted to full colonel in 1832.[10]

In late 1821, stationed with what was remaining of the 7th Infantry, Lieutenant Colonel Taylor received orders from General Gaines to "take his troops up the Red River to the vicinity of Natchitoches, Louisiana for the purpose of locating a new post more convenient to the Sabine River frontier. In March 1822, Colonel Taylor took command of Fort Jesup, a small point—originally called Shield's Spring—of high ground some twenty-five miles south-southwest of Natchitoches. Charged with maintaining an American presence in the former Neutral Strip between Louisiana and Spanish Texas. Later, in 1845, Fort Jesup held Colonel Taylor's "Army of Observation" and provided a staging ground for the coming Mexican–American War[13][14]

Taylor led the 1st Infantry Regiment in the Black Hawk War of 1832, personally accepting the surrender of Chief Black Hawk.[10] In 1837, he was directed to Florida, where he defeated the Seminole Indians on Christmas Day, and afterwards was promoted to brigadier general and given command of all American troops in Florida.[10] He was made commander of the southern division of the United States Army in 1841.[10]

Mexican–American War

General Zachary Taylor in uniform

In 1845, Texas became a U.S. state, and President James K. Polk directed Taylor to deploy into disputed territory on the Texas–Mexico border,[9] under the order to defend the state against any attempts by Mexico to take it back after it had lost control by 1836.[10] Taylor was given command of American troops on the Rio Grande,[15] the Army of Occupation, on April 23, 1845. When some of Taylor's men were attacked by Mexican forces near the river, Polk told Congress in May 1846 that a war between Mexico and the United States had started by an act of the former.[9] That same month, Taylor commanded American forces at the Battle of Palo Alto, using superior artillery to defeat the significantly larger Mexican opposition.[9] In September, Taylor was able to inflict heavy casualties upon the Mexican defenders at the Battle of Monterrey.[9] The city of Monterrey was considered "un-destroyable".[9] He was criticized for not ensuring the Mexican army that surrendered at Monterrey disbanded.[9] Afterwards, half of Taylor's army was ordered to join General Winfield Scott's soldiers as they besieged Veracruz.[9] Mexican General Antonio López de Santa Anna discovered, through a letter written by Scott to Taylor that had been intercepted by the Mexicans, that Taylor had only 6,000 men, many of whom were not regular army soldiers, and resolved to defeat him.[9] Santa Anna attacked Taylor with 20,000 men at the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847, inflicting 672 American casualties at a cost of 1,800 Mexican.[9] As a result, Santa Anna left the field of battle.[9]

Buena Vista turned Taylor into a hero, and he was compared to George Washington and Andrew Jackson in the American popular press.[9] Stories were reportedly told about "his informal dress, the tattered straw hat on his head, and the casual way he always sat on top of his beloved horse, "Old Whitey," while shots buzzed around his head".[9]

Election of 1848

Taylor/Fillmore campaign poster

In his capacity as a career officer, Taylor had never reportedly revealed his political beliefs before 1848, nor voted before that time.[16] He thought of himself as an independent, believing in a strong and sound banking system for the country, and thought that Andrew Jackson should not have allowed the Second Bank of the United States to collapse in 1836.[16] He believed it was impractical to talk about expanding slavery into the western areas of the United States, as he concluded that neither cotton nor sugar (both were produced in great quantities as a result of slavery) could be easily grown there through a plantation economy.[16] He was also a firm nationalist, and due to his experience of seeing many people die as a result of warfare, he believed that secession was not a good way to resolve national problems.[16] Taylor, although he did not agree with their stand on protective tariffs and expensive internal improvements, aligned himself with Whig Party governing policies; the President should not be able to veto a law, unless that law was against the Constitution of the United States; that the office should not interfere with Congress, and that the power of collective decision-making, as well as the Cabinet, should be strong.[16]

Portrait of Taylor by James Lambdin (1848)

After the American victory at Buena Vista, "Old Rough and Ready" political clubs were formed which supported Taylor for President, although no one knew for sure what his political beliefs were.[16] Taylor declared, as the 1848 Whig Party convention approached, that he had always been a Whig in principle, but he did consider himself a Jeffersonian-Democrat.[16] Many southerners believed that Taylor supported slavery, and its expansion into the new territory absorbed from Mexico, and some were angered when Taylor suggested that if he were elected President he would not veto the Wilmot Proviso, which proposed against such an expansion.[16] This position did not enhance his support from activist antislavery elements in the Northern United States, as these wanted Taylor to speak out strongly in support of the Proviso, not simply fail to veto it.[16] Most abolitionists did not support Taylor, since he was a slave-owner.[16] Many southerners also knew that Taylor supported states' rights, and was opposed to protective tariffs and government spending for internal improvements.[16] The Whigs hoped that he put the federal union of the United States above all else.[16]

Taylor received the Whig nomination for President in 1848. Millard Fillmore of Cayuga County, New York was chosen as the Vice Presidential nominee. His homespun ways and his status as a war hero were political assets. Taylor defeated Lewis Cass, the Democratic candidate, and Martin Van Buren, the Free Soil candidate. Taylor was the last Southerner to be elected president until Lyndon Johnson,[b] 116 years later in 1964.

Taylor ignored the Whig platform, as historian Michael Holt explains:

Taylor was equally indifferent to programs Whigs had long considered vital. Publicly, he was artfully ambiguous, refusing to answer questions about his views on banking, the tariff, and internal improvements. Privately, he was more forthright. The idea of a national bank 'is dead, and will not be revived in my time.' In the future the tariff "will be increased only for revenue"; in other words, Whig hopes of restoring the protective tariff of 1842 were vain. There would never again be surplus federal funds from public land sales to distribute to the states, and internal improvements 'will go on in spite of presidential vetoes.' In a few words, that is, Taylor pronounced an epitaph for the entire Whig economic program.[17]



The Taylor Cabinet
Office Name Term
President Zachary Taylor 1849–1850
Vice President Millard Fillmore 1849–1850
Secretary of State John M. Clayton 1849–1850
Secretary of Treasury William M. Meredith 1849–1850
Secretary of War George W. Crawford 1849–1850
Attorney General Reverdy Johnson 1849–1850
Postmaster General Jacob Collamer 1849–1850
Secretary of the Navy William B. Preston 1849–1850
Secretary of the Interior Thomas Ewing, Sr. 1849–1850

Although Taylor had subscribed to Whig principles of legislative leadership, he was not inclined to be a puppet of Whig leaders in Congress. He ran his administration in the same rule-of-thumb fashion with which he had fought Native Americans.

Under Taylor's administration, the United States Department of the Interior was organized, although the legislation authorizing the Department had been approved on President Polk's last day in office. He appointed former Treasury Secretary Thomas Ewing the first Secretary of the Interior.[18]


At the time Taylor became President, the issue of slavery in the western territories of the United States had come to dominate American political discourse, and debate between extreme pro and antislavery viewpoints had become very pronounced.[19] In 1849, he advised the residents of California, including the Mormons around Salt Lake, and the residents of New Mexico to create state constitutions and apply for statehood in December when Congress met.[19] He correctly predicted that these constitutions would state against slavery in California and New Mexico.[19] In December 1849, and January 1850, Taylor told Congress that it should allow them to become states, once their constitutions arrived in Washington D.C.[19] He also urged that there should not be an attempt to develop territorial governments for the two future states, since that might increase tension between pro and antislavery activists regarding a congressional prohibition of slavery in the territories.[19]

Foreign affairs

Taylor and his Secretary of State, John M. Clayton, lacked much experience in foreign affairs before Taylor assumed the presidency, and Taylor was not directly involved in diplomacy or the development of American foreign policies.[20] Taylor's administration attempted to stop a filibustering expedition against Cuba, argued with France and Portugal over reparation disputes owed to the US, and supported German liberals during the revolutions of 1848.[20] The administration confronted Spain, which had arrested several Americans on the charge of piracy, and assisted the United Kingdom's search for a team of British explorers who had gotten lost in the Arctic.[20] The United States had planned to construct a canal across Nicaragua, but the British opposed the idea, arguing that they held a special status in neighboring Honduras.[20] In what was described by one source as Taylor's "most important foreign policy move", delicate negotiations were performed with Britain, and a "landmark agreement" was reached called the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty.[20] Both Britain and the United States agreed not to claim control of any canal that might be built in Nicaragua.[20] The treaty is considered to have been an important step in the development of an Anglo-American alliance, and "effectively weakened U.S. commitment to Manifest Destiny as a formal policy while recognizing the supremacy of U.S. interests in Central America".[20] The creation of the treaty was Taylor's last act of state.[20]

Compromise of 1850

President Taylor and his Cabinet, 1849 Daguerreotype by Matthew Brady.
From left to right: William B. Preston, Thomas Ewing, John M. Clayton, Zachary Taylor, William M. Meredith, George W. Crawford, Jacob Collamer and Reverdy Johnson, (1849)

The slavery issue dominated Taylor's short term. Although he owned slaves on his plantation in Louisiana,[21] he took a moderate stance on the territorial expansion of slavery, angering fellow Southerners. He told them that if necessary to enforce the laws, he personally would lead the Army. Persons "taken in rebellion against the Union, he would hang ... with less reluctance than he had hanged deserters and spies in Mexico." He never wavered. Henry Clay then proposed a complex Compromise of 1850. Taylor died as it was being debated. (The Clay version failed but another version did pass under the new president, Millard Fillmore.)

Judicial appointments

Judicial Appointments[22]
Court Name Term
W.D. La. Henry Boyce 1849–1861[c]
D. Ill. Thomas Drummond 1850–1855
N.D. Ala.
M.D. Ala.
S.D. Ala.
John Gayle 1849–1859
D. Ark. Daniel Ringo 1849–1851[d]

Taylor appointed four federal judges, all to United States district courts.[22] Due in part to the length of his presidency, he is one of only four presidents who did not have an opportunity to nominate a judge to serve on the Supreme Court.


Taylor's mausoleum at the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery in Louisville, Kentucky

The true cause of Zachary Taylor's premature death is not fully established.[23] On July 4, 1850, after watching a groundbreaking ceremony for the Washington Monument during the Independence Day celebration, Taylor sought refuge from the oppressive heat by consuming copious amounts of iced water, cold milk, and cherries. Within several days he became severely ill with an unknown digestive ailment, and it became clear to him that he was approaching death. At about 10 o'clock in the morning on July 9, Taylor called his wife to him and asked her not to weep, saying: "I have always done my duty, I am ready to die. My only regret is for the friends I leave behind me." He died within the hour.[24] Contemporary reports listed the cause of death as "bilious diarrhoea, or a bilious cholera".[25]

Taylor was interred in the Public Vault (built in 1835 to hold remains of notables until either the grave site could be prepared or transportation arranged to another city) of the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D.C. from July 13, 1850 to October 25, 1850. Taylor was then transported to the Taylor Family plot where his parents are buried, on the old Taylor homestead estate known as 'Springfield'. In 1883, the Commonwealth of Kentucky placed a fifty foot monument near Zachary Taylor's grave. It is topped by a life-sized statue of Zachary Taylor. By the 1920s, the Taylor family initiated the effort to turn the Taylor burial grounds into a national cemetery. The Commonwealth of Kentucky donated two pieces of land for the project, turning the half-acre Taylor family cemetery into 16 acres (65,000 m2). There, buried in the Taylor family plot, Zachary Taylor and his wife (who died in 1852) remained, until he and his wife were moved to their final resting place on May 6, 1926 in the newly commissioned Taylor mausoleum (made of limestone with a granite base, with a marble interior), nearby. Today, President Taylor and wife Margaret rest in the mausoleum in Louisville, Kentucky, at what is now the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery.[26]

Exhumation of 1991

In the late 1980s, college professor and author Clara Rising hypothesized that Taylor was murdered by poison and was able to convince Taylor's closest living relative and the Coroner of Jefferson County, Kentucky, to order an exhumation.[27] On June 17, 1991, Taylor's remains were exhumed and transported to the Office of the Kentucky Chief Medical Examiner, where radiological studies were conducted and samples of hair, fingernail and other tissues were removed. The remains were then returned to the cemetery and received appropriate honors at re-interment. He was re-interred in the same mausoleum he had been interred in since 1926. A monolith was later constructed next to the mausoleum. Neutron activation analysis conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory revealed arsenic levels several hundred times lower than they would have been if Taylor had been poisoned.[28][29] Rather, it was concluded that on a hot July day Taylor had attempted to cool himself with large amounts of cherries and iced milk. "In the unhealthy climate of Washington, with its open sewers and flies, Taylor came down with cholera morbus, or acute gastroenteritis as it is now called." He might have recovered, Samuel Eliot Morison felt, but his doctors "drugged him with ipecac, calomel, opium and quinine (at 40 grains a whack), and bled and blistered him too. On July 9, he died."[30]

Assassination theories

Daguerreotype portrait of Taylor at the White House by Mathew Brady, 1849

Despite these findings, assassination theories have not been entirely put to rest. Michael Parenti devoted a chapter in his 1999 book History as Mystery to "The Strange Death of Zachary Taylor," speculating that Taylor was assassinated because of his moderate stance on the expansion of slavery – and that his autopsy was botched. It is suspected that Taylor was deliberately assassinated by arsenic poisoning from one of the citizen-provided dishes he sampled during the Independence Day celebration.[23] Other dissenting historians claim as suspicious the facts that there were no eyewitness accounts of Taylor consuming cherries and milk on that day; that there are no confirmed cholera outbreaks in Washington in 1850; that Taylor's symptoms were not those of typhoid (spread by flies); that Taylor was not given the aforementioned drugs until he was already deathly sick, on the third day of his acute illness; and that Taylor was not bled until near death on the fifth and last day of his illness.[31]

Marriage and family

In 1810, Taylor wed Margaret Smith, and they would have six children of whom the only son, Richard, would become a lieutenant general in the Confederate Army.[10] One of Taylor's daughters, Sarah Knox Taylor, decided to marry in 1835 Jefferson Davis, the future President of the Confederate States of America, who at that time was a lieutenant.[10] Taylor did not wish Sarah to marry him, and Taylor and Davis would not be reconciled until 1847 at the Battle of Buena Vista, where Davis distinguished himself as a colonel.[10] Sarah had died in 1835, three months into the marriage.[10] Another of Taylor's daughters, Margaret Anne, died of liver failure at age 33. Around 1841, Aria Taylor established a home at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and gained a large plantation and a great number of slaves.[10]

Surviving family

  • Taylor's son, Richard, became a Confederate Lieutenant General, while his daughter, Sarah Knox Taylor (1814–1835), married future Confederate President Jefferson Davis three months before her death of malaria. Richard Taylor's granddaughter, Anita Vincent Stauffer, married into the McIlheney family of Avery Island, Louisiana.
  • Taylor's brother, Joseph Pannell Taylor, was a Brigadier General in the Union Army during the Civil War. (Joseph P. Taylor's son Joseph Hancock Taylor was a US Colonel in the Civil War and was also a son-in-law of Union General Montgomery C. Meigs.)
  • Taylor's niece, Emily Ellison Taylor, was the wife of Confederate General Lafayette McLaws.
  • Ann Taylor's son, John Taylor Wood, a U.S. Navy officer, defected to the Confederate side and later fled to Canada during the Civil War; his great-grandson, Zachary Taylor Wood, was Acting RCMP Commissioner, great-grandson Lieutenant Charles Carroll Wood died from wounds suffered during the Anglo Boer War, great-great-grandson Stuart Taylor Wood was Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and great-great-great-grandsons (Cst. Herschel Wood and Supt. (Ret) John Taylor Wood served in the RCMP.


Official White House portrait of Zachary Taylor

It is contended that Taylor was not President long enough to cause a substantial impact on the office of the Presidency, or the United States, and that he is not remembered as a great President.[32] The majority of historians believe that Taylor was too nonpolitical, considering he was in office at a time when being involved in politics required close ties with political operatives.[32] The Clayton–Bulwer Treaty is "recognized as an important step in [the] scaling down [of] the nation's commitment to Manifest Destiny as a policy."[32]

Considering the shortness of his presidency, Taylor's most notable legacy may be that he was the last U.S. President to own slaves while holding the Office of the President of the United States, in 1850.


Postage stamp, issue of 1875
Postage stamp, issue of 1938

The US Post Office released the first postage stamp issue honoring Zachary Taylor on June 21, 1875, a full 25 years after his death. In contrast, Lincoln first appeared on US postage stamps in 1866, only one year after his death while James Garfield would be honored with a postage stamp only seven months after his assassination. Sixty three years later, in 1938 Taylor would appear again on a US Postage stamp, this time on the 12-cent Presidential Issue of 1938. Taylor's last appearance (to date, 2010) on a US postage stamp occurred in 1986 when he was honored on the AMERIPEX presidential issue. After Washington, Jefferson, Jackson and Lincoln, Zachary Taylor is the fifth American President to appear on US postage. In all there are three different postage issues that have honored Taylor.[33]

Taylor became a military namesake after his death, for such sites as Camp Taylor in Kentucky and Fort Taylor in Florida. The SS Zachary Taylor, a World War II Liberty ship, was also named in his honor. In 1995, he was inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield, Louisiana, the honor bestowed on the only U.S. President to have lived in Louisiana.

See also



  1. ^ Taylor's term of service was scheduled to begin on March 4, 1849, but as this day fell on a Sunday, Taylor refused to be sworn in until the following day. Vice President Millard Fillmore was also not sworn in on that day. Most scholars believe that according to the Constitution, Taylor's term began on March 4, regardless of whether he had taken the oath or not.
  2. ^ Andrew Johnson became president through succession rather than election. Woodrow Wilson was born in Virginia, but his home and political base were in New Jersey.
  3. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 21, 1849, confirmed by the United States Senate on August 2, 1850, and received commission on August 2, 1850.
  4. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 21, 1849, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 10, 1850, and received commission on June 10, 1850.


  1. ^ Bauer, pp. 1–2; Hamilton, vol. 1, p. 24.
  2. ^ Bauer, p. 2; Hamilton, vol. 1, pp. 261–262.
  3. ^ Bauer, pp. 1–2; Hamilton, vol. 1, pp. 21–24.
  4. ^ Jones, 251
  5. ^ Johnson, Caleb (2007). "Famous Descendants of Mayflower Passengers – Mayflower Ancestry of Zachary Taylor". Retrieved March 10, 2010. 
  6. ^ Jones, 38
  7. ^ Merrick, 30
  8. ^ Hamilton, Holman. "Encyclopedia Americana: Taylor, Zachary". Encyclopedia Americana. Archived from the original on February 10, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Zachary Taylor: Life Before the Presidency". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Whitney, David C; Robin Vaughn Whitney (1993). The American Presidents. The Reader's Digest Association. p. 101. ISBN 1-56865-031-0. 
  11. ^ *Allison, Harold (©1986, Harold Allison). The Tragic Saga of the Indiana Indians. Turner Publishing Company, Paducah. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0-9380-2107-9. 
  12. ^ Nolan, David J. (2009). "Fort Johnson, Cantonment Davis, and Fort Edwards". In William E. Whittaker. Frontier Forts of Iowa: Indians, Traders, and Soldiers, 1682–1862. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. pp. 85–94. ISBN 978-1-58729-831-8. 
  13. ^ *Middelton, HF. (1973). Frontier outpost: a history of Fort Jesup, Louisiana, 1822–1846 (Thesis). Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge. pp. 46–53. 
  14. ^ Gaines to Taylor, Special Orders No. 19, March 28, 1827, LS, Hq. West Dept., Vol I, 281; Hamilton, Zachary Taylor, 71; J. Fair Hardin, "Fort Jesup-Fort Selden-Camp Sabine-Camp Salubrity: Four Forgotten Frontier Army Posts of Western Louisiana, " Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XVI, (January–October 1933), 1–26.
  15. ^ The American Presidents. p. 102. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Zachary Taylor: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved January 8, 2009. 
  17. ^ Holt 1999 p 272
  18. ^ Holt, Michael. "Thomas Ewing (1849–1850): Secretary of the Interior". American President. University of Virginia. Retrieved December 21, 2010. 
  19. ^ a b c d e "Zachary Taylor: Domestic Affairs". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved January 14, 2009. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h "Zachary Taylor: Foreign Affairs". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved January 9, 2009. 
  21. ^ For the latter part of his life Taylor considered Louisiana his home
  22. ^ a b "Biographical Directory of Federal Judges". History of the Federal Judiciary. Federal Judicial Center. 
  23. ^ a b Parenti, Michael (September 1999). History as Mystery. City Light Books. p. 304. ISBN 9780872863576. 
  24. ^ Bauer, pp. 314–316.
  25. ^ "Death of the President of the United States". Boston Daily Evening Transcript. 10 July 1850. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  26. ^ Zachary Taylor at Find a Grave
  27. ^ McLeod, Michael (July 25, 1993). "Clara Rising, Ex-uf Prof Who Got Zachary Taylor Exhumed". Orlando Sentinel. 
  28. ^ Marriott, Michel (27 June 2011). "Verdict In: 12th President Was Not Assassinated". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  29. ^ "President Zachary Taylor and the Laboratory: Presidential Visit from the Grave". Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved November 2, 2010. 
  30. ^ Sampas, Jim (4 July 1991). "Scandal and the Heat Did Zachary Taylor In". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  31. ^ Hamilton Smith, "The Interpretation of the Arsenic Content of Human Hair," Journal of the Forensic Science Society, vol. 4, summarized in Sten Forshufvud and Ben Weider, Assassination at St. Helena (Vancouver, Canada: Mitchell Press, 1978).
  32. ^ a b c "Zachary Taylor: Impact and Legacy". Miller Center of Public Affairs. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  33. ^ Scotts Identifier of US Definitive Issues

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