In natural science, abiogenesis (pronounced /ˌeɪbaɪ.ɵˈdʒɛnɨsɪs/ ay-by-oh-jen-ə-siss) or biopoesis is the study of how biological life arises from inorganic matter through natural processes, and the method by which life on Earth arose. Most amino acids, often called "the building blocks of life", can form via natural chemical reactions unrelated to life, as demonstrated in the Miller–Urey experiment and similar experiments that involved simulating some of the hypothetical conditions of the early Earth in a laboratory. In all living things, these amino acids are organized into proteins, and the construction of these proteins is mediated by nucleic acids, that are themselves synthesized through biochemical pathways catalysed by proteins. Which of these organic molecules first arose and how they formed the first life is the focus of abiogenesis.
In any theory of abiogenesis, two aspects of life have to be accounted for: replication and metabolism. The question of which came first gave rise to different types of theories. In the beginning, metabolism-first theories (Oparin coacervate) were proposed, and only later thinking gave rise to the modern, replication-first approach.
In modern, still somewhat limited understanding, the first living things on Earth are thought to be single cell prokaryotes (which lack a cell nucleus), perhaps evolved from protobionts (organic molecules surrounded by a membrane-like structure). The oldest ancient fossil microbe-like objects are dated to be 3.5 Ga (billion years old), approximately one billion years after the formation of the Earth itself, with reliable fossil evidence of the first life found in rocks 3.4 Gyr old. By 2.4 Ga, the ratio of stable isotopes of carbon, iron and sulfur shows the action of living things on inorganic minerals and sediments and molecular biomarkers indicate photosynthesis, demonstrating that life on Earth was widespread by this time.
The sequence of chemical events that led to the first nucleic acids is not known. Several hypotheses about early life have been proposed, most notably the iron-sulfur world theory (metabolism without genetics) and the RNA world hypothesis (RNA life-forms).
Until the early 19th century, people generally believed in the ongoing spontaneous generation of certain forms of life from non-living matter. This was paired with the belief in heterogenesis, e.g. that one form of life derived from a different form (e.g. bees from flowers). Classical notions of abiogenesis, now more precisely known as spontaneous generation, held that certain complex, living organisms are generated by decaying organic substances. According to Aristotle, it was a readily observable truth that aphids arise from the dew which falls on plants, flies from putrid matter, mice from dirty hay, crocodiles from rotting logs at the bottom of bodies of water, and so on.
In the 17th century, such assumptions started to be questioned; for example, in 1646, Sir Thomas Browne published his Pseudodoxia Epidemica (subtitled Enquiries into Very many Received Tenets, and Commonly Presumed Truths), which was an attack on false beliefs and "vulgar errors." His conclusions were not widely accepted. For example, his contemporary, Alexander Ross wrote: "To question this (i.e., spontaneous generation) is to question reason, sense and experience. If he doubts of this let him go to Egypt, and there he will find the fields swarming with mice, begot of the mud of Nylus, to the great calamity of the inhabitants."
In 1665, Robert Hooke published the first drawings of a microorganism. Hooke was followed in 1676 by Anton van Leeuwenhoek, who drew and described microorganisms that are now thought to have been protozoa and bacteria. Many felt the existence of microorganisms was evidence in support of spontaneous generation, since microorganisms seemed too simplistic for sexual reproduction, and asexual reproduction through cell division had not yet been observed.
The first solid evidence against spontaneous generation came in 1668 from Francesco Redi, who proved that no maggots appeared in meat when flies were prevented from laying eggs. It was gradually shown that, at least in the case of all the higher and readily visible organisms, the previous sentiment regarding spontaneous generation was false. The alternative seemed to be biogenesis: that every living thing came from a pre-existing living thing (omne vivum ex ovo, Latin for "every living thing from an egg").
In 1768, Lazzaro Spallanzani demonstrated that microbes were present in the air, and could be killed by boiling. In 1861, Louis Pasteur performed a series of experiments which demonstrated that organisms such as bacteria and fungi do not spontaneously appear in sterile, nutrient-rich media.
Pasteur and Darwin
By the middle of the 19th century, the theory of biogenesis had accumulated so much evidential support, due to the work of Louis Pasteur and others, that the alternative theory of spontaneous generation had been effectively disproven. Pasteur himself remarked, after a definitive finding in 1864, "Never will the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow struck by this simple experiment." The collapse of spontaneous generation, however, left a vacuum of scientific thought on the question of how life had first arisen.
In a letter to Joseph Dalton Hooker on February 1, 1871, Charles Darwin addressed the question, suggesting that the original spark of life may have begun in a "warm little pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts, lights, heat, electricity, etc. present, so that a protein compound was chemically formed ready to undergo still more complex changes". He went on to explain that "at the present day such matter would be instantly devoured or absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were formed." In other words, the presence of life itself makes the search for the origin of life dependent on the sterile conditions of the laboratory.
"Primordial soup" theory
No new notable research or theory on the subject appeared until 1924, when Alexander Oparin reasoned that atmospheric oxygen prevents the synthesis of certain organic compounds that are necessary building blocks for the evolution of life. In his The Origin of Life, Oparin proposed that the "spontaneous generation of life" that had been attacked by Louis Pasteur did in fact occur once, but was now impossible because the conditions found on the early earth had changed, and preexisting organisms would immediately consume any spontaneously generated organism. Oparin argued that a "primeval soup" of organic molecules could be created in an oxygenless atmosphere through the action of sunlight. These would combine in evermore complex ways until they formed coacervate droplets. These droplets would "grow" by fusion with other droplets, and "reproduce" through fission into daughter droplets, and so have a primitive metabolism in which those factors which promote "cell integrity" survive, and those that do not become extinct. Many modern theories of the origin of life still take Oparin's ideas as a starting point.
Around the same time, J. B. S. Haldane suggested that the Earth's prebiotic oceans—different from their modern counterparts—would have formed a "hot dilute soup" in which organic compounds could have formed. This idea was called biopoiesis or biopoesis, the process of living matter evolving from self-replicating but nonliving molecules.
In 1952, in the Miller-Urey experiment, a mixture of water, hydrogen, methane, and ammonia was cycled through an apparatus that delivered electrical sparks to the mixture. After one week, it was found that about 10% to 15% of the carbon in the system was now in the form of organic compounds, including amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins.
The underlying hypothesis held by Oparin and Haldane was that conditions on the primeval Earth favored chemical reactions that synthesized organic compounds from inorganic precursors. A recent reanalysis of the saved vials containing the original extracts that resulted in the Miller and Urey experiments, using current and more advanced analytical equipment and technology, has uncovered more biochemicals than originally discovered in the 1950s. One of the more important findings was 23 amino acids, far more than five originally discovered.
Complex biological molecules and protocells
Sidney W. Fox also experimented with abiogenesis and the primordial soup theory. In one of his experiments, he allowed amino acids to dry out as if in puddled in a warm, dry spot many millions of years ago. The "miracle" was that, as they dried, the amino acids formed long, thread-like, submicroscopic now named "proteinoids".
Another experiment using a similar method involved simply setting the right conditions for life to form. Dr. Fox collected volcanic material from a cinder cone in Hawaii, but discovered that the temperature was over 100 degrees celsius just four inches beneath the surface of the cinder cone. Might this have been the enivronment in which life was created - molecules could have formed and then been washed through the loose volcanic ash and into the sea by water? Dr. Fox certainly thought so. He placed hunks of lava over amino acids derived from methane, ammonia and water. With everything sterilised, he baked the lava over the amino acids for a few hours in a glass oven. A brown, sticky substance formed over the surface and when the lava was drenched in sterilised water it formed a thick, brown liquid. Although it looked unpromising, it was actually one of the most incredible discoveries in abiogenesis to this day. The amino acids combined to form proteinoids, but the proteinoids had combined to form small, cell-like spheres. He called these "microspheres". They were not true cells, although they clumped together in chains as do blue-green algae, they reproduced asexually and could form double membranes through which diffusion of molecules and osmosis could occur, yet they had no DNA. Professor Colin S. Pittendrigh stated in December 1967 that "laboratories will be creating a living cell within ten years."
Morse and MacKenzie have suggested that oceans may have appeared first in the Hadean eon, as soon as two hundred million years (200 Ma) after the Earth was formed, in a hot 100 °C (212 °F) reducing environment, and that the pH of about 5.8 rose rapidly towards neutral. This has been supported by Wilde who has pushed the date of the zircon crystals found in the metamorphosed quartzite of Mount Narryer in Western Australia, previously thought to be 4.1–4.2 Ga, to 4.404 Ga. This means that oceans and continental crust existed within 150 Ma of Earth's formation.
Despite this, the Hadean environment was one highly hazardous to life. Frequent collisions with large objects, up to 500 kilometres (310 mi) in diameter, would have been sufficient to vaporise the ocean within a few months of impact, with hot steam mixed with rock vapour leading to high altitude clouds completely covering the planet. After a few months the height of these clouds would have begun to decrease but the cloud base would still have been elevated for about the next thousand years. After that, it would have begun to rain at low altitude. For another two thousand years rains would slowly have drawn down the height of the clouds, returning the oceans to their original depth only 3,000 years after the impact event.
Between 3.8 and 4.1 Ga, changes in the orbits of the gaseous giant planets may have caused a late heavy bombardment that pockmarked the moon and other inner planets (Mercury, Mars, and presumably Earth and Venus). This would likely have sterilized the planet, had life appeared before that time.[contradiction]
By examining the time interval between such devastating environmental events, the time interval when life might first have come into existence can be found for different early environments. The study by Maher and Stevenson shows that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provides a suitable site for the origin of life, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4.0 to 4.2 Ga, whereas if it occurred at the surface of the earth abiogenesis could only have occurred between 3.7 and 4.0 Ga.
Other research suggests a colder start to life. Work by Leslie Orgel and colleagues on the synthesis of purines has shown that freezing temperatures are advantageous, due to the concentrating effect for key precursors such as hydrogen cyanide. Research by Stanley Miller and colleagues suggested that while adenine and guanine require freezing conditions for synthesis, cytosine and uracil may require boiling temperatures. Based on this research, Miller suggested a beginning of life involving freezing conditions and exploding meteorites. An article in Discover Magazine points to research by the Miller group indicating the formation of seven different amino acids and 11 types of nucleobases in ice when ammonia and cyanide were left in a freezer from 1972–1997. This article also describes research by Christof Biebricher showing the formation of RNA molecules 400 bases long under freezing conditions using an RNA template, a single-strand chain of RNA that guides the formation of a new strand of RNA. As that new RNA strand grows, it adheres to the template. The explanation given for the unusual speed of these reactions at such a low temperature is eutectic freezing. As an ice crystal forms, it stays pure: only molecules of water join the growing crystal, while impurities like salt or cyanide are excluded. These impurities become crowded in microscopic pockets of liquid within the ice, and this crowding causes the molecules to collide more often.
Evidence of the early appearance of life comes from the Isua supercrustal belt in Western Greenland and from similar formations in the nearby Akilia Islands. Carbon entering into rock formations has a ratio of Carbon-13 (13C) to Carbon-12 (12C) of about −5.5 (in units of δ13C), where because of a preferential biotic uptake of 12C, biomass has a δ13C of between −20 and −30. These isotopic fingerprints are preserved in the sediments, and Mojzis has used this technique to suggest that life existed on the planet already by 3.85 billion years ago. Lazcano and Miller (1994) suggest that the rapidity of the evolution of life is dictated by the rate of recirculating water through mid-ocean submarine vents. Complete recirculation takes 10 million years, thus any organic compounds produced by then would be altered or destroyed by temperatures exceeding 300 °C (572 °F). They estimate that the development of a 100 kilobase genome of a DNA/protein primitive heterotroph into a 7000 gene filamentous cyanobacterium would have required only 7 Ma. The Nobel Prize winning chemist, Christian de Duve, argues that the determination of chemistry means that "life has to emerge quickly... Chemical reactions happen quickly or not at all; if any reaction takes a millennium to complete then the chances are all the reagents will simply dissipate or breakdown in the meantime, unless they are replenished by other faster reactions".
There is no truly "standard model" of the origin of life. Most currently accepted models draw at least some elements from the framework laid out by the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis. Under that umbrella, however, are a wide array of disparate discoveries and conjectures such as the following, listed in a rough order of postulated emergence:
- Some theorists suggest that the atmosphere of the early Earth may have been chemically reducing in nature, composed primarily of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), water (H2O), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2) or carbon monoxide (CO), and phosphate (PO43-), with molecular oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) either rare or absent.
- In such a reducing atmosphere, electrical activity can catalyze the creation of certain basic small molecules (monomers) of life, such as amino acids. This was demonstrated in the Miller–Urey experiment by Stanley L. Miller and Harold C. Urey in 1953.
- Phospholipids (of an appropriate length) can form lipid bilayers, a basic component of the cell membrane.
- A fundamental question is about the nature of the first self-replicating molecule. Since replication is accomplished in modern cells through the cooperative action of proteins and nucleic acids, the major schools of thought about how the process originated can be broadly classified as "proteins first" and "nucleic acids first".
- The principal thrust of the "nucleic acids first" argument is as follows:
- The polymerization of nucleotides into random RNA molecules might have resulted in self-replicating ribozymes (RNA world hypothesis)
- Selection pressures for catalytic efficiency and diversity might have resulted in ribozymes which catalyse peptidyl transfer (hence formation of small proteins), since oligopeptides complex with RNA to form better catalysts. The first ribosome might have been created by such a process, resulting in more prevalent protein synthesis.
- Synthesized proteins might then outcompete ribozymes in catalytic ability, and therefore become the dominant biopolymer, relegating nucleic acids to their modern use, predominantly as a carrier of genomic information.
No one has synthesized a "protocell" using basic components which would have the necessary properties of life (the so-called "bottom-up-approach"). Without such a proof-of-principle, explanations have tended to be short on specifics. However, some researchers are working in this field, notably Steen Rasmussen at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Jack Szostak at Harvard University. Others have argued that a "top-down approach" is more feasible. One such approach, successfully attempted by Craig Venter and others at The Institute for Genomic Research, involves engineering existing prokaryotic cells with progressively fewer genes, attempting to discern at which point the most minimal requirements for life were reached. The biologist John Desmond Bernal coined the term biopoesis for this process, and suggested that there were a number of clearly defined "stages" that could be recognised in explaining the origin of life.
- Stage 1: The origin of biological monomers
- Stage 2: The origin of biological polymers
- Stage 3: The evolution from molecules to cell
Origin of organic molecules
There are two possible sources of organic molecules on the early Earth:
- Terrestrial origins – organic synthesis driven by impact shocks or by other energy sources (such as ultraviolet light or electrical discharges) (e.g. Miller's experiments)
- Extraterrestrial origins – delivery by objects (e.g. carbonaceous chondrites) or gravitational attraction of organic molecules or primitive life-forms from space
Recently, estimates of these sources suggest that the heavy bombardment before 3.5 Ga within the early atmosphere made available quantities of organics comparable to those produced by other energy sources.
"Soup" theory today: Miller's experiment and subsequent work
Biochemist Robert Shapiro has summarized the "primordial soup" theory of Oparin and Haldane in its "mature form" as follows:
- The early Earth had a chemically reducing atmosphere.
- This atmosphere, exposed to energy in various forms, produced simple organic compounds ("monomers").
- These compounds accumulated in a "soup", which may have been concentrated at various locations (shorelines, oceanic vents etc.).
- By further transformation, more complex organic polymers – and ultimately life – developed in the soup.
Whether the mixture of gases used in the Miller–Urey experiment truly reflects the atmospheric content of early Earth is a controversial topic. Other less reducing gases produce a lower yield and variety. It was once thought that appreciable amounts of molecular oxygen were present in the prebiotic atmosphere, which would have essentially prevented the formation of organic molecules; however, the current scientific consensus is that such was not the case. (See Oxygen catastrophe).
One of the most important pieces of experimental support for the "soup" theory came in 1953. A graduate student, Stanley Miller, and his professor, Harold Urey, performed an experiment that demonstrated how organic molecules could have spontaneously formed from inorganic precursors, under conditions like those posited by the Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis. The now-famous "Miller–Urey experiment" used a highly reduced mixture of gases—methane, ammonia and hydrogen—to form basic organic monomers, such as amino acids. This provided direct experimental support for the second point of the "soup" theory, and it is around the remaining two points of the theory that much of the debate now centers.
Apart from the Miller–Urey experiment, the next most important step in research on prebiotic organic synthesis was the demonstration by Joan Oró that the nucleic acid purine base, adenine, was formed by heating aqueous ammonium cyanide solutions. In support of abiogenesis in eutectic ice, more recent work demonstrated the formation of s-triazines (alternative nucleobases), pyrimidines (including cytosine and uracil), and adenine from urea solutions subjected to freeze-thaw cycles under a reductive atmosphere (with spark discharges as an energy source).
Regarding monomer accumulation
The "soup" theory relies on the assumption proposed by Darwin that in an environment with no pre-existing life, organic molecules may have accumulated and provided an environment for chemical evolution.
Regarding further transformation
The spontaneous formation of complex polymers from abiotically generated monomers under the conditions posited by the "soup" theory is not at all a straightforward process. Besides the necessary basic organic monomers, compounds that would have prohibited the formation of polymers were formed in high concentration during the Miller–Urey and Oró experiments. The Miller experiment, for example, produces many substances that would undergo cross-reactions with the amino acids or terminate the peptide chain.
More fundamentally, it can be argued that the most crucial challenge unanswered by this theory is how the relatively simple organic building blocks polymerise and form more complex structures, interacting in consistent ways to form a protocell. For example, in an aqueous environment hydrolysis of oligomers/polymers into their constituent monomers would be favored over the condensation of individual monomers into polymers.
The deep sea vent theory
The deep sea vent, or hydrothermal vent, theory for the origin of life on Earth posits that life may have begun at submarine hydrothermal vents, where hydrogen-rich fluids emerge from below the sea floor and interface with carbon dioxide-rich ocean water. Sustained chemical energy in such systems is derived from redox reactions, in which electron donors, such as molecular hydrogen, react with electron acceptors, such as carbon dioxide (see iron-sulfur world theory).
Mike Russel demonstrated that alkaline vents created a chemical gradient, in which conditions are ideal for an abiogenic hatchery for life. Their microscopic compartments "provide a natural means of concentrating organic molecules, composed of iron-sulphur minerals such as mackinawite, endowered these mineral cells with the catalytic properties envisaged by Günter Wächtershäuser.
In the 1950s and 1960s, Sidney W. Fox studied the spontaneous formation of peptide structures under conditions that might plausibly have existed early in Earth's history. He demonstrated that amino acids could spontaneously form small peptides. These amino acids and small peptides could be encouraged to form closed spherical membranes, called proteinoid microspheres, which show many of the basic characteristics of 'life'.
In the early 1970s, the problem of the origin of life was approached by Manfred Eigen and Peter Schuster of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry. They examined the transient stages between the molecular chaos and a self-replicating hypercycle in a prebiotic soup.
In a hypercycle, the information storing system (possibly RNA) produces an enzyme, which catalyzes the formation of another information system, in sequence until the product of the last aids in the formation of the first information system. Mathematically treated, hypercycles could create quasispecies, which through natural selection entered into a form of Darwinian evolution. A boost to hypercycle theory was the discovery that RNA, in certain circumstances, forms itself into ribozymes, capable of catalyzing their own chemical reactions. However, these reactions are limited to self-excisions (in which a longer RNA molecule becomes shorter), and much rarer small additions that are incapable of coding for any useful protein. The hypercycle theory is further degraded since the hypothetical RNA would require the existence of complex biochemicals such as nucleotides which are not formed under the conditions proposed by the Miller–Urey experiment.
Geoffrey W. Hoffmann, a student of Eigen, contributed to the concept of life involving both replication and metabolism emerging from catalytic noise. His contributions included showing that an early sloppy translation machinery can be stable against an error catastrophe of the type that had been envisaged as problematical by Leslie Orgel ("Orgel's paradox") and calculations regarding the occurrence of a set of required catalytic activities together with the exclusion of catalytic activities that would be disruptive. This is called the stochastic theory of the origin of life.
Another possible answer to this polymerization conundrum was provided in 1980s by the German chemist Günter Wächtershäuser, encouraged and supported by Karl R. Popper, in his iron–sulfur world theory. In this theory, he postulated the evolution of (bio)chemical pathways as fundamentals of the evolution of life. Moreover, he presented a consistent system of tracing today's biochemistry back to ancestral reactions that provide alternative pathways to the synthesis of organic building blocks from simple gaseous compounds.
In contrast to the classical Miller experiments, which depend on external sources of energy (such as simulated lightning or ultraviolet irradiation), "Wächtershäuser systems" come with a built-in source of energy, sulfides of iron and other minerals (e.g. pyrite). The energy released from redox reactions of these metal sulfides is not only available for the synthesis of organic molecules, but also for the formation of oligomers and polymers. It is therefore hypothesized that such systems may be able to evolve into autocatalytic sets of self-replicating, metabolically active entities that would predate the life forms known today.
The experiment produced a relatively small yield of dipeptides (0.4% to 12.4%) and a smaller yield of tripeptides (0.10%) but the authors also noted that: "under these same conditions dipeptides hydrolysed rapidly."
Radioactive beach hypothesis
Zachary Adam at the University of Washington, Seattle, claims that stronger tidal processes from a much closer moon may have concentrated grains of uranium and other radioactive elements at the high water mark on primordial beaches where they may have been responsible for generating life's building blocks. According to computer models reported in Astrobiology, a deposit of such radioactive materials could show the same self-sustaining nuclear reaction as that found in the Oklo uranium ore seam in Gabon. Such radioactive beach sand provides sufficient energy to generate organic molecules, such as amino acids and sugars from acetonitrile in water. Radioactive monazite also releases soluble phosphate into regions between sand-grains, making it biologically "accessible". Thus amino acids, sugars and soluble phosphates can all be simultaneously produced, according to Adam. Radioactive actinides, then in greater concentrations, could have formed part of organo-metallic complexes. These complexes could have been important early catalysts to living processes.
John Parnell of the University of Aberdeen suggests that such a process could provide part of the "crucible of life" on any early wet rocky planet, so long as the planet is large enough to have generated a system of plate tectonics which brings radioactive minerals to the surface. As the early Earth is believed to have had many smaller "platelets" it would provide a suitable environment for such processes.
Thermodynamic origin of life: ultraviolet and temperature-assisted replication (UVTAR) model
Karo Michaelian of the National Autonomous University of Mexico points out that any model for the origin of life must take into account the fact that life is an irreversible thermodynamic process which arises and persists to produce entropy. Entropy production is not incidental to the process of life, but rather the fundamental reason for its existence. Present day life augments the entropy production of Earth by catalysing the water cycle through evapotranspiration. Michaelian argues that if the thermodynamic function of life today is to produce entropy through coupling with the water cycle, then this probably was its function at its very beginnings. It turns out that both RNA and DNA when in water solution are very strong absorbers and extremely rapid dissipaters of ultraviolet light within the 200–300 nm wavelength range, just that high energy part of the sun's spectrum that could have penetrated the dense prebiotic atmosphere. Cnossen et al. have shown that the amount of ultraviolet (UV) light reaching the Earth's surface in the Archean could have been up to 31 orders of magnitude larger than it is today at 260 nm where RNA and DNA absorb most strongly. Absorption and dissipation of UV light by these organic molecules at the Archean ocean surface would have increased significantly the temperature of the surface skin layer leading to enhanced evaporation and thus augmenting the primitive water cycle. Since absorption and dissipation of high energy photons is an entropy producing process, Michaelian argues that non-equilbrium abiogenic synthesis of RNA and DNA utilizing UV light would have been thermodynamically favored.
A simple mechanism to explain the replication of RNA and DNA without the use of enzymes can also be given within the same thermodynamic framework by assuming that life arose when the temperature of the primitive seas had cooled to somewhat below the denaturing temperature of RNA or DNA (based on the ratio of 18O/16O found in cherts of the Barberton greenstone belt of South Africa of about 3.5 to 3.2 Ga., surface temperatures are predicted to have been around 70±15 °C, similar to RNA or DNA denaturing temperatures). During the night, the surface water temperature would be below the denaturing temperature and single strand RNA/DNA could act as a template for the formation of double strand RNA/DNA. During the daylight hours, RNA and DNA would absorb UV light and convert this directly to heating of the ocean surface, raising the local temperature enough to allow for denaturing of RNA and DNA. The copying process would be repeated during the cool period overnight. Such a temperature assisted mechanism of replication bears similarity to polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a routine laboratory procedure to multiply DNA segments. Michaelian suggests that traditional origin of life research, expecting to describe the emergence of life from near-equilibrium conditions, is erroneous and that non-equilibrium conditions must be considered, in particular, the importance of entropy production to the emergence of life.
Since denaturation would be most probable in the late afternoon when the Archean sea surface temperature would be highest, and since late afternoon submarine sunlight is somewhat circularly polarized, the homochirality of the organic molecules of life can also be explained within the proposed thermodynamic framework.
Models to explain homochirality
Some process in chemical evolution must account for the origin of homochirality, i.e. all building blocks in living organisms having the same "handedness" (amino acids being left-handed, nucleic acid sugars (ribose and deoxyribose) being right-handed, and chiral phosphoglycerides). Chiral molecules can be synthesized, but in the absence of a chiral source or a chiral catalyst, they are formed in a 50/50 mixture of both enantiomers. This is called a racemic mixture. Clark has suggested that homochirality may have started in space, as the studies of the amino acids on the Murchison meteorite showed L-alanine to be more than twice as frequent as its D form, and L-glutamic acid was more than 3 times prevalent than its D counterpart. It is suggested that polarised light has the power to destroy one enantiomer within the proto-planetary disk. Noyes showed that beta decay caused the breakdown of D-leucine, in a racemic mixture, and that the presence of 14C, present in larger amounts in organic chemicals in the early Earth environment, could have been the cause. Robert M. Hazen reports upon experiments conducted in which various chiral crystal surfaces act as sites for possible concentration and assembly of chiral monomer units into macromolecules. Once established, chirality would be selected for. Work with organic compounds found on meteorites tends to suggest that chirality is a characteristic of abiogenic synthesis, as amino acids show a left-handed bias, whereas sugars show a predominantly right-handed bias.
Self-organization and replication
While features of self-organization and self-replication are often considered the hallmark of living systems, there are many instances of abiotic molecules exhibiting such characteristics under proper conditions. For example Martin and Russel show that physical compartmentation by cell membranes from the environment and self-organization of self-contained redox reactions are the most conserved attributes of living things, and they argue therefore that inorganic matter with such attributes would be life's most likely last common ancestor.
Virus self-assembly within host cells has implications for the study of the origin of life, as it lends further credence to the hypothesis that life could have started as self-assembling organic molecules. 
From organic molecules to protocells
The question "How do simple organic molecules form a protocell?" is largely unanswered but there are many hypotheses. Some of these postulate the early appearance of nucleic acids ("genes-first") whereas others postulate the evolution of biochemical reactions and pathways first ("metabolism-first"). Recently, trends are emerging to create hybrid models that combine aspects of both.
Researcher Martin Hanczyc supports the idea of a gradient between life and non-life (i.e. there is no simple line between the two). He thinks that building simple protocells, in the lab, is one of the first steps towards understanding more complex cells including those that may have later evolved into complex life. Hanczyc says that living cells often consist of somewhere around 1 000 000 types of molecules, whereas his labs are first aiming at creating life-like systems using around 10 molecules. His protocells display behaviors even simpler than those displayed by things like viruses (e.g. only basic motion, dividing and combining cell walls, and so on).
The RNA world
The RNA world hypothesis describes an early Earth with self-replicating and catalytic RNA but no DNA or proteins. This has spurred scientists to try to determine if relatively short RNA molecules could have spontaneously formed that were capable of catalyzing their own continuing replication. A number of hypotheses of modes of formation have been put forward. Early cell membranes could have formed spontaneously from proteinoids, protein-like molecules that are produced when amino acid solutions are heated–when present at the correct concentration in aqueous solution, these form microspheres which are observed to behave similarly to membrane-enclosed compartments. Other possibilities include systems of chemical reactions taking place within clay substrates or on the surface of pyrite rocks. Factors supportive of an important role for RNA in early life include its ability to act both to store information and catalyse chemical reactions (as a ribozyme); its many important roles as an intermediate in the expression and maintenance of the genetic information (in the form of DNA) in modern organisms; and the ease of chemical synthesis of at least the components of the molecule under conditions approximating the early Earth. Relatively short RNA molecules which can duplicate others have been artificially produced in the lab. Such replicase RNA, which functions as both code and catalyst provides a template upon which copying can occur. Jack Szostak has shown that certain catalytic RNAs can, indeed, join smaller RNA sequences together, creating the potential, in the right conditions for self-replication. If these were present, Darwinian selection would favour the proliferation of such self-catalysing structures, to which further functionalities could be added. Lincoln and Joyce identified an RNA enzyme capable of self sustained replication.
Researchers have pointed out difficulties for the abiotic synthesis of nucleotides from cytosine and uracil. Cytosine has a half-life of 19 days at 100 °C (212 °F) and 17,000 years in freezing water. Larralde et al., say that "the generally accepted prebiotic synthesis of ribose, the formose reaction, yields numerous sugars without any selectivity." and they conclude that their "results suggest that the backbone of the first genetic material could not have contained ribose or other sugars because of their instability." The ester linkage of ribose and phosphoric acid in RNA is known to be prone to hydrolysis.
A slightly different version of the RNA-world hypothesis is that a different type of nucleic acid, such as PNA, TNA or GNA, was the first one to emerge as a self-reproducing molecule, to be replaced by RNA only later. Pyrimidine ribonucleosides and their respective nucleotides have been prebiotically synthesised by a sequence of reactions which by-pass the free sugars, and are assembled in a stepwise fashion by going against the dogma that nitrogenous and oxygenous chemistries should be avoided. In a series of publications, The Sutherland Group at the School of Chemistry, University of Manchester have demonstrated high yielding routes to cytidine and uridine ribonucleotides built from small 2 and 3 carbon fragments such as glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, cyanamide and cyanoacetylene. One of the steps in this sequence allows the isolation of enantiopure ribose aminooxazoline if the enantiomeric excess of glyceraldehyde is 60 % or greater. This can be viewed as a prebiotic purification step, where the said compound spontaneously crystallised out from a mixture of the other pentose aminooxazolines. Ribose aminooxazoline can then react with cyanoacetylene in a mild and highly efficient manner to give the alpha cytidine ribonucleotide. Photoanomerization with UV light allows for inversion about the 1' anomeric centre to give the correct beta stereochemistry. In 2009 they showed that the same simple building blocks allow access, via phosphate controlled nucleobase elaboration, to 2',3'-cyclic pyrimidine nucleotides directly, which are known to be able to polymerise into RNA. This paper also highlights the possibility for the photo-sanitization of the pyrimidine-2',3'-cyclic phosphates. James Ferris's studies have shown that clay minerals of montmorillonite will catalyze the formation of RNA in aqueous solution, by joining activated mono RNA nucleotides to join together to form longer chains. Although these chains have random sequences, the possibility that one sequence began to non-randomly increase its frequency by increasing the speed of its catalysis is possible to "kick start" biochemical evolution.
"Metabolism first" models
Several models reject the idea of the self-replication of a "naked-gene" and postulate the emergence of a primitive metabolism which could provide an environment for the later emergence of RNA replication. The centrality of the Krebs cycle to energy production in aerobic organisms, and in drawing in carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions in biosynthesis of complex organic chemicals, including amino acids and nucleotides, suggests that it was one of the first parts of the metabolism to evolve. Harold Morowitz concludes that given sufficient concentrations of ingredients the cycle will "spin" of its own, as the concentration of each intermediate rises, it tends to convert into the next intermediate spontaneously. It thus appears to be in origin, not a creation of the genes, but the product of thermodynamics and chemistry alone. Somewhat in agreement with these notions, physicist Sean Carroll has proposed that "the purpose of life is to hydrogenate carbon dioxide" (as part of a "metabolism-first", rather than a "genetics-first", scenario).
One of the earliest incarnations of this idea was put forward in 1924 with Alexander Oparin's notion of primitive self-replicating vesicles which predated the discovery of the structure of DNA. More recent variants in the 1980s and 1990s include Günter Wächtershäuser's iron-sulfur world theory and models introduced by Christian de Duve based on the chemistry of thioesters. More abstract and theoretical arguments for the plausibility of the emergence of metabolism without the presence of genes include a mathematical model introduced by Freeman Dyson in the early 1980s and Stuart Kauffman's notion of collectively autocatalytic sets, discussed later in that decade.
However, the idea that a closed metabolic cycle, such as the reductive citric acid cycle, could form spontaneously (proposed by Günter Wächtershäuser) remains debated. In an article entitled "Self-Organizing Biochemical Cycles", the late Leslie Orgel summarized his analysis of the proposal by stating, "There is at present no reason to expect that multistep cycles such as the reductive citric acid cycle will self-organize on the surface of FeS/FeS2 or some other mineral." It is possible that another type of metabolic pathway was used at the beginning of life. For example, instead of the reductive citric acid cycle, the "open" acetyl-CoA pathway (another one of the five recognised ways of carbon dioxide fixation in nature today) would be compatible with the idea of self-organisation on a metal sulfide surface. The key enzyme of this pathway, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase harbours mixed nickel-iron-sulfur clusters in its reaction centers and catalyses the formation of acetyl-CoA (which may be regarded as a modern form of acetyl-thiol) in a single step.
Today’s bioenergetic process of fermentation is related to the just mentioned citric acid cycle or the Acetyl-CoA pathway that have been connected to the primordial iron-sulfur world. In a different approach, today’s bioenergetic process of chemiosmosis, which plays an essential role in cellular respiration and photosynthesis, is considered as more fundamental than fermentation: in Anthonie Muller’s “thermosynthesis world” the ATP Synthase enzyme that sustains chemiosmosis is proposed as today’s enzyme that is the closest connected to the first metabolic process.
First life needed an energy source to bring about the condensation reaction that yielded the peptide bonds of proteins and the phosphodiester bonds of RNA. In a generalization and thermal variation of the binding change mechanism of today’s ATP Synthase, the “First Protein” would have bound substrates (peptides, phosphate, nucleosides, RNA ‘monomers’) and condensed them to a reaction product that remained bound until it after a temperature change was released upon a thermal unfolding.
The energy source of the thermosynthesis world was thermal cycling, the result of suspension of the protocell in a convection current, as is plausible in a volcanic hot spring; the convection accounts for the self-organization and dissipative structure required in any origin of life model. The still ubiquitous role of thermal cycling in germination and cell division is considered a relic of primordial thermosynthesis.
By phosphorylating cell membrane lipids, this ‘First Protein’ gave a selective advantage to the lipid protocell that contained the protein. In the beginning this First Protein also synthesized a library with many proteins, of which only a minute fraction had thermosynthesis capabilities. Just as proposed by Dyson  for the first proteins, the First Protein propagated functionally: it made daughters with similar capabilities, but it did not copy itself. Functioning daughters consisted of different amino acid sequences.
Over a long time, RNA sequences were selected among the at first randomly synthesized RNAs by the criterion of speed and efficiency increase of First Protein synthesis, for instance by the creation of RNA that functioned as messenger RNA, Transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA, or, even more generally, all the components of the RNA World were also generated and selected. The thermosynthesis world therefore in theory accounts for the origin of the genetic machinery.
Whereas the iron-sulfur world identifies a circular pathway as the most simple—and therefore assumes the existence of enzymes—the thermosynthesis world does not even invoke a pathway, and does not assume the existence of regular enzymes: ATP Synthase’s binding change mechanism resembles a physical adsorption process that yields free energy, rather than a regular enzyme’s mechanism, which decreases the free energy. The RNA World also implies the existence of several enzymes. But even the emergence of a single enzyme by chance is implausible. The thermosynthesis world is therefore more simple, and thus more plausible, than the iron-sulfur and RNA worlds.
Possible role of bubbles
Waves breaking on the shore create a delicate foam composed of bubbles. Winds sweeping across the ocean have a tendency to drive things to shore, much like driftwood collecting on the beach. It is possible that organic molecules were concentrated on the shorelines in much the same way. Shallow coastal waters also tend to be warmer, further concentrating the molecules through evaporation. While bubbles composed mostly of water burst quickly, water containing amphiphiles forms much more stable bubbles, lending more time to the particular bubble to perform these crucial reactions.
Amphiphiles are oily compounds containing a hydrophilic head on one or both ends of a hydrophobic molecule. Some amphiphiles have the tendency to spontaneously form membranes in water. A spherically closed membrane contains water and is a hypothetical precursor to the modern cell membrane. If a protein would increase the integrity of its parent bubble, that bubble had an advantage, and was placed at the top of the natural selection waiting list. Primitive reproduction can be envisioned when the bubbles burst, releasing the results of the 'experiment' into the surrounding medium. Once enough of the 'right stuff' was released into the medium, the development of the first prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and multicellular organisms could be achieved.
Similarly, bubbles formed entirely out of protein-like molecules, called microspheres, will form spontaneously under the right conditions. But they are not a likely precursor to the modern cell membrane, as cell membranes are composed primarily of lipid compounds rather than amino-acid compounds (for types of membrane spheres associated with abiogenesis, see protobionts, micelle, coacervate).
A recent model by Fernando and Rowe suggests that the enclosure of an autocatalytic non-enzymatic metabolism within protocells may have been one way of avoiding the side-reaction problem that is typical of metabolism first models.
Possible role of pumice rafts
An alternative (or perhaps adjunct) theory, to the formation of bubbles via waves breaking on the shore creating delicate foam, is the hypothetical creation of bubbles formed within pores of a pumice raft. Like the windblown foam, the pumice rafts would also have made landfall, and this is observed in modern times. Paleontological evidence of pumice rafts associated with Archean life have been discovered in Australia.
Although the windblown concentration of organic molecules may have been a key part of the abiogenesis puzzle, even with amphiphilic stabilization, exposure to the elements may have rendered the fragile foam too unstable to be an abiogenesis precursor and/or its ongoing natural selection actor.
A possibly more probable bubble formation environment for the 'cradle of life' to occur (due to its greater stability-longer 'lifetime') and optimum size (micron) range would have been the protected environment within the pores of the pumice. The crucial reaction time necessary could have been greatly extended in this protected environment. Relatively rapid selection pressure could have been applied if the pumice raft landed on active geothermal outgassing percolation (acting something like an airstone in an aquarium) pumping out massive quantities of various bubble quasispecies and then species probabilistically interacting and evolving.
In 1993 Stuart Kauffman proposed that life initially arose as autocatalytic chemical networks.
British ethologist Richard Dawkins wrote about autocatalysis as a potential explanation for the origin of life in his 2004 book The Ancestor's Tale. Autocatalysts are substances which catalyze the production of themselves, and therefore have the property of being a simple molecular replicator. In his book, Dawkins cites experiments performed by Julius Rebek and his colleagues at the Scripps Research Institute in California in which they combined amino adenosine and pentafluorophenyl ester with the autocatalyst amino adenosine triacid ester (AATE). One system from the experiment contained variants of AATE which catalysed the synthesis of themselves. This experiment demonstrated the possibility that autocatalysts could exhibit competition within a population of entities with heredity, which could be interpreted as a rudimentary form of natural selection.
A model for the origin of life based on clay was forwarded by A. Graham Cairns-Smith of the University of Glasgow in 1985 and explored as a plausible illustration by several other scientists, including Richard Dawkins. Clay hypothesis postulates that complex organic molecules arose gradually on a pre-existing, non-organic replication platform—silicate crystals in solution. Complexity in companion molecules developed as a function of selection pressures on types of clay crystal is then exapted to serve the replication of organic molecules independently of their silicate "launch stage".
Cairns-Smith is a staunch critic of other models of chemical evolution. However, he admits that like many models of the origin of life, his own also has its shortcomings (Horgan 1991).
In 2007, Kahr and colleagues reported their experiments to examine the idea that crystals can act as a source of transferable information, using crystals of potassium hydrogen phthalate. "Mother" crystals with imperfections were cleaved and used as seeds to grow "daughter" crystals from solution. They then examined the distribution of imperfections in the crystal system and found that the imperfections in the mother crystals were indeed reproduced in the daughters, but the daughter crystals had many additional imperfections. For gene-like behavior to be observed, the quantity of inheritance of these imperfections should have exceeded that of the mutations in the successive generations, and it did not. Thus Kahr concludes that the crystals "were not faithful enough to store and transfer information from one generation to the next".
Gold's "deep-hot biosphere" model
In the 1970s, Thomas Gold proposed the theory that life first developed not on the surface of the Earth, but several kilometers below the surface. The discovery in the late 1990s of nanobes (filamental structures that are smaller than bacteria, but that may contain DNA) in deep rocks might be seen as lending support to Gold's theory.
It is now reasonably well established that microbial life is plentiful at shallow depths in the Earth, up to 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) below the surface, in the form of extremophile archaea, rather than the better-known eubacteria (which live in more accessible conditions). It is claimed that discovery of microbial life below the surface of another body in our solar system would lend significant credence to this theory. Thomas Gold also asserted that a trickle of food from a deep, unreachable, source is needed for survival because life arising in a puddle of organic material is likely to consume all of its food and become extinct. Gold's theory is that flow of food is due to out-gassing of primordial methane from the Earth's mantle; more conventional explanations of the food supply of deep microbes (away from sedimentary carbon compounds) is that the organisms subsist on hydrogen released by an interaction between water and (reduced) iron compounds in rocks.
"Primitive" extraterrestrial life
An alternative to Earthly abiogenesis is the hypothesis that primitive life may have originally formed extraterrestrially, either in space or on Mars, a nearby planet. (Note that exogenesis is related to, but not the same as, the notion of panspermia). A supporter of this theory was Francis Crick.
Organic compounds are relatively common in space, especially in the outer solar system where volatiles are not evaporated by solar heating. Comets are encrusted by outer layers of dark material, thought to be a tar-like substance composed of complex organic material formed from simple carbon compounds after reactions initiated mostly by irradiation by ultraviolet light. It is supposed that a rain of material from comets could have brought significant quantities of such complex organic molecules to Earth.
An alternative but related hypothesis, proposed to explain the presence of life on Earth so soon after the planet had cooled down, with apparently very little time for prebiotic evolution, is that life formed first on early Mars. Due to its smaller size Mars cooled before Earth (a difference of hundreds of millions of years), allowing prebiotic processes there while Earth was still too hot. Life was then transported to the cooled Earth when crustal material was blasted off Mars by asteroid and comet impacts. Mars continued to cool faster and eventually became hostile to the continued evolution or even existence of life (it lost its atmosphere due to low volcanism); Earth is following the same fate as Mars, but at a slower rate.
Neither hypothesis actually answers the question of how life first originated, but merely shifts it to another planet or a comet. However, the advantage of an extraterrestrial origin of primitive life is that life is not required to have evolved on each planet it occurs on, but rather in a single location, and then spread about the galaxy to other star systems via cometary and/or meteorite impact. Evidence to support the hypothesis is scant, but it finds support in recent study of Martian meteorites found in Antarctica and in studies of extremophile microbes. Additional support comes from a recent discovery of a bacterial ecosystem whose energy source is radioactivity.
A 2001 experiment led by Jason Dworkin subjected a frozen mixture of water, methanol, ammonia and carbon monoxide to UV radiation, mimicking conditions found in an extraterrestrial environment. This combination yielded large amounts of organic material that self-organised to form bubbles or micelles when immersed in water. Dworkin considered these bubbles to resemble cell membranes that enclose and concentrate the chemistry of life, separating their interior from the outside world.
The bubbles produced in these experiments were between 10 to 40 micrometres (0.00039 to 0.0016 in), or about the size of red blood cells. Remarkably, the bubbles fluoresced, or glowed, when exposed to UV light. Absorbing UV and converting it into visible light in this way was considered one possible way of providing energy to a primitive cell. If such bubbles played a role in the origin of life, the fluorescence could have been a precursor to primitive photosynthesis. Such fluorescence also provides the benefit of acting as a sunscreen, diffusing any damage that otherwise would be inflicted by UV radiation. Such a protective function would have been vital for life on the early Earth, since the ozone layer, which blocks out the sun's most destructive UV rays, did not form until after photosynthetic life began to produce oxygen.
Extraterrestrial organic molecules
Another idea is that amino acids which were formed extraterrestrially arrived on Earth via comets. In 2009 it was announced by NASA that scientists had identified one of the fundamental chemical building blocks of life in a comet for the first time: glycine, an amino acid, was detected in the material ejected from Comet Wild-2 in 2004 and grabbed by NASA's Stardust probe. Tiny grains, just a few thousandths of a millimetre in size, were collected from the comet and returned to Earth in 2006 in a sealed capsule, and distributed among the world's leading astro-biology labs. NASA said in a statement that it took some time for the investigating team, led by Dr Jamie Elsila, to convince itself that the glycine signature found in Stardust's sample bay was genuine and not just Earthly contamination. Glycine has been detected in meteorites before and there are also observations in interstellar gas clouds claimed for telescopes, but the Stardust find is described as a first in cometary material. Isotope analysis indicates that the Late Heavy Bombardment included cometary impacts after the Earth coalesced but before life evolved. Dr. Carl Pilcher, who leads NASA's Astrobiology Institute commented that "The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and strengthens the argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare."
Recent observations suggests that the majority of organic compounds introduced on Earth by interstellar dust particles are considered principal agents in the formation of complex molecules, thanks to their peculiar surface-catalytic activities. Studies reported in 2008, based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that the RNA component uracil and related molecules, including xanthine, were formed extraterrestrially. On August 8, 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting DNA components (adenine, guanine and related organic molecules) were made in outer space. More recently, scientists found that the cosmic dust permeating the universe contains complex organic matter ("amorphous organic solids with a mixed aromatic-aliphatic structure") that could be created naturally, and rapidly, by stars. As one of the scientists noted, "Coal and kerogen are products of life and it took a long time for them to form ... How do stars make such complicated organics under seemingly unfavorable conditions and [do] it so rapidly?" Further, the scientist suggested that these compounds may have been related to the development of life on earth and said that, "If this is the case, life on Earth may have had an easier time getting started as these organics can serve as basic ingredients for life."
The lipid world theory postulates that the first self-replicating object was lipid-like. It is known that phospholipids form bilayers in water while under agitation – the same structure as in cell membranes. These molecules were not present on early Earth, however other amphiphilic long chain molecules also form membranes. Furthermore, these bodies may expand (by insertion of additional lipids), and under excessive expansion may undergo spontaneous splitting which preserves the same size and composition of lipids in the two progenies. The main idea in this theory is that the molecular composition of the lipid bodies is the preliminary way for information storage, and evolution led to the appearance of polymer entities such as RNA or DNA that may store information favorably. Still, no biochemical mechanism has been offered to support the lipid world theory.
The problem with most scenarios of abiogenesis is that the thermodynamic equilibrium of amino acid versus peptides is in the direction of separate amino acids. What has been missing is some force that drives polymerization. The resolution of this problem may well be in the properties of polyphosphates. Polyphosphates are formed by polymerization of ordinary monophosphate ions PO4−3. Several mechanisms for such polymerization have been suggested. Polyphosphates cause polymerization of amino acids into peptides. They are also logical precursors in the synthesis of such key biochemical compounds as ATP. A key issue seems to be that calcium reacts with soluble phosphate to form insoluble calcium phosphate (apatite), so some plausible mechanism must be found to keep calcium ions from causing precipitation of phosphate. There has been much work on this topic over the years, but an interesting new idea is that meteorites may have introduced reactive phosphorus species on the early Earth.
PAH world hypothesis
Other sources of complex molecules have been postulated, including extraterrestrial stellar or interstellar origin. For example, from spectral analyses, organic molecules are known to be present in comets and meteorites. In 2004, a team detected traces of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a nebula. More recently, in 2010, another team also detected PAHs, along with fullerenes (or "buckyballs"), in nebulae. PAHs are the most complex molecules so far found in space. The use of PAHs has also been proposed as a precursor to the RNA world in the PAH world hypothesis. The Spitzer Space Telescope has recently detected a star, HH 46-IR, which is forming by a process similar to that by which the sun formed. In the disk of material surrounding the star, there is a very large range of molecules, including cyanide compounds, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. PAHs have also been found all over the surface of galaxy M81, which is 12 million light years away from the Earth, confirming their widespread distribution in space.
Different forms of life may have appeared quasi-simultaneously in the early history of Earth. The other forms may be extinct, leaving distinctive fossils through their different biochemistry (e.g., using arsenic instead of phosphorus), survive as extremophiles, or simply be unnoticed through their being analogous to organisms of the current life tree. Hartman for example combines a number of theories together, by proposing that:
The first organisms were self-replicating iron-rich clays which fixed carbon dioxide into oxalic and other dicarboxylic acids. This system of replicating clays and their metabolic phenotype then evolved into the sulfide rich region of the hotspring acquiring the ability to fix nitrogen. Finally phosphate was incorporated into the evolving system which allowed the synthesis of nucleotides and phospholipids. If biosynthesis recapitulates biopoesis, then the synthesis of amino acids preceded the synthesis of the purine and pyrimidine bases. Furthermore the polymerization of the amino acid thioesters into polypeptides preceded the directed polymerization of amino acid esters by polynucleotides.
Lynn Margulis's endosymbiotic theory suggests that multiple forms of archea entered into symbiotic relationship to form the eukaryotic cell. The horizontal transfer of genetic material between archea promotes such symbiotic relationships, and thus many separate organisms may have contributed to building what has been recognised as the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) of modern organisms. James Lovelock's Gaia theory proposes that such symbiosis establishes the environment as a system produced by and supportive of life. His arguments strongly weaken the case for life having evolved elsewhere in the solar system.
- Biological immortality
- Common descent
- Entropy and life
- List of independent discoveries
- Mediocrity principle
- Planetary habitability
- Rare Earth hypothesis
- Shadow biosphere
- ^ Rubin, Julian, ed. "Miller-Urey Experiment: Amino Acids & The Origins of Life on Earth". Following the Path of Discovery:Repeat Famous Experiments and Inventions. http://www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/miller_urey_experiment.html. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- ^ Zimmer, C (August 2009). "Origins. On the origin of eukaryotes". Science 325 (5941): 666–8. doi:10.1126/science.325_666. PMID 19661396.
- ^ a b Wilde, SA; Valley, JW; Peck, WH; CM (January 2001). "Evidence from detrital zircons for the existence of continental crust and oceans on the Earth 4.4 Gyr ago". Nature 409 (6817): 175–8. doi:10.1038/35051550. PMID 11196637.
- ^ Schopf, JW; Kudryavtsev, AB; Agresti, DG; Wdowiak, TJ; AD (March 2002). "Laser--Raman imagery of Earth's earliest fossils". Nature 416 (6876): 73–6. doi:10.1038/416073a. PMID 11882894.
- ^ Dean, Tim. "World’s oldest fossils reveal earliest life on Earth", Australian Life Scientist, 23 August 2011. Retrieved on 2011-08-23.
- ^ Hayes, John M.; Waldbauer, Jacob R. (2006). "The carbon cycle and associated redox processes through time". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 361 (1470): 931–50. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1840. PMC 1578725. PMID 16754608. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1578725.
- ^ Archer, Corey; Vance, Derek (2006). "Coupled Fe and S isotope evidence for Archean microbial Fe(III) and sulfate reduction". Geology 34 (3): 153–156. Bibcode 2006Geo....34..153A. doi:10.1130/G22067.1.
- ^ Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Brasier, Martin; Embley, T. Martin (2006). "Introduction: how and when did microbes change the world?". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 361 (1470): 845–50. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1847. PMC 1626534. PMID 16754602. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1626534.
- ^ Summons, Roger E. et al. (2006). "Steroids, triterpenoids and molecular oxygen". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 361 (1470): 951–68. doi:10.1098/rstb.2006.1837. PMC 1578733. PMID 16754609. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1578733.
- ^ Philip P. Wiener, ed (1973). "Spontaneous Generation". Dictionary of the History of Ideas. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. http://xtf.lib.virginia.edu/xtf/view?docId=DicHist/uvaBook/tei/DicHist1.xml;chunk.id=dv4-39. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
- ^ Lennox, James (2001). Aristotle's Philosophy of Biology: Studies in the Origins of Life Science. New York, NY: Cambridge Press. pp. 229–258. ISBN 978-0-521-65976-5.
- ^ Balme, D. M. (1962). "Development of Biology in Aristotle and Theophrastus: Theory of Spontaneous Generation". Phronesis: a journal for Ancient Philosophy 7 (1–2): 91–104. doi:10.1163/156852862X00052.
- ^ Dobell, C. (1960). Antony Van Leeuwenhoek and his little animals. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-60594-9.
- ^ Oparin, Aleksandr I. (1953). Origin of Life. Dover Publications, New York. pp. 196. ISBN 0-486-60213-3.
- ^ Tyndall, John; Fragments of Science, Vol 2, chapters IV, XII (1876), XIII(1878); Pub. P. F. Collier, New York 1905; (Available at: http://www.archive.org/details/fragmenoscien02tyndrich )
- ^ First life on Earth windmillministries.org, Retrieved on 2008-01-18
- ^ "It is often said that all the conditions for the first production of a living organism are now present, which could ever have been present. But if (and oh! what a big if!) we could conceive in some warm little pond, with all sorts of ammonia and phosphoric salts, light, heat, electricity, &c., present, that a proteine compound was chemically formed ready to undergo still more complex changes, at the present day such matter would be instantly devoured or absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were formed." written in 1871, published in Darwin, Francis, ed. 1887. The life and letters of Charles Darwin, including an autobiographical chapter. London: John Murray. Volume 3. p. 18
- ^ Oparin, A. I. (1924) Proiskhozhozhdenie zhizny, Moscow (Translated by Ann Synge in Bernal (1967)), The Origin of Life, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, pages 199–234.
- ^ Oparin, A. I. (1952). The Origin of Life. New York: Dover. ISBN 0-486-49522-1.
- ^ Bernal, J.D. (1969). Origins of Life. London: Wiedenfeld and Nicholson.
- ^ Bryson, Bill (2004). A short history of nearly everything. London: Black Swan. pp. 300–2. ISBN 0-552-99704-8.
- ^ Parker ET, Cleaves HJ, Dworkin JP et al. (March 2011). "Primordial synthesis of amines and amino acids in a 1958 Miller H2S-rich spark discharge experiment". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 108 (14): 5526–31. doi:10.1073/pnas.1019191108. PMC 3078417. PMID 21422282. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/03/14/1019191108.long. Retrieved 2011-03-26.
- ^ Morse, J. W.; MacKenzie, F. T. (1998). "Hadean Ocean Carbonate chemistry". Aquatic Geochemistry 4 (3/4): 301–19. doi:10.1023/A:1009632230875.
- ^ Sleep, Norman H. et al. (1989). "Annihilation of ecosystems by large asteroid impacts on early Earth". Nature 342 (6246): 139–42. Bibcode 1989Natur.342..139S. doi:10.1038/342139a0. PMID 11536616.
- ^ Maher, Kevin A.; Stevenson, David J. (1988). "Impact frustration of the origin of life". Nature 331 (6157): 612–4. Bibcode 1988Natur.331..612M. doi:10.1038/331612a0. PMID 11536595.
- ^ Orgel, Leslie E. (2004). "Prebiotic adenine revisited: Eutectics and photochemistry". Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 34 (4): 361–9. Bibcode 2004OLEB...34..361O. doi:10.1023/B:ORIG.0000029882.52156.c2.
- ^ Robertson, Michael P.; Miller, Stanley L. (1995). "An efficient prebiotic synthesis of cytosine and uracil". Nature 375 (6534): 772–4. Bibcode 1995Natur.375..772R. doi:10.1038/375772a0. PMID 7596408.
- ^ Bada, J. L.; Bigham, C.; Miller, S. L. (1994). "Impact Melting of Frozen Oceans on the Early Earth: Implications for the Origin of Life" (abstract). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (4): 1248–50. Bibcode 1994PNAS...91.1248B. doi:10.1073/pnas.91.4.1248. PMC 43134. PMID 11539550. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/91/4/1248.
- ^ "Did Life Evolve in Ice? - Arctic & Antarctic". DISCOVER Magazine. http://discovermagazine.com/2008/feb/did-life-evolve-in-ice/article_view?b_start:int=0&-C=. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
- ^ Levy, M.; Miller, S. L.; Brinton, K.; Bada, J. L. (June 2000). "Prebiotic synthesis of adenine and amino acids under Europa-like conditions". Icarus 145 (2): 609–13. Bibcode 2000Icar..145..609L. doi:10.1006/icar.2000.6365. PMID 11543508.
- ^ Trinks, Hauke; Schröder, Wolfgang; Biebricher, Christof (October 2005). "Ice And The Origin Of Life". Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere 35 (5): 429–45. Bibcode 2005OLEB...35..429T. doi:10.1007/s11084-005-5009-1. PMID 16231207. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/orig/2005/00000035/00000005/00005009#aff_1. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- ^ Mojzis, S. J. et al. (1996). "Evidence for life on earth before 3,800 million years ago". Nature 384 (6604): 55–9. Bibcode 1996Natur.384...55M. doi:10.1038/384055a0. PMID 8900275.
- ^ Lazcano, A.; Miller, S. L. (1994). "How long did it take for life to begin and evolve to cyanobacteria?". Journal of Molecular Evolution 39 (6): 546–54. doi:10.1007/BF00160399. PMID 11536653.
- ^ de Duve, Christian (2005), "Singularities" (CUP)
- ^ de Duve, Christian (2002), "Life Evolving" (OUP)
- ^ Gibson, DG; Glass, JI; Lartigue, C; Noskov, VN; Chuang, RY; Algire, MA; Benders, GA; Montague, MG et al. (2010). "Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized Genome". Science (Science (journal)) 329 (5987): 52–6. Bibcode 2010Sci...329...52G. doi:10.1126/science.1190719. PMID 20488990. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/science.1190719.
- ^ "Scientists Create First Self-Replicating Synthetic Life". http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2010/05/scientists-create-first-self-replicating-synthetic-life/.
- ^ Bernal J.D. (1951) "The physical basis of life" (Routledge and Keganb Paul)
- ^ Bernal, John Desmond (1949). "The Physical Basis of Life". Proceedings of the Physical Society. Section A, 1949 62 (9): 537–538. Bibcode 1949PPSA...62..537B. doi:10.1088/0370-1298/62/9/301.
- ^ Chyba, Christopher; Sagan, Carl (1992). "Endogenous production, exogenous delivery and impact-shock synthesis of organic molecules: an inventory for the origins of life". Nature 355 (6356): 125–32. Bibcode 1992Natur.355..125C. doi:10.1038/355125a0. PMID 11538392.
- ^ Furukawa Y, Sekine T, Oba M, Kakegawa T, Nakazawa H (2009). "Biomolecule formation by oceanic impacts on early Earth". Nature Geoscience 2 (1): 62–66. Bibcode 2009NatGe...2...62F. doi:10.1038/NGEO383.
- ^ Shapiro, Robert (1987). Origins: A Skeptic's Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth. Bantam Books. p. 110. ISBN 0-671-45939-2.
- ^ Miller, Stanley L. (1953). "A Production of Amino Acids Under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions". Science 117 (3046): 528–9. Bibcode 1953Sci...117..528M. doi:10.1126/science.117.3046.528. PMID 13056598.
- ^ Oró, J. (1961). "Mechanism of synthesis of adenine from hydrogen cyanide under possible primitive Earth conditions". Nature 191 (4794): 1193–4. Bibcode 1961Natur.191.1193O. doi:10.1038/1911193a0. PMID 13731264.
- ^ Menor-Salván C, Ruiz-Bermejo DM, Guzmán MI, Osuna-Esteban S, Veintemillas-Verdaguer S (2007). "Synthesis of pyrimidines and triazines in ice: implications for the prebiotic chemistry of nucleobases". Chemistry 15 (17): 4411–8. doi:10.1002/chem.200802656. PMID 19288488.
- ^ Lane, Nick (2010) "Life Acending: the 10 great inventions of evolution"
- ^ Experiments on origin of organic molecules Nitro.biosci.arizona.edu, Retrieved on 2008-01-13
- ^ Schuster, P.; Eigen, M. (1979). The hypercycle, a principle of natural self-organization. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-09293-5.
- ^ origin of life thebioreview.com Retrieved on 2008-01-14
- ^ Hoffmann, G. W. (1974). "On the Origin of the Genetic Code and the Stability of the Translation Apparatus". J. Mol. Biol. 86: pp. 349–362.
- ^ Orgel, L. (1963). "The Maintenance of the Accuracy of Protein Synthesis and its Relevance to Ageing". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 49: pp. 517–521.
- ^ Hoffmann, G. W. (1975). "The Stochastic Theory of the Origin of Life". Annual Review of Physical Chemistry 26: pp. 123–144.
- ^ http://www.tkpw.net/hk-ies/n15/
- ^ "Amateur Shakes Up Ideas on Recipe for Life". The New York Times. 1997-04-22. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/04/22/science/amateur-shakes-up-ideas-on-recipe-for-life.html?pagewanted=2&src=pm.
- ^ K. Popper: Pyrite and the origin of life. Nature 344 (1990) p. 387 letters to the editor
- ^ Huber, C.; Wächtershäuser, G. (1998). "Peptides by activation of amino acids with CO on (Ni,Fe)S surfaces: implications for the origin of life". Science 281 (5377): 670–2. Bibcode 1998Sci...281..670H. doi:10.1126/science.281.5377.670. PMID 9685253.
- ^ Dartnell, Lewis (2008-01-12). "Life's a beach on planet Earth". New Scientist.
- ^ Adam, Zachary (2007). "Actinides and Life's Origins". Astrobiology 7 (6): 852–72. Bibcode 2007AsBio...7..852A. doi:10.1089/ast.2006.0066. PMID 18163867.
- ^ Parnell, John (2004). "Mineral Radioactivity in Sands as a Mechanism for Fixation of Organic Carbon on the Early Earth" (PDF). Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 34 (6): 533–547. Bibcode 2004OLEB...34..533P. doi:10.1023/B:ORIG.0000043132.23966.a1. http://www.springerlink.com/content/mp42778372jv6054/fulltext.pdf.
- ^ Michaelian, Karo (2009). "Thermodynamic Function of Life". arXiv:0907.0040 [physics.gen-ph].
- ^ Michaelian, Karo (2011). "Biological Catalysis of the Hydrological Cycle: Life's Thermodynamic Function" (PDF). Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss. 8: 1093–1123. Bibcode 2011HESSD...8.1093M. doi:10.5194/hessd-8-1093-2011. http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/8/1093/2011/hessd-8-1093-2011.html.
- ^ Cnossen, I. et al. (2007). "The habitat of early life: Solar X-ray and UV radiation at Earth's surface 4-3.5 billion years ago" (PDF). J. Geophys. Research 112: E02008. arXiv:astro-ph/0702529. Bibcode 2007JGRE..11202008C. doi:10.1029/2006JE002784.
- ^ a b Powner MW, Gerland B, Sutherland JD (May 2009). "Synthesis of activated pyrimidine ribonucleotides in prebiotically plausible conditions". Nature 459 (7244): 239–42. Bibcode 2009Natur.459..239P. doi:10.1038/nature08013. PMID 19444213.
- ^ Lowe, D. R. and Tice, M. M, Donald R.; Tice, Michael M. (2004). "Geologic evidence for Archean atmospheric and climatic evolution: Fluctuating levels of CO2, CH4, and O2 with an overriding tectonic control" (PDF). Geology 32 (6): 493–496. Bibcode 2004Geo....32..493L. doi:10.1130/G20342.1.
- ^ Michaelian, Karo (2010). "Thermodynamic Origin of Lfe" (PDF). Earth Syst. Dynam. Discuss. 1: 1–39. doi:10.5194/esdd-1-1-2010. http://www.earth-syst-dynam-discuss.net/1/1/2010/esdd-1-1-2010.html.
- ^ Michaelian, Karo (2011). "Thermodynamic Dissipation Theory for the Origin of Life" (PDF). Earth Syst. Dynam. 2: 37–51. Bibcode 2011ESD.....2...37M. doi:10.5194/esd-2-37-2011. http://www.earth-syst-dynam.net/2/37/2011/esd-2-37-2011.html.
- ^ Michaelian, Karo (2009). "Thermodynamic Origin of Lfe". arXiv:0907.0042 [physics.gen-ph].
- ^ Michaelian, Karo (2010). "Homochirality Through Photon-Induced Melting Of RNA/DNA: Thermodynamic Dissipation Theory Of The Origin Of Life" (PDF). WebmedCentral Biochemistry 1: WMC00924. http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/924.
- ^ Noyes HP, Bonner WA, Tomlin JA (April 1977). "On the origin of biological chirality via natural beta-decay". Orig. Life 8 (1): 21–3. Bibcode 1977OrLi....8...21N. doi:10.1007/BF00930935. PMID 896189.
- ^ Hazen, Robert M. (2005). Genesis: the scientific quest for life's origin. Washington, D.C: Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-09432-1.
- ^ Clark, S. (1999). "Polarised starlight and the handedness of Life". American Scientist 97 (4): 336–43. Bibcode 1999AmSci..87..336C. doi:10.1511/1999.4.336.
- ^ a b Mullen L (September 5, 2005). "Building Life from Star-Stuff". Astrobiology Magazine. http://www.astrobio.net/news/article1702.html.
- ^ Martin, William; Russel, Michael J. (2003). "On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 358 (1429): 59–83; discussion 83–5. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1183. PMC 1693102. PMID 12594918. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1693102.
- ^ Koonin EV, Senkevich TG, Dolja VV (2006). "The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells". Biol. Direct 1: 29. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-1-29. PMC 1594570. PMID 16984643. http://www.biology-direct.com/content/1//29. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
- ^ Vlassov AV, Kazakov SA, Johnston BH, Landweber LF (August 2005). "The RNA world on ice: a new scenario for the emergence of RNA information". J. Mol. Evol. 61 (2): 264–73. doi:10.1007/s00239-004-0362-7. PMID 16044244.
- ^ Nussinov, Mark D.; Vladimir A. Otroshchenkob and Salvatore Santoli (1997). "Emerging Concepts of Self-organization and the Living State". Biosystems 42 (2–3): 111–8. doi:10.1016/S0303-2647(96)01699-1. PMID 9184757. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T2K-3W0FTTV-G&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=2ee9045613a39f99b996e96f342023d3. Retrieved 2009-08-02.
- ^ Martin Hanczyc, Ted.com, "The Line Between Life and Not Life"
- ^ Ma W, Yu C, Zhang W, Hu J (November 2007). "Nucleotide synthetase ribozymes may have emerged first in the RNA world". RNA 13 (11): 2012–9. doi:10.1261/rna.658507. PMC 2040096. PMID 17878321. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040096.
- ^ Johnston, W. K. et al. (2001). "RNA-Catalyzed RNA Polymerization: Accurate and General RNA-Templated Primer Extension". Science 292 (5520): 1319–25. Bibcode 2001Sci...292.1319J. doi:10.1126/science.1060786. PMID 11358999.
- ^ Szostak, Jack W. (June 4, 2008). "The Origins of Function in Biological Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Membranes". HHMI. http://www.hhmi.org/research/investigators/szostak.html. Retrieved 2008-11-29.
- ^ Lincoln, Tracey A.; Joyce, Gerald F. (January 8, 2009). "Self-Sustained Replication of an RNA Enzyme". Science 323 (5918): 1229–32. Bibcode 2009Sci...323.1229L. doi:10.1126/science.1167856. PMC 2652413. PMID 19131595. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2652413.
- ^ Orgel, L. (1994). "The origin of life on earth". Scientific American 271 (4): 81.
- ^ Levy, Matthew; Miller, Stanley L. (1998). "The stability of the RNA bases: Implications for the origin of life". PNAS 95 (14): 7933–8. Bibcode 1998PNAS...95.7933L. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.14.7933. PMC 20907. PMID 9653118. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=20907.
- ^ Larralde, R.; Robertson, M. P.; Miller, S. L. (1995). "Rates of Decomposition of Ribose and Other Sugars: Implications for Chemical Evolution". PNAS 92 (18): 8158–60. Bibcode 1995PNAS...92.8158L. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.18.8158. PMC 41115. PMID 7667262. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=41115.
- ^ Lindahl, Tomas (1993). "Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA". Nature 362 (6422): 709–15. Bibcode 1993Natur.362..709L. doi:10.1038/362709a0. PMID 8469282.
- ^ Orgel, Leslie (2000). "A Simpler Nucleic Acid". Science 290 (5495): 1306–7. doi:10.1126/science.290.5495.1306. PMID 11185405.
- ^ Nelson, K. E.; Levy, M.; Miller, S. L. (2000). "Peptide nucleic acids rather than RNA may have been the first genetic molecule" (abstract). PNAS 97 (8): 3868–71. Bibcode 2000PNAS...97.3868N. doi:10.1073/pnas.97.8.3868. PMC 18108. PMID 10760258. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/97/8/3868.
- ^ Anastasi C, Crowe MA, Powner MW, Sutherland JD (2006). "Direct Assembly of Nucleoside Precursors from Two- and Three-Carbon Units". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 45 (37): 6176–9. doi:10.1002/anie.200601267. PMID 16917794. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112752038/abstract.
- ^ Powner MW, Sutherland JD (2008). "Potentially Prebiotic Synthesis of Pyrimidine β-D-Ribonucleotides by Photoanomerization/Hydrolysis of α-D-Cytidine-2-Phosphate". ChemBioChem 9 (15): 2386–7. doi:10.1002/cbic.200800391. PMID 18798212. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/121410594/abstract.
- ^ Huang W, Ferris JP (July 2006). "One-step, regioselective synthesis of up to 50-mers of RNA oligomers by montmorillonite catalysis". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (27): 8914–9. doi:10.1021/ja061782k. PMID 16819887.
- ^ Lane, Nick (2010), "Life Ascending: the 10 great inventions of evolution" (Profile Books)
- ^ Smith E & Morowitz, H. (2004) "Universality in Intermediate Metabolism" (Proceedings of the Nat. Academy of Sciences 101:13168-73)
- ^ Musser, George (23 September 2011). "How Life Arose on Earth, and How a Singularity Might Bring It Down". Scientific American. http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/2011/09/23/how-life-arose-on-earth-and-how-a-singularity-might-bring-it-down/. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
- ^ Orgel LE (November 2000). "Self-organizing biochemical cycles". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (23): 12503–7. Bibcode 2000PNAS...9712503O. doi:10.1073/pnas.220406697. PMC 18793. PMID 11058157. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11058157.
- ^ Muller, A.W.J. (1985). "Thermosynthesis by biomembranes: energy gain from cyclic temperature changes". Journal of Theoretical Biology 115 (3): 429–53. doi:10.1016/S0022-5193(85)80202-2. PMID 3162066.
- ^ Muller, A.W.J. (1995). "Were the first organisms heat engines? A new model for biogenesis and the early evolution of biological energy conversion". Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 63 (2): 193–231. doi:10.1016/0079-6107(95)00004-7. PMID 7542789.
- ^ Freeman Dyson (1985). Origins of Life. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62668-4.
- ^ Muller, A.W.J. (2005). "Thermosynthesis as energy source for the RNA World: a model for the bioenergetics of the origin of life". Biosystems 82 (1): 93–102. doi:10.1016/j.biosystems.2005.06.003. PMID 16024164.
- ^ Sun, F.J. and Caetano-Anolles, G. (2008). "The origin and evolution of tRNA inferred from phylogenetic analysis of structure". Journal of Molecular Evolution 66 (1): 21–35. doi:10.1007/s00239-007-9050-8. PMID 18058157.
- ^ Muller, A.W.J. ; Schulze-Makuch, D. (2006). "Sorption heat engines: simple inanimate negative entropy generators". Physica A 362 (2): 369–381. arXiv:physics/0507173. Bibcode 2006PhyA..362..369M. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2005.12.003.
- ^ Orgel, L. (1987). "Evolution of the genetic apparatus: a review". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 52: 9–16. doi:10.1101/sqb.1987.052.01.004 (inactive 2010-01-05). PMID 2456886.
- ^ Panno, Joseph (2005). The cell: evolution of the first organism. New York: Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-4946-7.
- ^ publications
- ^ Martin D. Brasier, Richard Matthewman, Sean McMahon and David Wacey. "Pumice as a Remarkable Substrate for the Origin of Life" Astrobiology. August 31, 2011
- ^ Stuart Kauffman (1993). The Origins of Order: Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution (Chapter 7). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507951-7
- ^ Dawkins, Richard (1996) . The Blind Watchmaker. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. pp. 148–161. ISBN 0-393-31570-3.
- ^ Cairns-Smith, A. G. (1982). Genetic takeover and the mineral origins of life. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23312-7.
- ^ Bullard T, Freudenthal J, Avagyan S, Kahr B (2007). "Test of Cairns-Smith's crystals-as-genes hypothesis". Faraday Discuss. 136: 231–45. Bibcode 2007FaDi..136..231B. doi:10.1039/b616612c. http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/FD/article.asp?doi=b616612c.
- ^ Caroline Moore (16 July 2007). "Crystals as genes?". Chemical Science. http://www.rsc.org/Publishing/ChemScience/Volume/2007/08/Crystals_as_genes.asp.
- ^ a b Nanobes–Intro microscopy-uk.org, Retrieved on 2008-01-14
- ^ Chang, Kenneth (2009-08-18). "From a Distant Comet, a Clue to Life". Space & Cosmos (New York Times): p. A18. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/19/science/space/19comet.html?hpw. Retrieved 2009-08-19.
- ^ Tough Earth bug may be from Mars - 25 September 2002 - New Scientist
- ^ Lin, Li-Hung; Pei-Ling Wang, Douglas Rumble, Johanna Lippmann-Pipke, Erik Boice, Lisa M. Pratt, Barbara Sherwood Lollar, Eoin L. Brodie, Terry C. Hazen, Gary L. Andersen, Todd Z. DeSantis, Duane P. Moser, Dave Kershaw, T. C. Onstott (October 2006). "Long-Term Sustainability of a High-Energy, Low-Diversity Crustal Biome". Science 314 (5798): 479–82. Bibcode 2006Sci...314..479L. doi:10.1126/science.1127376. PMID 17053150. 5798.
- ^ Jason P. Dworkin; David W. Deamer, Scott A. Sandford, Louis J. Allamandola (January 30, 2001). "Self-assembling amphiphilic molecules: Synthesis in simulated interstellar/precometary ices". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sciences 98 (3): 815–9. Bibcode 2001PNAS...98..815D. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.3.815. PMC 14665. PMID 11158552. http://www.pnas.org/content/98/3/815.abstract.
- ^ Morbidelli, A.; J. Chambers, J. I. Lunine, J. M. Petit, F. Robert, G. B. Valsecchi, K. E. Cyr (2010-02). "Source regions and timescales for the delivery of water to the Earth". Meteoritics & Planetary Science 35 (6): 1309–1320. Bibcode 2000M&PS...35.1309M. doi:10.1111/j.1945-5100.2000.tb01518.x.
- ^ "'Life chemical' detected in comet". BBC News. August 18, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8208307.stm.
- ^ a b Gallori, Enzo (November 2010). "Astrochemistry and the origin of genetic material". Rendiconti Lincei 22 (2): 113–118. doi:10.1007/s12210-011-0118-4. http://www.springerlink.com/content/x332837483630g24/. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- ^ Martins, Zita (February 2011). "Organic Chemistry of Carbonaceous Meteorites". Elements 7 (1): 35–40. doi:10.2113/gselements.7.1.35. http://elements.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/7/1/35. Retrieved 2011-08-11.
- ^ Martins, Zita; Botta, Oliver; Fogel, Marilyn L.; Sephton, Mark A.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Schwartz, Alan W. et al. (15 June 2008). "Extraterrestrial nucleobases in the Murchison meteorite". Earth and Planetary Science Letters 270 (1-2): 130–136. Bibcode 2008E&PSL.270..130M. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.03.026.
- ^ AFP Staff (20 August 2009). "We may all be space aliens: study". AFP. http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5j_QHxWNRNdiW35Qr00L8CkwcXyvw. Retrieved 2011-08-14.
- ^ Callahan; Smith, K.E.; Cleaves, H.J.; Ruzica, J.; Stern, J.C.; Glavin, D.P.; House, C.H.; Dworkin, J.P. (11 August 2011). "Carbonaceous meteorites contain a wide range of extraterrestrial nucleobases". PNAS. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106493108. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/08/10/1106493108. Retrieved 2011-08-15.
- ^ Steigerwald, John (8 August 2011). "NASA Researchers: DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/topics/solarsystem/features/dna-meteorites.html. Retrieved 2011-08-10.
- ^ ScienceDaily Staff (9 August 2011). "DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space, NASA Evidence Suggests". ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110808220659.htm. Retrieved 2011-08-09.
- ^ a b c Chow, Denise (26 October 2011). "Discovery: Cosmic Dust Contains Organic Matter from Stars". Space.com. http://www.space.com/13401-cosmic-star-dust-complex-organic-compounds.html. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- ^ ScienceDaily Staff (26 October 2011). "Astronomers Discover Complex Organic Matter Exists Throughout the Universe". ScienceDaily. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111026143721.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-27.
- ^ Kwok, Sun; Zhang, Yong (26 October 2011). "Mixed aromatic–aliphatic organic nanoparticles as carriers of unidentified infrared emission features". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature10542.
- ^ Origin of Life at the Weizmann Institute
- ^ Segré, D., Ben-Eli, D., Deamer, D. and Lancet, D. (February–April 2001). "The Lipid World" (PDF). Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 2001 31 (1–2): 119–45. doi:10.1023/A:1006746807104. PMID 11296516. http://ool.weizmann.ac.il/Segre_Lipid_World.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ^ Brown MR, Kornberg A (November 2004). "Inorganic polyphosphate in the origin and survival of species". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (46): 16085–7. Bibcode 2004PNAS..10116085B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0406909101. PMC 528972. PMID 15520374. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15520374.
- ^ The Origin Of Life
- ^ Pasek MA (January 2008). "Rethinking early Earth phosphorus geochemistry". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105 (3): 853–8. Bibcode 2008PNAS..105..853P. doi:10.1073/pnas.0708205105. PMC 2242691. PMID 18195373. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18195373.
- ^ Witt AN, Vijh UP, Gordon KD (2003). "Discovery of Blue Fluorescence by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Molecules in the Red Rectangle". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 35: 1381. Archived from the original on 2003-12-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20031219175322/http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v35n5/aas203/189.htm.
- ^ García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.; García-Lario, P.; Stanghellini, L.; Villaver, E.; Shaw, R. A.; Szczerba, R.; Perea-Calderón, J. V. (2010-10-28). "Formation Of Fullerenes In H-Containing Planetary Nebulae". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 724: L39. Bibcode 2010ApJ...724L..39G. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/724/1/L39.
- ^ Battersby, S. (2004). Space molecules point to organic origins. Retrieved January 11, 2004 from http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn4552-space-molecules-point-to-organic-origins.html
- ^ Astrobiology Magazine  Accessed 26 April 2008
- ^ Are Aliens Among Us? In pursuit of evidence that life arose on Earth more than once, scientists are searching for microbes that are radically different from all known organisms Scientific American. 19 November 2007
- ^ Hartman, Hyman (1998) "Photosynthesis and the Origin of Life" (Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres, Volume 28, Numbers 4–6 / October, 1998)
- Arrhenius, Gustaf et al. (1997). "Entropy and Charge in Molecular Evolution—the Case of Phosphate". Journal of Theoretical Biology 187 (4): 503–22. doi:10.1006/jtbi.1996.0385. PMID 9299295.
- Buehler, Lukas K. (2000–2005) The physico-chemical basis of life, http://www.whatislife.com/about.html accessed 27 October 2005.
- Davies, Paul (1998). The Fifth Miracle. Penguin Science, London. ISBN 0-14-028226-2.
- De Duve, Christian (January 1996). Vital Dust: The Origin and Evolution of Life on Earth. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-09045-1.
- Egel, R.; Lankenau, D.-H.; Mulkidjanian, A. Y. (2011). Origins of Life: The Primal Self-Organization. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 1-366,. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21625-1. ISBN 978-3-642-21624-4. http://www.springer.com/life+sciences/evolutionary+%26+developmental+biology/book/978-3-642-21624-4.
- Fernando CT, Rowe, J (2007). "Natural selection in chemical evolution". Journal of Theoretical Biology 247 (1): 152–67. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2007.01.028. PMID 17399743.
- Hartman, Hyman (1998). "Photosynthesis and the Origin of Life". Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres 28 (4–6): 515–521. doi:10.1023/A:1006548904157.
- Harris, Henry (2002). Things come to life. Spontaneous generation revisited. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-851538-3.
- Hazen, Robert M. (December 2005). Genesis: The Scientific Quest for Life's Origins. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-09432-1. http://newton.nap.edu/books/0309094321/html.
- Gribbon, John (1998). The Case of the Missing Neutrinos and other Curious Phenomena of the Universe. Penguin Science, London. ISBN 0-14-028734-5.
- Horgan, J (1991). "In the beginning". Scientific American 264: 100–109. Bibcode 1991SciAm.264..100P. (Cited on p. 108).
- Huber, C. and Wächtershäuser, G., (1998). "Peptides by activation of amino acids with CO on (Ni,Fe)S surfaces: implications for the origin of life". Science 281 (5377): 670–2. Bibcode 1998Sci...281..670H. doi:10.1126/science.281.5377.670. PMID 9685253. (Cited on p. 108).
- Knoll, Andrew H. (2003). Life on a Young Planet: The First Three Billion Years of Evolution on Earth. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00978-3.
- Luisi, Pier Luigi (2006). The Emergence of Life: From Chemical Origins to Synthetic Biology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82117-7.
- Martin, W. and Russell M.J. (2002). "On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological sciences 358 (1429): 59–83; discussion 83–5. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1183. PMC 1693102. PMID 12594918. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1693102.
- Maynard Smith, John; Szathmary, Eors (2000-03-16). The Origins of Life: From the Birth of Life to the Origin of Language. Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 0-19-286209-X.
- Morowitz, Harold J. (1992) "Beginnings of Cellular Life: Metabolism Recapitulates Biogenesis". Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05483-1
- NASA Astrobiology Institute: Earth's Early Environment and Life
- NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Exobiology: Gustaf O. Arrhenius
- Pitsch, Stefan; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayanan; Arrhenius, Gustaf (2000). "Concentration of Simple Aldehydes by Sulfite-Containing Double-Layer Hydroxide Minerals: Implications for Biopoesis" (abstract). Helvetica Chimica Acta 83 (9): 2398 2411. doi:10.1002/1522-2675(20000906)83:9<2398::AID-HLCA2398>3.0.CO;2-5. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/73501648/ABSTRACT.
- Russell MJ, Hall AJ, Cairns-Smith AG, Braterman PS (1988). "Submarine hot springs and the origin of life". Nature 336 (6195): 117. Bibcode 1988Natur.336..117R. doi:10.1038/336117a0.
- Dedicated issue of Philosophical Transactions B on Major Steps in Cell Evolution freely available.
- Dedicated issue of Philosophical Transactions B on the Emergence of Life on the Early Earth freely available.
- The Deep Hot Biosphere Theory - Thomas Gold, article from PNAS Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 89, pp. 6045-6049, July 1992 Microbiology
- The Origin of Life Video by John Maynard Smith
- "Harvard Team Creates the World's 1st Synthesized Cells"
- PDF (192 KB)
- Martin A. Nowak and Hisashi Ohtsuki.Prevolutionary dynamics and the origin of evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 2008
- "Exploring Life's Origins: a Virtual Exhibit"
- "SELF-REPLICATION: Even peptides do it" by Stuart A. Kauffman (web archive version as original page no longer accessible)
- Origins of Life website including papers, resources, by Dr. Michael Russell at the U. of Glasgow
- Possible Connections Between Interstellar Chemistry and the Origin of Life on the Earth
- Scientists Find Clues That Life Began in Deep Space—NASA Astrobiology Institute
- Self-organizing biochemical cycles—by Leslie Orgel
- How Life Began: New Research Suggests Simple Approach
- Primordial Soup's On: Scientists Repeat Evolution's Most Famous Experiment–an article in Scientific American. March 28, 2007
- Illustrations from Evolution (textbook)
- An abiogenesis primer for laymen
Origin of life Elements of nature Universe Earth Weather Environment Life
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.