- Scientific journal
:"For a broader class of publications, which include scientific journals, see
Academic journal."In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publicationintended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals such as "Nature" publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that have been peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Although scientific journals are superficially similar to professional magazines, they are actually quite different. Issues of a scientific journal are rarely read casually, as one would read a magazine. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
The history of scientific journals dates from 1665, when the French "
Journal des sçavans" and the English " Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society" first began systematically publishing research results. Over a thousand, mostly ephemeral, were founded in the 18th century, and the number has increased rapidly after that. (D. A. Kronick, "History of Scientific and Technical Periodicals," 2nd ed. Scarecrow, 1976)
These articles can be used in research and
graduate education. Some classes are partially devoted to the explication of classic articles, and seminarclasses can consist of the presentation by each student of a classic or current paper. In a scientific research group or academic departmentit is usual for the content of current scientific journals to be discussed in journal clubs. The standards that a journal uses to determine publication can vary widely. Some journals, such as "Nature", "Science", " PNAS" and " Physical Review Letters", have a reputation of publishing articles which mark a fundamental breakthrough in their respective fields. In many fields, an informal hierarchy of scientific journals exists; the most prestigious journal in a field tends to be the most selective in terms of the articles it will select for publication. It is also common for journals to have a regional focus, specializing in publishing papers from a particular country or other geographic region, like " African Invertebrates".
Articles tend to be highly technical, representing the latest theoretical research and experimental results in the field of science covered by the journal. They are often incomprehensible to anyone except for researchers in the field and advanced students. In some subjects this is inevitable given the nature of the content.
Types of articles
There are several types of journal articles; the exact terminology and definitions vary by field and specific journal, but often include:
*Letters (also called "communications", and not to be confused with "letters to the editor") are short descriptions of important current research findings which are usually fast-tracked for immediate publication because they are considered urgent.
*Research notes are short descriptions of current research findings which are considered less urgent or important than "Letters"
*Articles are usually between five and twenty pages and are complete descriptions of current original research findings, but there are considerable variations between scientific fields and journals – 80-page articles are not rare in
mathematicsor theoretical computer science.
*Supplemental articles contain a large volume of tabular
datathat is the result of current research and may be dozens or hundreds of pages with mostly numerical data. Some journals now only publish this data electronically on the internet.
*Review articles do not cover original research but rather accumulate the results of many different "articles" on a particular topic into a coherent narrative about the state of the art in that field. Examples of reviews include the 'Nature Reviews' series of journals and the 'Trends in' series, which invite experts to write on their specialization and then have the article peer reviewed before accepting the article for publication. Other journals, such as the Current Opinion series, are less rigorous in peer reviewing each article and instead rely on the author to present an accurate and unbiased view. Review articles provide information about the topic, and also provide journal references to the original research.
The formats of journal articles vary, but many follow the general
IMRADscheme recommended by the "International Committee of Medical Journal Editors" ( [http://www.icmje.org/ ICMJE] ). Such articles begin with an "abstract", which is a one-to-four-paragraph summary of the paper. The "introduction" describes the background for the research including a discussion of similar research. The "materials and methods" or "experimental" section provides specific details of how the research was conducted. The "results and discussion" section describes the outcome and implications of the research, and the "conclusion" section places the research in context and describes avenues for further exploration.
In addition to the above, some scientific journals such as "Science" will include a news section where scientific developments (often involving political issues) are described. These articles are often written by science journalists and not by scientists. In addition some journals will include an editorial section and a section for letters to the editor. While these are articles published within a journal, they are not generally regarded as scientific journal articles because they have not been peer reviewed.
It has been argued that
peer-reviewed paper journals are in the process of being replaced by electronic publishingin its various forms.fact|date=September 2008
One form is the online equivalent of the conventional paper journal. By 2006, almost all scientific journals have, while retaining their peer-review process, established electronic versions; a number have moved entirely to electronic publication. Most academic libraries, similarly, buy the electronic version, and purchase a paper copy only for the most important or most used titles.
There is usually a delay of several months after an article is written before it is published in a journal and this makes paper journals not an ideal format for announcing the latest research. Many journals now publish the final papers in their electronic version as soon as they are ready, without waiting for the assembly of a complete issue, as is necessary with paper. In many fields where even greater speed is wanted, such as
physics, the role of the journal at disseminating the latest research has largely been replaced by preprintdatabases such as arXiv.org. Almost all such articles are eventually published in traditional journals, which still provide an important role in quality control, archiving papers, and establishing scientific credit.
Many scientists and librarians have long protested the cost of journals, especially as they see these payments going to large for-profit publishing houses. To allow their researchers online access to journals, universities generally purchase "site licenses", permitting access from anywhere in the university – and, with appropriate authorization, by university-affiliated users at home or elsewhere. These may be quite expensive, sometimes much more than the cost for a print subscription – although this reflects the number of people who will be using the license; a print subscription is the cost for one person to receive the journal, while a site-license can let thousands of people access it.
scholarly societies, also known as not-for-profit-publishers (NFP), usually cost less than commercial publishers, but the prices of their scientific journals are still usually several thousand dollars a year. However, this money is generally used to fund the activities of the scientific societies that run such journals, or is invested in providing further scholarly resources for scientists, and thus the money remains in and benefits the scientific sphere.
Despite the transition to electronic publishing, the
Concerns about cost and open access have led to the creation of free-access journals such as the
Public Library of Science(PLoS) family and partly-open or reduced-cost journals such as the " Journal of High Energy Physics". However, professional editors still have to be paid and PLoS still relies heavily on donations from foundations to cover the majority of its operating costs; smaller journals do not often have access to such resources.
An article titled "Online or Invisible?" [cite web |url=http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/online-nature01/ |title=Online Or Invisible? |authorlink=Steve Lawrence (computer scientist) |first=Steve |last=Lawrence |publisher=
NEC Research Institute] has used statistical arguments to show that electronic publishingonline, and to some extent open access, both provide wider dissemination and increase the average number of citations an article receives. Lawrence postulates that papers that are easier to access are used more often and therefore cited more often. However, this is more an argument in favour of disseminating research online, than for open access "per se".
Traditionally, the author of an article was required to transfer the
copyrightto the journal publisher. Publishers claimed this was necessary in order to protect author's rights, and to coordinate permissions for reprints or other use. However, many authors, especially those active in the open accessmovement, found this unsatisfactory, and have used their influence to effect a gradual move towards a license to publish instead. Under such a system, the publisher has permission to edit, print and distribute the article commercially, but the author(s) retain the other rights themselves.
Even if they retain the copyright to an article, most journals allow certain rights to their authors. These rights usually include the ability to reuse parts of the paper in the author's future work, and allow him to distribute a limited number of copies. In the print format, such copies are called reprints; in the electronic format they are called
postprints. Some publishers, for example the American Physical Society, also grant the author the right to post and update the article on the author's or employer's website and on free e-print servers, to grant permission to others to use or reuse figures, and even to reprint the article as long as no fee is charged. [cite web |url=http://forms.aps.org/author/copyfaq.html |title=APS Copyright Policies and Frequently Asked Questions] The rise of open access journals, in which the author retains the copyright but must pay a publication charge, such as the Public Library of Sciencefamily of journals is another recent response to copyright concerns.
Open access journal
*A.J. Meadows, ed. The Scientific Journal. London : Aslib, c1979. ISBN 0851421180
*R.E. Abel et al. "Scholarly Publishing: Books Journals, Publishers, and Libraries in the Twentieth Century" N.Y.: Wiley, 2002. ISBN 0471219290
*D.W. King et al. "Scientific Journals in the United States: their Production, Use, and Economics. Stroudsberg, PA: Hutchinson-Ross, 1981 ISBN 0879333804
* [http://wac.colostate.edu/books/bazerman_shaping/ Shaping Written Knowledge: The Genre and Activity of the Experimental Article in Science] (online book) by [http://education.ucsb.edu/~bazerman/ Charles Bazerman]
* [http://www.dlib.org/dlib/december99/12harnad.html 'Free at Last: The Future of Peer-Reviewed Journals'] by
* [http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html Bibliography of Findings on the Open Access Impact Advantage]
* [http://www.e-journals.org Links to the world's electronic journals]
* [http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/meps/v180/editorial/ Electronic publishing in science: changes and risks] by
* [http://www.sciencemodel.net The scientific communication life-cycle model] by Bo-Christer Björk
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