Rhodopsin-like receptors

Rhodopsin-like receptors

Symbol = 7tm_1
Name = Rhodopsin-like receptors

width =
caption =
Pfam= PF00001
InterPro= IPR000276
SCOP = 1f88
OPM family= 6
OPM protein= 1gzm

Rhodopsin-like receptors are the largest group of G-protein coupled receptors.

G-protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs, constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups. GPCRs are usually described as "superfamily" because they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence.cite journal |author=Attwood TK, Findlay JB |title=Fingerprinting G-protein-coupled receptors |journal=Protein Eng. |volume=7 |issue=2 |pages=195–203 |year=1994 |pmid=8170923 |doi=10.1093/protein/7.2.195] The currently known superfamily members include the rhodopsin-like GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. There is a specialised database for GPCRs: http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/.

The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices.cite journal |author=Birnbaumer L |title=G proteins in signal transduction |journal=Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. |volume=30 |issue= |pages=675–705 |year=1990|pmid=2111655 |doi=10.1146/annurev.pa.30.040190.003331] cite journal |author=Gilman AG, Casey PJ |title=G protein involvement in receptor-effector coupling |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=263 |issue=6 |pages=2577–2580 |year=1988|pmid=2830256] cite journal |author=Attwood TK, Findlay JB |title=Design of a discriminating fingerprint for G-protein-coupled receptors |journal=Protein Eng. |volume=6 |issue=2 |pages=167–176 |year=1993 |pmid=8386361 |doi=10.1093/protein/6.2.167]

Rhodopsin-like GPCRs have been classified into the following 19 subgroups (A1-A19) based on a phylogenetic analysis. [cite journal | author=Joost P, Methner A | title=Phylogenetic analysis of 277 human G-protein-coupled receptors as a tool for the prediction of orphan receptor ligands | journal=Genome Biol | year= 2002 | volume=3 | issue=11 | pages=research0063.1–0063.16 | pmid= 12429062 | doi=10.1186/gb-2002-3-11-research0063]

ubfamily A1

* Chemokine receptor InterPro|IPR000355
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 1 (gene|CCR1, CKR1)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (gene|CCR2, CKR2)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 3 (gene|CCR3, CKR3)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 4 (gene|CCR4, CKR4)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (gene|CCR5, CKR5)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (gene|CCR8, CKR8)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 2 (gene|CCRL2, CKRX)
* chemokine (C motif) receptor 1 (gene|XCR1, CXC1) InterPro|IPR005393
* chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (gene|CX3CR1, C3X1) InterPro|IPR005387
* GPR137B (gene|GPR137B, TM7SF1)

ubfamily A2

* Chemokine receptor InterPro|IPR000355
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor-like 1 (gene| CCRL1, CCR11)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 6 (gene|CCR6, CKR6)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 7 (gene|CCR7, CKR7)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 9 (gene|CCR9, CKR9)
** Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 10 (gene|CCR10, CKRA)
* CXC chemokine receptors InterPro|IPR001053
** Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 6 (gene|CXCR6, BONZO)
** Chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 7 (gene|CXCR7, RDC1) InterPro|IPR001416
* Interleukin-8 InterPro|IPR000174 (IL8R)
** IL8R-α (gene|IL8RA, CXCR1)
** IL8R-β (gene|IL8RB, CXCR2)
* Adrenomedullin receptor (gene|GPR182)
* Duffy blood group, chemokine receptor (gene|DARC, DUFF)
* G Protein-coupled Receptor 30 (gene|GPER, CML2, GPCR estrogen receptor)

ubfamily A3

* Angiotensin II receptor InterPro|IPR000248
** Angiotensin II receptor, type 1 (gene|AGTR1, AG2S)
** Angiotensin II receptor, type 2 (gene|AGTR2, AG22)
** Apelin receptor (gene|AGTRL1, APJ) InterPro|IPR003904
* Bradykinin receptor InterPro|IPR000496
** Bradykinin receptor B1 (gene|BDKRB1, BRB1)
** Bradykinin receptor B2 (gene|BDKRB2, BRB2)
* GPR15 (gene|GPR15, GPRF)
* GPR25 (gene|GPR25)

ubfamily A4

* Opioid receptor InterPro|IPR001418
** delta Opioid receptor (gene|OPRD1, OPRD)
** kappa Opioid receptor (gene|OPRK1, OPRK)
** mu Opioid receptor (gene|OPRM1, OPRM)
** Nociceptin receptor (gene|OPRL1, OPRX)
* Somatostatin receptor InterPro|IPR000586
** Somatostatin receptor 1 (gene|SSTR1, SSR1)
** Somatostatin receptor 2 (gene|SSTR2, SSR2)
** Somatostatin receptor 3 (gene|SSTR3, SSR3)
** Somatostatin receptor 4 (gene|SSTR4, SSR4)
** Somatostatin receptor 5 (gene|SSTR5, SSR5)
* GPCR neuropeptide receptor InterPro|IPR009150
** Neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 (gene|NPBWR1, GPR7)
** Neuropeptides B/W receptor 2 (gene|NPBWR2, GPR8)
* GPR1 orphan receptor (gene|GPR1) InterPro|IPR002275
* DEZ orphan receptor InterPro|IPR002258

ubfamily A5

* Galanin receptor InterPro|IPR000405
** Galanin receptor 1 (gene|GALR1, GALR)
** Galanin receptor 2 (gene|GALR2, GALS)
** Galanin receptor 3 (gene|GALR3, GALT)
* Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor InterPro|IPR004071
** Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (gene|CYSLTR1)
** Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2 (gene|CYSLTR2)
* Leukotriene B4 receptor InterPro|IPR003981
** Leukotriene B4 receptor (gene|LTB4R, P2Y7)
** Leukotriene B4 receptor 2 (gene|LTB4R2)
* Relaxin receptor InterPro|IPR008112
** Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (gene|RXFP1, LGR7)
** Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 2 (gene|RXFP2, GPR106)
** Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 3 (gene|RXFP3, SALPR)
** Relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 4 (gene|RXFP4, GPR100/GPR142)
* KiSS1-derived peptide receptor (GPR54) (gene|KISS1R) InterPro|IPR008103
* Melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (gene|MCHR1, GPRO) InterPro|IPR008361
* Urotensin-II receptor (gene|UTS2R, UR2R) InterPro|IPR000670

ubfamily A6

* GPR40-related receptor InterPro|IPR013312
** Free fatty acid receptor 1 (gene|FFAR1, GPR40)
** Free fatty acid receptor 2 (gene|FFAR2, GPR43)
** Free fatty acid receptor 3 (gene|FFAR3, GPR41)
** GPR42 (gene|GPR42, FFAR1L)
* P2 purinoceptor InterPro|IPR002286
** Purinergic receptor P2Y1 (gene|P2RY1)
** Purinergic receptor P2Y2 (gene|P2RY2)
** Purinergic receptor P2Y4 (gene|P2RY4)
** Purinergic receptor P2Y6 (gene|P2RY6)
** Purinergic receptor P2Y11 (gene|P2RY11)
* GPR31 (gene|GPR31, GPRV)
* GPR81 (gene|GPR81)
* GPR82 (gene|GPR82)
* GPR109B (gene|GPR109B, HM74)
* Oxoglutarate (alpha-ketoglutarate) receptor 1 (gene|OXGR1, GPR80)
* Succinate receptor 1 (gene|SUCNR1, GPR91)

ubfamily A7

* P2 purinoceptor InterPro|IPR002286
** Purinergic receptor P2Y5 (gene|P2RY5, P2Y5) InterPro|IPR002188
** Purinergic receptor P2Y10 (gene|P2RY10, P2Y10)
* Protease-activated receptor InterPro|IPR003912
** Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1 (gene|F2RL1, PAR2)
** Coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 2 (gene|F2RL2, PAR3)
* Epstein-Barr virus induced gene 2 (lymphocyte-specific G protein-coupled receptor) (gene|EBI2)
* GPR4 (gene|GPR4) InterPro|IPR002276
* GPR17 (gene|GPR17, GPRH)
* GPR18 (gene|GPR18, GPRI)
* GPR20 (gene|GPR20, GPRK)
* GPR23 (gene|GPR23, P2RY9, P2Y9)
* GPR35 (gene|GPR35)
* GPR55 (gene|GPR55)
* GPR65 (gene|GPR65) InterPro|IPR005464
* GPR68 (gene|GPR68) InterPro|IPR005389
* GPR92 (gene|GPR92)
* GPR132 (gene|132, G2A) InterPro|IPR005388
* Coagulation factor II receptor (gene|F2R, THRR)

ubfamily A8

* P2 purinoceptor InterPro|IPR002286
** Purinergic receptor P2Y12 (gene|P2RY12)
** Purinergic receptor P2Y13 (gene|P2RY13, GPR86) InterPro|IPR008109
** Purinergic receptor P2Y14 (gene|P2RY14, UDP-glucose receptor, KI01) InterPro|IPR005466
* GPR34 (gene|GPR34)
* GPR87 (gene|GPR87)
* GPR171 (gene|GPR171, H963)
* Platelet-activating factor receptor (gene|PTAFR, PAFR) InterPro|IPR002282

ubfamily A9

* Cannabinoid receptor InterPro|IPR002230
** Cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain) (gene|CNR1, CB1R)
** Cannabinoid receptor 2 (macrophage) (gene|CNR2, CB2R)
* Lysophosphatidic acid receptor InterPro|IPR004065
** Endothelial differentiation gene 2 (gene|EDG2)
** Endothelial differentiation gene 4 (gene|EDG4)
** Endothelial differentiation gene 7 (gene|EDG7)
* Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor InterPro|IPR004061
** Endothelial differentiation gene 1 (gene|EDG1)
** Endothelial differentiation gene 3 (gene|EDG3)
** Endothelial differentiation gene 5 (gene|EDG5)
** Endothelial differentiation gene 6 (gene|EDG6)
** Endothelial differentiation gene 8 (gene|EDG8)
* Melanocortin/ACTH receptor InterPro|IPR001671
** Melanocortin 1 receptor (gene|MC1R, MSHR)
** Melanocortin 3 receptor (gene|MC3R)
** Melanocortin 4 receptor (gene|MC4R)
** Melanocortin 5 receptor (gene|MC5R)
** ACTH receptor (gene|MC2R), ACTR)
* GPR3 (gene|GPR3)
* GPR6 (gene|GPR6)
* GPR12 (gene|GPR12, GPRC)

ubfamily A10

*Opsins InterPro|IPR001760cite journal | author = Terakita A | title = The opsins | journal = Genome Biol. | volume = 6 | issue = 3 | pages = 213 | year = 2005 | pmid = 15774036 | doi = 10.1186/gb-2005-6-3-213 | issn = ]
** Rhodopsin (gene|RHO, OPSD)
** Opsin 1 (cone pigments), short-wave-sensitive (color blindness, tritan) (gene|OPN1SW, OPSB) (blue-sensitive opsin)
** Opsin 1 (cone pigments), medium-wave-sensitive (color blindness, deutan) (gene|OPN1MW, OPSG) (green-sensitive opsin)
** Opsin 1 (cone pigments), long-wave-sensitive (color blindness, protan) (gene|OPN1LW, OPSR) (red-sensitive opsin)
** Retinal G protein coupled receptor (gene|RGR)
** Retinal pigment epithelium-derived rhodopsin homolog (gene|RRH, OPSX) (visual pigment-like receptor opsin) InterPro|IPR001793

ubfamily A11

* Eicosanoid receptor InterPro|IPR008365
** Prostaglandin D2 receptor (gene|PTGDR, PD2R)
** Prostaglandin E1 receptor (gene|PTGER1, PE21)
** Prostaglandin E2 receptor (gene|PTGER2, PE22)
** Prostaglandin E3 receptor (gene|PTGER3, PE23)
** Prostaglandin E4 receptor (gene|PTGER4, PE24)
** Prostaglandin F receptor (gene|PTGFR, PF2R)
** Prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin) receptor (gene|PTGIR, PI2R)
** Thromboxane A2 receptor (gene|TBXA2R, TA2R)

ubfamily A12

* Cholecystokinin receptor InterPro|IPR009126
** Cholecystokinin A receptor (gene|CCKAR, CCKR)
** Cholecystokinin B receptor (gene|CCKBR, GASR)
* Neuropeptide FF receptor InterPro|IPR005395
** Neuropeptide FF receptor 1 (gene|NPFFR1, FF1R)
** Neuropeptide FF receptor 2 (gene|NPFFR2, FF2R)
* Orexin receptor InterPro|IPR000204
** Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 1 (gene|HCRTR1, OX1R)
** Hypocretin (orexin) receptor 2 (gene|HCRTR2, OX2R)
* Vasopressin receptor InterPro|IPR001817
** Arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (gene|AVPR1A, V1AR)
** Arginine vasopressin receptor 1B (gene|AVPR1B, V1BR)
** Arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (gene|AVPR2, V2R)
* Gonadotrophin releasing hormone receptor (gene|GNRHR, GRHR) InterPro|IPR001658
* GPR22 (gene|GPR22, GPRM)
* GPR103 (gene|GPR103)
* GPR176 (gene|GPR176, GPR)

ubfamily A13

* Melatonin receptor InterPro|IPR000025
** Melatonin receptor 1A (gene|MTNR1A, ML1A)
** Melatonin receptor 1B (gene|MTNR1B, ML1B)
* Neurokinin receptor InterPro|IPR001681
** Tachykinin receptor 1 (gene|TACR1, NK1R)
** Tachykinin receptor 2 (gene|TACR2, NK2R)
** Tachykinin receptor 3 (gene|TACR3, NK3R)
* Neuropeptide Y receptor InterPro|IPR000611
** Neuropeptide Y receptor Y1 (gene|NPY1R, NY1R)
** Neuropeptide Y receptor Y2 (gene|NPY2R, NY2R)
** Pancreatic polypeptide receptor 1 (gene|PPYR1, NY4R)
** Neuropeptide Y receptor Y5 (gene|NPY5R, NY5R)
* Prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (PRLHR, GPRA) InterPro|IPR001402
* Prokineticin receptor 1 (gene|PROKR1, GPR73)
* GPR19 (gene|GPR19, GPRJ)
* GPR50 (gene|GPR50, ML1X)
* GPR75 (gene|GPR75)
* GPR83 (gene|GPR83, GPR72)

ubfamily A14

* Bombesin receptor InterPro|IPR001556
** Bombesin-like receptor 3 (gene|BRS3)
** Neuromedin B receptor (gene|NMBR)
** Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (gene|GRPR)
*Endothelin receptor InterPro|IPR000499
** Endothelin receptor type A (gene|EDNRA, ET1R)
** Endothelin receptor type B (gene|EDNRB, ETBR)
** GPR37 (gene|GPR37, ETBR-LP2) InterPro|IPR003909
* Neuromedin U receptor InterPro|IPR005390
** Neuromedin U receptor 1 (gene|NMUR1)
** Neuromedin U receptor 2 (gene|NMU2R)
* Neurotensin receptor InterPro|IPR003984
** Neurotensin receptor 1 (gene|NTSR1, NTR1)
** Neurotensin receptor 2 (gene|NTSR2, NTR2)
* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (gene|TRHR, TRFR) InterPro|IPR009144
* Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (gene|GHSR) InterPro|IPR003905
* GPR39 (gene|GPR39)
* Motilin receptor (gene|MLNR, GPR38)

ubfamily A15

* 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor InterPro|IPR002231
** 5-HT2A (gene|HTR2A, 5H2A)
** 5-HT2B (gene|HTR2B, 5H2B)
** 5-HT2C (gene|HTR2C, 5H2C)
** 5-HT6 (gene|HTR6, 5H6) InterPro|IPR002232
* Adrenergic receptor InterPro|IPR002233
** Alpha1A (gene|ADRA1A, A1AA)
** Alpha1B (gene|ADRA1B, A1AB)
** Alpha1D (gene|ADRA1D, A1AD)
** Alpha2A (gene|ADRA2A, A2AA)
** Alpha2B (gene|ADRA2B, A2AB)
** Alpha2C (gene|ADRA2C, A2AC)
** Beta1 (gene|ADRB1, B1AR)
** Beta2 (gene|ADRB2, B2AR)
** Beta3 (gene|ADRB3, B3AR)
* Dopamine receptor InterPro|IPR000929
** D1 (gene|DRD1, DADR)
** D2 (gene|DRD2, D2DR)
** D3 (gene|DRD3, D3DR)
** D4 (gene|DRD4, D4DR)
** D5 (gene|DRD5, DBDR)
* Octopamine receptor InterPro|IPR002002
* Trace amine receptor InterPro|IPR009132
** TAAR2 (gene|TAAR2, GPR58)
** TAAR3 (gene|TAAR3, GPR57)
** TAAR5 (gene|TAAR5, PNR)
** TAAR8 (gene|TAAR8, GPR102)
* Histamine H2 receptor (gene|HRH2, HH2R) InterPro|IPR000503

ubfamily A16

* Histamine H1 receptor (gene|HRH1, HH1R) InterPro|IPR000921
* Histamine H3 receptor (gene|HRH3) InterPro|IPR003980
* Histamine H4 receptor (gene|HRH4) InterPro|IPR008102
* Adenosine receptor InterPro|IPR001634
** A1 (gene|ADORA1, AA1R)
** A2a (gene|ADORA2A, AA2A)
** A2b (gene|ADORA2B, AA2B)
** A3 (gene|ADORA3, AA3R)
* Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor InterPro|IPR000995
** M1 (gene|CHRM1, ACM1)
** M2 (gene|CHRM2, ACM2)
** M3 (gene|CHRM3, ACM3)
** M4 (gene|CHRM4, ACM4)
** M5 (gene|CHRM5, ACM5)
* GPR21 (gene|GPR21, GPRL)
* GPR27 (gene|GPR27)
* GPR45 (gene|GPR45, PSP24)
* GPR52 (gene|GPR52)
* GPR61 (gene|GPR61)
* GPR62 (gene|GPR62)
* GPR63 (gene|GPR63)
* GPR78 (gene|GPR78)
* GPR84 (gene|GPR84)
* GPR85 (gene|GPR85)
* GPR88 (gene|GPR88)
* GPR101 (gene|GPR101)
* GPR161 (gene|GPR161, RE2)
* GPR173 (gene|GPR173, SREB3)

ubfamily A17

* 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor InterPro|IPR002231
** 5-HT1A (gene|HTR1A, 5H1A)
** 5-HT1B (gene|HTR1B, 5H1B)
** 5-HT1D (gene|HTR1D, 5H1D)
** 5-HT1E (gene|HTR1E, 5H1E)
** 5-HT1F (gene|HTR1F, 5H1F)
** 5-HT4 (gene|HTR4) InterPro|IPR001520
** 5-HT5A (gene|HTR5A, 5H5A)
** 5-HT7 (gene|HTR7, 5H7) InterPro|IPR001069

ubfamily A18

* Anaphylatoxin receptors InterPro|IPR002234
** C3a receptor (gene|C3AR1, C3AR)
** C5a receptor (gene|C5AR1, C5AR)
** Chemokine-like receptor 1 (gene|CMKLR1, CML1)
* Formyl peptide receptor InterPro|IPR000826
** Formyl peptide receptor 1 (gene|FPR1, FMLR)
** Formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (gene|FPRL1, FML2)
** Formyl peptide receptor-like 2 (gene|FPRL2, FML1)
* MAS1 oncogene InterPro|IPR000820
** MAS1 (gene|MAS1, MAS)
** MAS1L (gene|MAS1L, MRG)
* GPR1 (gene|GPR1)
* GPR32 (gene|GPR32, GPRW)
* GPR44 (gene|GPR44)
* GPR77 (gene|GPR77, C5L2)

ubfamily A19

* Glycoprotein hormone receptor InterPro|IPR002131
** FSH-receptor (gene|FSHR)
** Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (gene|LHCGR, LSHR)
** Thyrotropin receptor (gene|TSHR)
* Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 4 (gene|LGR4 , GPR48)
* Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (gene|LGR5 , GPR49)


* Olfactory receptor InterPro|IPR000725
* Vomeronasal receptor InterPro|IPR004072
** VN1R1
** VN1R2
** VN1R3
** VN1R4
** VN1R5


External links

*cite journal | author = Horn F, Bettler E, Oliveira L, Campagne F, Cohen FE, Vriend G | title = GPCRDB information system for G protein-coupled receptors | journal = Nucleic Acids Res. | volume = 31 | issue = 1 | pages = 294–7 | year = 2003 | pmid = 12520006 | doi = 10.1093/nar/gkg103| issn = ] This database includes multiple sequence alignments of all GPCR families and sub-families.

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