- Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
Beginning in 2004, human rights violations in the form of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, including torture, rape, sodomy, and homicide of prisoners held in the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq (also known as Baghdad Correctional Facility) came to public attention. These acts were committed by military police personnel of the United States Army together with additional US governmental agencies.
Revealed in the Taguba Report, an initial criminal investigation by the United States Army Criminal Investigation Command had already been underway, where soldiers of the 320th Military Police Battalion had been charged under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with prisoner abuse. In 2004, articles describing the abuse, including pictures showing military personnel appearing to abuse prisoners, came to public attention, when a 60 Minutes II news report (April 28) and an article by Seymour M. Hersh in The New Yorker magazine (posted online on April 30 and published days later in the May 10 issue) reported the story.
The United States Department of Defense removed seventeen soldiers and officers from duty, and eleven soldiers were charged with dereliction of duty, maltreatment, aggravated assault and battery. Between May 2004 and March 2006, eleven soldiers were convicted in courts martial, sentenced to military prison, and dishonorably discharged from service. Two soldiers, Specialist Charles Graner, and his former fiancée, Specialist Lynndie England, were sentenced to ten years and three years in prison, respectively, in trials ending on January 14, 2005 and September 26, 2005. The commanding officer of all Iraq detention facilities, Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, was reprimanded for dereliction of duty and then demoted to the rank of Colonel on May 5, 2005. Col. Karpinski has denied knowledge of the abuses, claiming that the interrogations were authorized by her superiors and performed by subcontractors, and that she was not even allowed entry into the interrogation rooms.
The abuse of detainees at Abu Ghraib was in part the reason that on April 12, 2006, the United States Army activated the 201st Military Intelligence Battalion, the first of four joint interrogation battalions.
Treatment of prisoners
Death of Manadel al-Jamadi
The prisoner Manadel al-Jamadi died in Abu Ghraib prison after being interrogated and tortured by a CIA officer and a private contractor. The torture included physical violence and strappado hanging, whereby the victim is hung from the wrists with the hands tied behind the back. His death has been labeled a homicide by the US military, but neither of the two men who caused his death have been charged. The private contractor was granted qualified immunity.
Reports of prisoner rape
Major General Antonio Taguba has stated that there is photographic evidence of rape being carried out at Abu Ghraib. An Abu Ghraib detainee told investigators he heard an Iraqi teenage boy screaming and saw an Army translator having sex with him while a female soldier took pictures. The alleged rapist was identified by a witness as an American-Egyptian who worked as a translator, and who is now the subject of a civil court case in the US. Another photo shows an American soldier apparently raping a female prisoner. Other photos show sexual assaults on prisoners with objects including a truncheon, wire and a phosphorescent tube, and a female prisoner having her clothing forcibly removed to expose her breasts. Taguba has supported President Obama's decision not to release the photos, stating, "These pictures show torture, abuse, rape and every indecency."
US media initially showed little interest when the US military first reported abuse. On January 16, 2004, United States Central Command informed the media that an official investigation had begun involving abuse and humiliation of Iraqi detainees by a group of US soldiers. On February 24, it was reported that 17 soldiers had been suspended. The military announced again, on March 21, 2004, that the first charges had been filed against six soldiers.
60 Minutes II broadcast and aftermath
The news segment had been delayed by two weeks at the request of the Department of Defense and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Gen. Richard Myers. In the CBS report, Dan Rather interviewed then-deputy director of Coalition operations in Iraq Brig. Gen Mark Kimmitt who said:The first thing I’d say is we’re appalled as well. These are our fellow soldiers. These are the people we work with every day, and they represent us. They wear the same uniform as us, and they let their fellow soldiers down [...] Our soldiers could be taken prisoner as well. And we expect our soldiers to be treated well by the adversary, by the enemy. And if we can't hold ourselves up as an example of how to treat people with dignity and respect [...] We can't ask that other nations do that to our soldiers as well. [...] So what would I tell the people of Iraq? This is wrong. This is reprehensible. But this is not representative of the 150,000 soldiers that are over here [...] I'd say the same thing to the American people ... Don't judge your army based on the actions of a few.
At the same time, Kimmitt said: "I'd like to sit here and say that these are the only prisoner abuse cases that we're aware of, but we know that there have been some other ones since we've been here in Iraq."
Former Marine Lt. Col. Bill Cowan was also interviewed, stating: "We went into Iraq to stop things like this from happening, and indeed, here they are happening under our tutelage."
Rather interviewed Army Reserve Staff Sgt. Chip Frederick, a participant in the abuse, whose civilian job was as a corrections officer at a Virginia prison. Frederick stated, "We had no support, no training whatsoever. And I kept asking my chain of command for certain things ... like rules and regulations", says Frederick. "And it just wasn't happening." Frederick's video diary, sent home from Iraq, provided some of the images used in the story.
In the diary are listed detailed, dated entries that chronicle abuse and names, for example,They stressed him out so bad that the man died. The next day the medics came in and put his body on a stretcher, placed a fake I.V. in his arm [to suggest he died under medical care] and took him away. This OGA (other governmental agency) [prisoner] was never processed and therefore never had a number.
and, "MI (Military Intelligence) has been present and witnessed such activity. MI has encouraged and told us great job [and] that they were now getting positive results and information." The CBS report did not explain who had taken the photographs showed to viewers, nor was it explained how CBS had come by them. They were not released to CBS by the specialists interviewed, nor was any member of the US armed forces charged with supplying these photographs to the media.
Hersh New Yorker article
A May 2004 article by Seymour M. Hersh in The New Yorker magazine explored the abuses in detail, and used as its source a copy of the Taguba report.
The New Yorker, under the direction of editor David Remnick, posted a report on its website by Hersh, along with a number of graphic and disturbing images of the torture taken by U.S. military prison guards with digital cameras. The article, entitled "Torture at Abu Ghraib", was followed in the next two weeks by two more articles on the same subject, "Chain of Command" and "The Gray Zone", also by Mr. Hersh.
Seymour Hersh's undercover sources claimed that an interrogation program called "Copper Green" was an official and systemic misuse of coercive methods which, although deemed "successful" during the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, would be heavily criticized in intelligence circles as an improper application to the context of fighting citizen-"insurgents" in Iraq. This theory, and the existence of "Copper Green" itself, has been denied by The Pentagon.
Hersh has a history of exposing war crimes. His investigative journalism is largely credited with bringing the American public's attention to the 1968 My Lai Massacre during the Vietnam War.
More evidence of torture
According to Donald Rumsfeld, many more pictures and videotapes of the abuse at Abu Ghraib exist. Photos and videos were revealed by the Pentagon to lawmakers in a private viewing on 12 May 2004. Lawmakers disagreed over whether the additional photos were worse than those already released, with Senator Ron Wyden saying the new pictures were "significantly worse than anything that I had anticipated [...] Take the worst case and multiply it several times over." while Congresswoman Ellen Tauscher said the pictures were "not dramatically different". It was speculated that they depict dogs snarling at cowering prisoners, women forced to expose their breasts, hooded prisoners being forced to masturbate, and violent sexual acts.
A Department of Defense official said that most of the additional photos were pornography involving only US soldiers, and that most did not show abuse of prisoners.
- Urinating on detainees
- Jumping on detainee's leg (a limb already wounded by gunfire) with such force that it could not thereafter heal properly
- Continuing by pounding detainee's wounded leg with collapsible metal baton
- Pouring phosphoric acid on detainees
- Sodomization of detainees with a baton
- Tying ropes to the detainees' legs or penises and dragging them across the floor.
In her video diary, a prison guard said that prisoners were shot for minor misbehavior, and claimed to have had venomous snakes bite prisoners, sometimes resulting in their deaths. By her own admission, that guard was "in trouble" for having thrown rocks at the detainees. Hashem Muhsen, one of the naked men in the human pyramid photo, said they were also made to crawl around the floor naked and that U.S. soldiers rode them like donkeys. After being released in January 2004, Muhsen became an Iraqi police officer.
Quotations from a prisonerThey said we will make you wish to die and it will not happen [...] They stripped me naked. One of them told me he would rape me. He drew a picture of a woman to my back and made me stand in shameful position holding my buttocks.—Ameen Saeed Al-Sheik, detainee No. 151362, 'Do you pray to Allah?' one asked. I said yes. They said, '[Expletive] you. And [expletive] him.' One of them said, 'You are not getting out of here health[y], you are getting out of here handicapped. And he said to me, 'Are you married?' I said, 'Yes.' They said, 'If your wife saw you like this, she will be disappointed.' One of them said, 'But if I saw her now she would not be disappointed now because I would rape her.' " [...] "They ordered me to thank Jesus that I'm alive." [...] "I said to him, 'I believe in Allah.' So he said, 'But I believe in torture and I will torture you.'—Ameen Saeed Al-Sheik, 
In the documentary film Ghosts of Abu Ghraib (2007), former US Justice Department counsel John Yoo said that although he does not think the Geneva Conventions covered the prisoners at Abu Ghraib, he believes the soldiers and their commanding officers felt the interrogation techniques used fell within the Geneva Conventions.
AsiaNews.it reported that Yahia Said, an Iraqi fellow at the London School of Economics, said:[T]he reception [of abuse news from Abu Ghraib] was surprisingly low-key in Iraq. Part of the reason was that rumours and tall stories, as well as true stories, about abuse, mass rape, and torture in the jails and in coalition custody have been going round for a long time. So compared to what people have been talking about here the pictures are quite benign. There’s nothing unexpected. In fact what most people are asking is: why did they come up now? People in Iraq are always suspecting that there’s some scheming going on, some agenda in releasing the pictures at this particular point.—Yahia Said, Some people react[ed] positively, saying that he's come out, he's dealing frankly and openly with the problem and that he has said that those involved in the abuse will be punished. On the other hand, there are many others who says it simply isn't enough, that they – many people noted that there was not a frank apology from the president for this incident. And, in fact, I have a Baghdad newspaper with me right now from – it's called "Dar-es-Salaam." That's from the Islam Iraqi Islamic Party. It says that an apology is not enough for the torture of – yes, the torture of Iraqi prisoners.—Ben Wedeman, 
Response of US government officials
Vice-president Dick Cheney's office played a central role in eliminating limits on coercion in US custody, commissioning and defending legal opinions that the Bush administration later portrayed as the initiatives of lower-ranking officials. The Geneva Convention, which has been ratified by the US and is therefore the law of the land, is explicit and categorical in banning torture, the use of "violence," "cruel treatment" or "humiliating and degrading treatment" against a detainee "at any time and in any place whatsoever." The War Crimes Act of 1996 made any grave breach of those restrictions a U.S. felony.These events occurred on my watch. As secretary of defense, I am accountable for them. I take full responsibility. It is my obligation to evaluate what happened, to make sure those who have committed wrongdoing are brought to justice, and to make changes as needed to see that it doesn't happen again. I feel terrible about what happened to these Iraqi detainees. They are human beings. They were in U.S. custody. Our country had an obligation to treat them right. We didn't do that. That was wrong. To those Iraqis who were mistreated by members of U.S. armed forces, I offer my deepest apology. It was un-American. And it was inconsistent with the values of our nation.
He also was quoted:We're functioning in a — with peacetime restraints, with legal requirements in a wartime situation, in the information age, where people are running around with digital cameras and taking these unbelievable photographs and then passing them off, against the law, to the media, to our surprise, when they had not even arrived in the Pentagon.
Following Rumsfeld's testimony, several Senators responded:
Senator Lindsey Graham: "The American public needs to understand we're talking about rape and murder here." "It was pretty disgusting, not what you'd expect from Americans", said Senator Norm Coleman. "I don't know how the hell these people got into our army", said Colorado Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell.
Senator James Inhofe, a Republican member of the U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services, felt that the events did not deserve moral outrage: "I'm probably not the only one up at this table that is more outraged by the outrage than we are by the treatment [...] [They] are not there for traffic violations. [...] If they're in cell block 1A or 1B, these prisoners — they're murderers, they're terrorists, they're insurgents. [...] Many of them probably have American blood on their hands. And here we're so concerned about the treatment of those individuals."
Defense Secretary Rumsfeld stated, "What has been charged so far is abuse, which I believe technically is different from torture. I'm not going to address the ‘torture’ word."
On May 26, 2004, Al Gore gave a sharply critical speech on the Iraq crisis and the George W. Bush administration. In the speech, Gore called for the resignations of Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice, Director of Central Intelligence Agency George Tenet, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, Under Secretary of Defense for Policy Douglas J. Feith, and Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence Stephen A. Cambone, for encouraging policies that led to the abuse of Iraqi prisoners and fanned hatred of Americans abroad. Gore also called the Bush administration's Iraq war plan "incompetent" and called George W. Bush the most dishonest president since Richard Nixon. Gore commented; "In Iraq, what happened at that prison, it is now clear, is not the result of random acts of a few bad apples. It was the natural consequence of the Bush Administration policy."
Criticism of Rumsfeld grew during the ensuing scandal. Democratic senators John Kerry, Joe Biden and Jon Corzine called for Rumsfeld to resign. Their call for Rumsfeld's resignation was joined by House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi, George Miller, Tom Harkin, and the Congressional Black Caucus. John McCain said that he had "no confidence" in the Secretary of Defense, his fellow Republican senator Trent Lott said that he was "not a fan of Secretary Rumsfeld."
Several periodicals, such as The New York Times and The Boston Globe also called for Rumsfeld's resignation. The cover of The Economist, which had backed President Bush in the 2000 election, carried a photo of the abuse with the words "Resign, Rumsfeld." Perhaps most notably, The Army Times claimed that Rumsfeld's role in the scandal "amount(ed) to professional negligence", wrote "shame... on the chairman (of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) and secretary (of defense)", and insinuated that Rumsfeld was a "moron."
Right-wing US radio host Rush Limbaugh, on the other hand, contended that: "This is no different than what happens at the Skull and Bones initiation and we're going to ruin people's lives over it and we're going to hamper our military effort, and then we are going to really hammer them because they had a good time. You know, these people are being fired at every day. I'm talking about people having a good time, these people, you ever heard of emotional release? You ever heard of emotional release?" Politically conservative talk show host, Michael Savage, said concerning Abu Ghraib: "Instead of putting joysticks, I would have liked to have seen dynamite put in their orifices", and that "we need more of the humiliation tactics, not less." He repeatedly referred to Abu Ghraib prison as "Grab-an-Arab" prison.
“ The torture? A more serious blow to the United States than September 11, 2001 attacks. Except that the blow was not inflicted by terrorists but by Americans against themselves.—Archbishop Giovanni Lajolo, foreign minister of the Vatican. ”
From a legal declaration by Ronald Schlicher of the US State Department: "The Bahraini English-language Daily Tribune wrote on May 5, 2004, 'The blood-boiling pictures will make more people inside and outside Iraq determined to carry out attacks against the Americans and British.' The Qatari Arabic-language Al-Watan predicted on May 3, 2004 that because of the images, 'The Iraqis now feel very angry and that will cause revenge to restore the humiliated dignity.'"
On May 10, 2004, swastika-covered posters of Abu Ghraib abuse photographs were attached to British and Indian graves at the Commonwealth military cemetery in Gaza City. Thirty-two graves of soldiers killed in World War I were desecrated or destroyed.
In November 2008 Lord Bingham, the former UK Law Lord, describing the treatment of Iraqi detainees in Abu Ghraib, said: "Particularly disturbing to proponents of the rule of law is the cynical lack of concern for international legality among some top officials in the Bush administration."
In August 2010, the release of Israel Defense Forces photos with Palestinian prisoners, some dead, has brought the treatment and abuse at Abu Ghraib back into the media discussion. The entrance of new media into such investigations has grown, as pictures are increasingly posted on Facebook and YouTube.
On May 11, 2004, a video was released of the beheading of Nick Berg, a US civilian who went to Iraq seeking work repairing antennas. The CIA claims the video was the work of an Islamist militant group headed by Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, whom they claim is also the speaker in the video. The executioners in the video claim the beheading was in response to the abuse in the Abu Ghraib prison.
Courts-martial, non-judicial punishment, and administrative reprimands
Eleven soldiers have been convicted of various charges relating to the incidents, all including dereliction of duty—most receiving relatively minor sentences. Three other soldiers have either been cleared of charges or were not charged. No one has been convicted for murders of detainees.
- Colonel Thomas Pappas was relieved of his command on May 13, 2005, after receiving non-judicial punishment on May 9, 2005, for two instances of dereliction, including that of allowing dogs to be present during interrogations. He was fined $8000 under the provisions of Article 15 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (non-judicial punishment). He also received a General Officer Memorandum of Reprimand (GOMOR) which effectively ended his military career.
- Lieutenant Colonel Steven L. Jordan became the highest ranking officer to have charges brought against him in connection with the Abu Ghraib abuse on April 29, 2006. Prior to his trial, eight of twelve charges against him were dismissed, two of the most serious after Major General George Fay admitted that he did not read Jordan his rights before interviewing him in reference to the abuses that had taken place. On August 28, 2007, Jordan was acquitted of all charges related to prisoner mistreatment and received a reprimand for disobeying an order not to discuss a 2004 investigation into the allegations.
- Specialist Charles Graner was found guilty on January 14, 2005 of conspiracy to maltreat detainees, failing to protect detainees from abuse, cruelty, and maltreatment, as well as charges of assault, indecency, adultery, and obstruction of justice. On January 15, 2005, he was sentenced to 10 years in prison, dishonorable discharge and reduction in rank to private. Graner was paroled from the US military's Fort Leavenworth prison on 6 August 2011 after serving six-and-a-half years.
- Staff Sergeant Ivan Frederick pled guilty on October 20, 2004 to conspiracy, dereliction of duty, maltreatment of detainees, assault and committing an indecent act in exchange for other charges being dropped. His abuses included forcing three prisoners to masturbate. He also punched one prisoner so hard in the chest that he needed resuscitation. He was sentenced to eight years in prison, forfeiture of pay, a dishonorable discharge and a reduction in rank to private.
- Sergeant Javal Davis pled guilty February 4, 2005 to dereliction of duty, making false official statements and battery. He was sentenced to six months in prison, a reduction in rank to private, and a bad conduct discharge.
- Specialist Jeremy Sivits was sentenced on May 19, 2004 by a special court-martial to the maximum one-year sentence, in addition to a bad conduct discharge and a reduction of rank to private, upon his plea of guilty.
- Specialist Armin Cruz was sentenced on September 11, 2004 to eight months confinement, reduction in rank to private and a bad conduct discharge in exchange for his testimony against other soldiers.
- Specialist Sabrina Harman was sentenced on May 17, 2005 to six months in prison and a bad conduct discharge after being convicted on six of the seven counts. She had faced a maximum sentence of five years. Harman served her sentence at Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar.
- Specialist Megan Ambuhl was convicted on October 30, 2004, of dereliction of duty and sentenced to reduction in rank to private and loss of a half-month’s pay.
- Private First Class Lynndie England was convicted on September 26, 2005, of one count of conspiracy, four counts of maltreating detainees and one count of committing an indecent act. She was acquitted on a second conspiracy count. England had faced a maximum sentence of ten years. She was sentenced on September 27, 2005, to three years confinement, forfeiture of all pay and allowances, reduction to Private (E-1) and received a dishonorable discharge. England had served her sentence at Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar.
- Sergeant Santos Cardona was convicted of dereliction of duty and aggravated assault, the equivalent of a felony in the US civilian justice system. He served 90 days of hard labor at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. He was then transferred to a new unit where he trained Iraqi police. Cardona was unable to re-enlist due to the conviction, and left the army in 2007. In 2009, he was killed in action while working as a government contractor in Afghanistan.
- Specialist Roman Krol pled guilty on February 1, 2005 to conspiracy and maltreatment of detainees at Abu Ghraib. He was sentenced to ten months confinement, reduction in rank to private, and a bad conduct discharge.
- Specialist Israel Rivera, who was present during abuse on October 25, was under investigation but was never charged and testified against other soldiers.
- Sergeant Michael Smith was found guilty on March 21, 2006 of two counts of prisoner maltreatment, one count of simple assault, one count of conspiracy to maltreat, one count of dereliction of duty and a final charge of an indecent act, and sentenced to 179 days in prison, a fine of $2,250, a demotion to private, and a bad conduct discharge.
Brig. General Janis Karpinski, commanding officer at the prison, was demoted to colonel on May 5, 2005, which also effectively ends her chances for future career advancement. In a BBC interview, Janis Karpinski said she is being made a scapegoat, and that the top U.S. commander for Iraq, Gen Ricardo Sanchez, should be asked what he knew about the abuse, as according to her, he said that prisoners are "like dogs". However, a spokesman for Geoffrey Miller, who commanded the Guantanamo prison and later commanded all detention operations, including Abu Ghraib, called Karpinski's allegations "categorically false", and said no directive to treat detainees "like dogs" was made at either Guantanamo or Abu Ghraib.
Donald Rumsfeld stated in February 2005 that he had, as a result of the Abu Ghraib scandal, twice made an offer to President George W. Bush to resign the office of Secretary of Defense, and that both offers were declined.
Jay Bybee, the author of the Justice Department memo defining torture as activity producing pain equivalent to the pain experienced during death and organ failure, was nominated by President Bush to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, where he began service in 2003.
Michael Chertoff, who as head of the Justice Department's criminal division advised the Central Intelligence Agency on the outer limits of legality in coercive interrogation sessions, was selected by President Bush to fill the cabinet-level vacancy at Secretary of Homeland Security created by the departure of Tom Ridge.
Captain Carolyn Wood was head of the 519th Military Intelligence Battalion from Fort Bragg. In August 2002, nine interrogation techniques not approved by military doctrine or included in Army field manuals were added after Chris Mackey and his team turned over the detention unit in Bagram to the 519th Military Intelligence Battalion. Chris Mackey had trained with Wood before she got her command at Bagram. He says that while he was "gravely disappointed" when he found out about her changes to the interrogation rules, he understands what might have been going on. "After she took over, the stakes got very high," he says. "We went from losing three or four soldiers a month to scores of them. She must have been under a tremendous amount of pressure.""But there was horrible incompetence at the leadership and oversight level. People were aware of what we were doing because we were open. [The prison] was practically a Disney ride, with lots of higher-ups and officials coming through. But the common response we got was, Aren’t you kind of babying them?"
Two inmates in December 2002 were tortured and beaten to death in cells down the hall from her office. "Hung by their arms from the ceiling and beaten so severely that, according to a report by Army investigators later leaked to the Baltimore Sun, their legs would have needed to be amputated had they lived. The Army’s Criminal Investigation command launched an inquiry, but few people outside Afghanistan took notice." "In August, a former Bagram interrogator told a Knight Ridder journalist that at the time of the two deaths screams and moans could easily be heard from interrogation rooms at Bagram, and that Wood must have been aware of the abuse, as the interrogation rooms were near her office. In any case, by virtue of her position, CPT. Wood should have been aware that abuse was taking place. We are concerned that, as at Abu Ghraib, the U.S. government appears more interested in blaming abuses on low-level personnel than in investigating the role of commanding officers and civilian officials." When she transferred to Abu Ghraib in August 2003, Wood is reported to have "posted her own list of 'interrogation rules of engagement,' which were inconsistent with those later issued for Iraq by the top American commander, Lt. Gen. Ricardo S. Sanchez, according to Congressional officials. The Geneva Convention didn't apply to Woods methods of interrogation. The Fay-Jones report states "The JIDC October 2003 SOP (Standard operational procedure), likewise created by CPT. Wood, was remarkably similar to the Bagram (Afghanistan) Collection Point SOP. Prior to deployment to Iraq, CPT. Wood's unit (A/519 MI BN) allegedly conducted the abusive interrogation practices in Bagram resulting in a Criminal Investigation Command (CID) homicide investigation ... from December 2002, interrogators in Afghanistan were removing clothing, isolating people for long periods of time, using stress positions, exploiting fear of dogs and implementing sleep and light deprivation. Interrogators in Iraq, already familiar with the practice of some of these new ideas, implemented them even prior to any policy guidance from CJTF-7. (Combined Joint Task Force Seven headed by LTG Ricardo S. Sanchez) These practices were accepted as SOP by newly arrived interrogators. Some of the CJTF-7 ICRPs neither effectively addressed these practices, nor curtailed their use." "At Abu Ghraib, interrogation operations were also plagued by a lack of an organizational chain of command presence and by a lack of proper actions to establish standards and training by the senior leaders present" In both prison facilities the officers who carried out the abuses were under the command of CPT. Wood and she has never been held accountable.
The Final Report of the Independent Panel to Review DoD Detention Operations did specifically absolve senior U.S. military and political leadership from direct culpability:
"The Panel finds no evidence that organizations above the 800th MP brigade or the 205th MI Brigade-level were directly involved in the incidents at Abu Ghraib." In fact, BG Karpinski's immediate operational supervisor and LTG Sanchez' deputy, Major General Walter Wojdakowski was subsequently appointed as Chief of the US Army Infantry School and Fort Benning. COL Pappas's boss, MG Barbara Fast was subsequently appointed as Chief of the US Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca. Pappas and Karpinski were relieved of command but Wojdakowski and Fast became the Chiefs of their respective branches. The senior lawyer for LTG Sanchez and his legal representative on the Detainee Release Boards along with BN Karpinski and MG Fast, COL Marc Warren has since been selected for promotion to Brigadier General.
US government policy on interrogations and torture
Reaction from the Bush administration characterized the Abu Ghraib torture scandal as an isolated incident uncharacteristic of US actions in Iraq; this view is widely disputed, notably in Arab countries, but also by organizations such as the International Red Cross, which had been making representations about abuse of prisoners for more than a year. A former military intelligence officer with experience at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib alleges (see external link – "Cooks and drivers ...") a systematic failure caused by a combination of inexperienced troops arresting innocent Iraqis, who are then interrogated by inexperienced interrogators determined to break these apparent hard cases. The US military's interrogation techniques and treatment of prisoners at Abu Ghraib are consistent with its treatment of noncombatants in past conflicts, including the Phoenix Program during the Vietnam War and its training of military personnel of US allies at the School of the Americas.
The United States has ratified the UN's Convention Against Torture and the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions. The Bush Administration took the position that, in the words of Alberto R. Gonzales, counsel to the President: "Both the United States and Iraq are parties to the Geneva Conventions. The United States recognizes that these treaties are binding in the war for the 'liberation of Iraq'". According to Human Rights Watch:
Al-Qaeda detainees would likely not be accorded POW status, but the Conventions still provide explicit protections to all persons held in an international armed conflict, even if they are not entitled to POW status. Such protections include the right to be free from coercive interrogation, to receive a fair trial if charged with a criminal offense, and, in the case of detained civilians, to be able to appeal periodically the security rationale for continued detention.
The Convention Against Torture defines torture in the following terms:Any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him ... information or a confession, punishing him for an act he ... has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him.—United Nations Convention Against Torture, (Article 1)
The International Committee of the Red Cross concluded in its confidential February 2004 report to the Coalition Forces that its investigations had documented "serious violations of International Humanitarian Law relating to the conditions of treatment of the persons deprived of their liberty held by the CF in Iraq. In particular, it establishes that persons deprived of their liberty face the risk of being subjected to a process of physical and psychological coercion, in some cases tantamount to torture, in the early stages of the internment process." The main violations which were described in the ICRC report included:
- Brutality against protected persons upon capture and initial custody, sometimes causing death or serious injury.
- Absence of notification of arrest of persons deprived of their liberty to their families causing distress among persons deprived of their liberty and their families.
- Physical or psychological coercion during interrogation to secure information.
- Prolonged solitary confinement in cells devoid of daylight.
- Excessive and disproportionate use of force against persons deprived of their liberty resulting in death or injury during their period of internment.
Some legal experts have said that the United States could be obligated to try some of its soldiers for war crimes. Under the Third and Fourth Geneva Conventions, prisoners of war and civilians detained in a war may not be treated in a degrading manner, and violation of that section is a "grave breach". In a November 5, 2003 report on prisons in Iraq, the Army's provost marshal, Maj. Gen. Donald J. Ryder, stated that the conditions under which prisoners were held sometimes violated the Geneva Conventions.
Also, legal analysts point to the fact that Alberto Gonzales and others argued that detainees should be considered "unlawful combatants" and as such not protected by the Geneva Conventions in multiple memoranda, known today as the "torture memos," regarding these perceived legal gray areas. Gonzales' observed at the time that denying coverage under the Geneva Conventions "substantially reduces the threat of domestic criminal prosecution under the War Crimes Act" suggesting, at the least, an awareness by those involved in crafting policies in this area that US officials are involved in acts that could be seen to be war crimes. The US Supreme Court challenged the practice of ignoring the Geneva Conventions in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld, in which it ruled that Common Article Three of the Geneva Conventions applies to all detainees in the War on Terror and that the Military Tribunals used to try these suspects were in violation of US and international law.
The Military Commissions Act of 2006 is seen as an amnesty law for crimes committed in the War on Terror by retroactively rewriting the War Crimes Act and by abolishing habeas corpus, effectively making it impossible for detainees to challenge crimes committed against them. Because of this on November 14, 2006, legal proceedings invoking universal jurisdiction were started in Germany against Donald Rumsfeld, Alberto Gonzales, John Yoo, George Tenet and others for their alleged involvement of prisoner abuse under the command responsibility. However, on 27 April 2007, the German federal prosecutor announced the government would not pursue charges against Rumsfeld and the 11 other U.S. officials, stating the accusations did not apply to German law, in part because there was insufficient evidence that the alleged acts occurred on German soil, nor did the accused live in Germany.
Some of the accused soldiers' families or attorneys have already made clear an intention to argue that the practices at Abu Ghraib were directed by higher-ranking military officers or by the Central Intelligence Agency. Under the Charter of the Nuremberg Tribunal, this "defense of superior orders" is not a defense for war crimes, although it might influence a sentencing authority to lessen the penalty. Under U.S. law, the War Crimes Act of 1996 makes it a federal crime to violate certain provisions of the Geneva Conventions. The Act punishes any American, military or civilian, who commits a "grave breach" of the Geneva Conventions. A grave breach, as defined by the Geneva Conventions, includes the deliberate "killing, torture or inhuman treatment" of detainees. Violations of the War Crimes Act that result in death carry the death penalty.
On December 21, 2004, the American Civil Liberties Union released copies of FBI internal memos they had obtained under the Freedom of Information Act concerning alleged torture and abuse at Guantanamo Bay, in Afghanistan and in Iraq. One memo dated May 22, 2004 was from someone whose name was blanked out but was described in the memo as "On Scene Commander – Baghdad". He referred explicitly to an Executive Order that sanctioned the use of extraordinary interrogation tactics by U.S. military personnel. The methods explicitly mentioned as being sanctioned are sleep deprivation, hooding prisoners, playing loud music, removing all detainees' clothing, forcing them to stand in so-called "stress positions", and the use of dogs. The author also claimed that the Pentagon had limited use of the techniques by requiring specific authorization from the chain of command. The author identifies "physical beatings, sexual humiliation or touching" as being outside the Executive Order. This was the first internal evidence since the Abu Ghraib prisoner abuse affair became public in April 2004 that forms of coercion of captives had been mandated by the President of the United States.
Death certificates repeatedly stated that prisoners had died "during sleep", and of "natural reasons". Iraqi doctors were not allowed to investigate even when death certificates were obviously forged. No reports of investigations against U.S. military doctors who forged death certificates have been reported.
On May 7, 2004, International Committee of the Red Cross Operations Director Pierre Krähenbühl stated that the ICRC's inspection visits to Coalition detention centers in Iraq did "not allow us to conclude that what we were dealing with ... were isolated acts of individual members of coalition forces. What we have described is a pattern and a broad system." He went on to say that some of the incidents they had observed were "tantamount to torture".
U.S. and UK armed forces are jointly trained in so-called resistance to interrogation (R2I) techniques. These R2I techniques are taught ostensibly to help soldiers cope with or resist torture by the enemy. On May 8, 2004, The Guardian reported that, according to a former British special forces officer, the acts committed by the Abu Ghraib Prison military personnel resemble the techniques used in R2I training. Also related are pride-and-ego down techniques to make captives more willing to cooperate.
The same report states that:The U.S. commander in charge of military jails in Iraq, Major General Geoffrey Miller, has confirmed that a battery of 50-odd special "coercive techniques" can be used against enemy detainees. The general, who previously ran the prison camp at Guantanamo Bay, said his main role was to extract as much intelligence as possible.
Most accept the particular acts committed at the prison leading to the initial broadcast report were unauthorized, but as has been shown, they were not isolated incidents. These or similar incidents of torture and humiliation were routine, systemic and widespread, had been occurring for over a year, and some of them were official policy.
Alfred W. McCoy history professor and author of a book on torture in the Philippine armed forces, has noted similarities in the abusive treatment of prisoners at Abu Ghraib and the techniques described in the CIA's 1963 "KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation" manual and asserts that what he calls "the CIA's no-touch torture methods" have been in continuous use by the CIA and U.S. military intelligence since that time.
A May 25, 2004 article by Hersh in The New Yorker suggests a connection between the Abu Ghraib incidents and a chain of decisions and events set into play by high administration officials following the 9/11 attacks, specifically to a "special access" or "black ops" program known as Copper Green. According to Hersh, officials concerned with extracting intelligence information from terrorists stretched the bounds of interrogation to or beyond the extreme legal limits. Subsequently, methods which were originally intended to be used only on high value Taliban and Al-Qaeda "enemy combatants" came to be improperly used on Iraqi prisoners. The Department of Defense immediately characterized Hersh's report as "outlandish, conspiratorial, and filled with error and anonymous conjecture".
Documents obtained by The Washington Post and the ACLU show that the senior U.S. military officer in Iraq Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez authorized the use of military dogs, temperature extremes, reversed sleep patterns and sensory deprivation as interrogation methods in Abu Ghraib. Also a November 2004 report by Brig Gen Richard Formica found that many troops at the Abu Ghraib prison were only following orders based on a memo from Lt. Gen. Ricardo Sanchez, and that "[she] didn't find cruel and malicious criminals that are out there looking for detainees to abuse." "Gen Sanchez authorised interrogation techniques that were in clear violation of the Geneva Conventions and the army's own standards", ACLU lawyer Amrit Singh said in the union's statement. In an interview for her hometown newspaper The Signal, Gen. Karpinski claimed to have seen unreleased documents from Rumsfeld that authorized these tactics for Iraqi prisoners. Both Sanchez and Rumsfeld have denied authorization.
In December 2005, John Pace, human rights chief for the United Nations Assistance Mission in Iraq (UNAMI), criticized the US military's practice of holding prisoners in Iraq in its own facilities such as Abu Ghraib prison. In an interview with Reuters, Pace claimed that Abu Ghraib was not mandated by UN Resolution 1546, according to which the US government has claimed a legal mandate permitting its ongoing occupation of Iraq, including holding prisoners at Abu Ghraib. Pace said,All except those held by the Ministry of Justice are, technically speaking, held against the law because the Ministry of Justice is the only authority that is empowered by law to detain, to hold anybody in prison. Essentially none of these people have any real recourse to protection and therefore we speak ... of a total breakdown in the protection of the individual in this country.—John Pace
On March 29, 2006, the government agreed to drop all appeals and release the new set of photographs.
Allegedly Rumsfeld-approved abuses
In November 2006, the former US Army Brigadier General Janis Karpinski, in-charge of Abu Ghraib prison until early 2004, told Spain's El País newspaper she had seen a letter apparently signed by Donald Rumsfeld which allowed civilian contractors to use techniques such as sleep deprivation during interrogation. "The methods consisted of making prisoners stand for long periods, sleep deprivation ... playing music at full volume, having to sit in uncomfortably ... Rumsfeld authorized these specific techniques." He said that this was contrary to the Geneva Convention and quoted the same "Prisoners of war who refuse to answer may not be threatened, insulted, or exposed to any unpleasant or disadvantageous treatment of any kind". According to Karpinski, the handwritten signature was above his printed name and in the same handwriting in the margin was written: "Make sure this is accomplished". There have been no comments from either the Pentagon or US Army spokespeople in Iraq on Karpinski's accusations.
Previously unreleased photographs
In February 2006, previously unreleased photos and videos were broadcast by SBS, an Australian television network, on its Dateline programme. According to initial reports, the Bush administration is attempting to prevent release of the images in the US, arguing that their publication could provoke antagonism towards them. According to BBC World News, the photographs were probably taken around the same time as the previously released photographs, and include some of the same prisoners and convicted soldiers from the earlier images. These newly released photographs depict prisoners crawling on the floor naked, being forced to perform sexual acts, and being covered in feces. Some images also show homicide and corpses, some shot in the head and some with slit throats. BBC World News stated that one of the prisoners, who was reportedly mentally unstable, was considered by prison guards as a 'pet' for torture.
The UN expressed hope that the pictures would be investigated immediately but the Pentagon stated that the images "have been previously investigated as part of the Abu Ghraib investigation."
Five of the newly released pictures can be seen on the ElMundo webpage. SBS claims not to have published the most shocking pictures due to the degree of their depravity, an example being the sodomy photo.
The DVD containing the material includes a June 6, 2004, CID investigation report written by Special Agent Seigmund. That report includes the following summary of the material: "A review of all the computer media submitted to this office revealed a total of 1,325 images of suspected detainee abuse, 93 video files of suspected detainee abuse, 660 images of adult pornography, 546 images of suspected dead Iraqi detainees, 29 images of soldiers in simulated sexual acts, 20 images of a soldier with a Swastika drawn between his eyes, 37 images of Military Working dogs being used in abuse of detainees and 125 images of questionable acts."
2011 grand jury investigation
Torture Central: E-mails from Abu Ghraib
On October 29, 2007, the memoir of a soldier stationed in Abu Ghraib, Iraq during 2005/2006 was published. Torture Central chronicled many events previously unreported in the news media, including torture that continued at Abu Ghraib over a year after the abuse photos were published.
In 2009, an additional 21 color photographs surfaced, showing prisoners in Afghanistan and Iraq being abused by their U.S. captors. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) said, "[T]he government had long argued that the abuse at Abu Ghraib was isolated and was an aberration. The new photos would show that the abuse was more widespread." President Barack Obama initially indicated he would not fight the release of the photographs, but "reversed course in May and authorized an appeal to the high court." "The Obama administration believe[d] giving the imminent grant of authority over the release of such pictures to the defense secretary would short-circuit a lawsuit filed by the American Civil Liberties Union under the Freedom of Information Act." On Oct 10, 2009 the US "Congress [was] set to allow the Pentagon to keep new pictures ... from the public"
On February 3, 2010, David A. Larson, an elected official in California who has a relationship with government contract personnel, made disclosures to the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), Office of the Inspector General (OIG) alleging that under the Bush Administration, prisoners detained at Abu Ghraib, Guantanamo Bay, and undisclosed "black sites" were being used as involuntary research subjects for human biomedical experimentation, behavior modification research, and drug-testosterone delivery in a manner similar to past CIA Project MKULTRA activities investigated in 1977 by Senators Kennedy and Inuoye. The allegation supports information contained in a International Red Cross report relative to the expanded role of CIA medical personnel in torture and interrogation.
In 2010, the last of the prisons were turned over to the Iraqi government to run. An Associated Press article saidDespite Abu Ghraib- or perhaps because of reforms in its wake- prisoners have more recently said they receive far better treatment in American custody than in Iraqi jails.
In September 2010 Amnesty International warned in a report titled New Order, Same Abuses; Unlawful Detentions and Torture in Iraq that up to 30,000 prisoners, including many veterans of the US detention system, remain detained without rights in Iraq and are frequently tortured or abused. Furthermore, it describes a detention system that has not evolved since Saddam Hussein's regime, in which human rights abuses were endemic with arbitrary arrests and secret detention common and a lack of accountability throughout the security forces. Amnesty's Middle East and North Africa director, Malcolm Smart went on to say that "Iraq's security forces have been responsible for systematically violating detainees' rights and they have been permitted. US authorities, whose own record on detainees' rights has been so poor, have now handed over thousands of people detained by US forces to face this catalogue of illegality, violence and abuse, abdicating any responsibility for their human rights."
On October 22, 2010 nearly 400,000 secret US army field reports and war logs, detailing torture, summary executions and war crimes, were passed on to the British paper, the Guardian and several other international media organisations through the whistleblowing website WikiLeaks. Among others, the logs detail how US authorities failed to investigate hundreds of reports of abuse, torture, rape and even murder by Iraqi police and soldiers, whose conduct appears to be systematic and normally unpunished and that US troops abused prisoners for years even after the Abu Ghraib scandal.
On June 27, 2011 the U.S. Supreme Court declined to hear the appeal of lawsuits from a group of 250 Iraqis who wanted to sue the two contractors CACI International Inc. and Titan Corp. (now a subsidiary of L-3 Communications) over claims of abuse by interrogators and translators at the prison. The suits had been dismissed by the lower courts on the grounds that the companies held a derivative sovereign immunity from suits based on their status as government contractors pursuant to a battle-field preemption doctrine.
- Inspired by Abu Ghraib, Canadian painter James Miller's work entitled Judith Beheading Holofernes depicts a tethered George W. Bush as the tyrant Holofernes.
- Standard Operating Procedure (2008) is a documentary that which explores the events surrounding the Abu Ghraib events. It was directed by Errol Morris.
- Military abuse
- Prisoner abuse
- Taguba Report
- Command responsibility
- Enhanced interrogation techniques
- International Criminal Court
- Camp Cropper
- Camp X-Ray at Guantánamo Bay
- Uniform Code of Military Justice
Incidents and coverage
- Emad al-Janabi
- Joint Forward Intelligence Team of the British Army
- Stanford prison experiment
- Human rights in post-invasion Iraq
- Fernando Botero: Abu Ghraib series, drawings and oil paintings
- Iraq prison abuse scandals
- Bagram torture and prisoner abuse
- Copper Green (May, 2004 Seymour Hersh article connecting abuse to alleged Black Ops program)
- FOB Ramrod kill team
- The Dark Side (book)
- Ashraf Abdullah Ahsy
- Criticism of the War on Terror
- Disarmed Enemy Forces (Redesignation of POWs after WW2 to avoid having to obey international treaties on POW treatment.)
- Human Rights Record of the United States
- Joe Ryan
- List of war crimes
- Milgram experiment
- Nuremberg Defense
- Nuremberg Principles
- Review Conference of the International Criminal Court Statute
- International Criminal Court and the 2003 invasion of Iraq
- United States and the International Criminal Court
- War crimes committed by the United States
- Legal issues related to the September 11 attacks
- Hersh, Seymour M. Chain of Command: The Road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib. New York: HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-019591-6.
- Clemens, Master Sergeant Michael, Special Investigator, The Secrets of Abu Ghraib Revealed: American Soldiers on Trial. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, Inc., 2010. ISBN 1-59797-441-2.
- ^ a b Hersh, Seymour M. (2004-05-17). "Chain of Command". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/05/17/040517fa_fact2?currentPage=all. Retrieved 2011-09-13. "NBC News later quoted U.S. military officials as saying that the unreleased photographs showed American soldiers “severely beating an Iraqi prisoner nearly to death, having sex with a female Iraqi prisoner, and ‘acting inappropriately with a dead body.’ The officials said there also was a videotape, apparently shot by U.S. personnel, showing Iraqi guards raping young boys.”"
- ^ a b Benjamin, Mark (2008-05-30). "Taguba denies he's seen abuse photos suppressed by Obama: The general told a U.K. paper about images he saw investigating Abu Ghraib -- not photos Obama wants kept secret.". Salon.com. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2009/05/30/taguba/. Retrieved 2009-06-06. "The paper quoted Taguba as saying, "These pictures show torture, abuse, rape and every indecency." [...] The actual quote in the Telegraph was accurate, Taguba said -- but he was referring to the hundreds of images he reviewed as an investigator of the abuse at Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq"
- ^ a b Hersh, Seymour Myron (2007-06-25). "The general's report: how Antonio Taguba, who investigated the Abu Ghraib scandal, became one of its casualties.". The New Yorker. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/06/25/070625fa_fact_hersh?printable=true. Retrieved 2007-06-17. "Taguba said that he saw "a video of a male American soldier in uniform sodomizing a female detainee"."
- ^ Walsh, Joan; Michael Scherer, Mark Benjamin, Page Rockwell, Jeanne Carstensen, Mark Follman, Page Rockwell, Tracy Clark-Flory (2006-03-14). "Other government agencies". The Abu Ghraib files (salon.com). http://www.salon.com/news/abu_ghraib/2006/03/14/chapter_5/index.html. Retrieved 2008-02-24. "The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology later ruled al-Jamadi's death a homicide, caused by "blunt force injuries to the torso complicated by compromised respiration.""
- ^ "Other government agencies"
- ^ Annals of National Security: Torture at Abu Ghraib: The New Yorker
- ^ Army Activates First Interrogation Battalion, an April 2006 press release from the American Forces Press Service
- ^ "Reports detail Abu Ghraib prison death; was it torture?", MSNBC
- ^ Jane Mayer, "A Deadly Interrogation: Can the C.I.A. legally kill a prisoner?", New Yorker, 14 Nov 2005, accessed 20 Sep 2010
- ^ a b c d e Gardham, Duncan; Cruickshank, Paul (May 28, 2009). "Abu Ghraib abuse photos 'show rape'". London: The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/5395830/Abu-Ghraib-abuse-photos-show-rape.html.
- ^ Scott Higham; Joe Stephens (21 May 2004). "New Details of Prison Abuse Emerge". Washington Post: p. A01. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A43783-2004May20.html. Retrieved 19 September 2011. "Hilas also said he witnessed an Army translator having sex with a boy at the prison."
- ^ Harding, Luke (September 20, 2004). "After Abu Ghraib". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/sep/20/usa.iraq.
- ^ Harding, Luke (May 12, 2004). "Focus shifts to jail abuse of women". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/may/12/iraq.usa.
- ^ Getler, Michael, The Images Are Getting Darker, Washington Post, May 9, 2004
- ^ Shanker, Tom, 6 G.I.'s in Iraq Are Charged With Mistreating Prisoners, The New York Times, March 21, 2004
- ^ "English-language transcript of March 2008 interview with Lynndie England, Stern magazine". 2008-03-17. http://www.stern.de/politik/ausland/614356.html?nv=ct_cb. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- ^ a b c "Abuse Of Iraqi POWs By GIs Probed". CBS News. April 27, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/04/27/60II/main614063.shtml.
- ^ a b ZNet |Iraq | Abu Ghraib
- ^ Bilton, Sim, Michael, Kevin (1992). Four Hours In My Lai. New York: Penguin Books USA. pp. 253. ISBN 0-670-84296-6.
- ^ Glaister, Dan; Borger, Julian (May 13, 2004). "1,800 new pictures add to US disgust". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/Iraq/Story/0,2763,1215645,00.html.
- ^ Shanker, Thom; Schmitt, Eric (May 8, 2004). "Rumsfeld Accepts Blame and Offers Apology in Abuse". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/08/politics/08ABUS.html. [dead link]
- ^ Kate Zernike (12 January 2005). "Detainees Depict Abuses by Guard in Prison in Iraq". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/12/international/12abuse.html?_r=1.
- ^ Chamberlain, Gethin (May 13, 2004). "Chilling new evidence of the brutal regime at Iraqi prison". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=542742004. [dead link]
- ^ "Former Iraqi Prisoners Recount Abuse - Former Iraqi Prisoners Recount Mistreatment by U.S. Soldiers". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/Story?id=131663&page=2. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- ^ Gourevitch, Philip; Errol Morris (2008-03-24). "Exposure: the woman behind the camera at Abu Ghraib". New Yorker: Annals of War: pp. 10–12. http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2008/03/24/080324fa_fact_gourevitch. Retrieved 2008-03-16. "[We] kind of realized right away that there was no way he died of a heart attack [...]"
- ^ Taguba Report: "Iraq Prisoner Abuse Investigation of the U.S. 800th Military Police Brigade". By Major General Antonio M. Taguba. May 2, 2004. FindLaw. Section called "Regarding part one of the investigation, I make the following specific findings of fact."
- ^ a b Higham, Scott, and Stephens, Joe, "New Details of Prison Abuse Emerge", Washington Post, May 21, 2004
- ^ "Rumsfeld Made Me Do It: Ghosts of Abu Ghraib", Netscape News, January 24, 2007
- ^ Stocke, Joy E.; Kim Nagy, and Chris Tiefel (2008). "The Other Side Of Abu Ghraib — The Detainees’ Quest For Justice". Wild River Review. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080504071024/http://wildriverreview.com/spotlight_abughraib.php. Retrieved 9 June 2010.
- ^ "Listening to the Iraqi people", AsiaNews.it, May 15, 2004
- ^ Live At Daybreak, transcript, CNN.com, May 6, 2004
- ^ Washington Post, June 25, 2007, http://blog.washingtonpost.com/cheney/chapters/pushing_the_enevelope_on_presi/
- ^ US CODE: Title 18,2441. War crimes
- ^ U.S. Mission to Italy
- ^ Washington Times - Iraq prisoner abuse 'un-American,' says Rumsfeld
- ^ "Rumsfeld: Worst Still To Come". CBS News. May 8, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/05/08/iraq/main616338.shtml.
- ^ "Weekly Review" by Roger D. Hodge (Harper's Magazine)
- ^ http://breaking.examiner.ie/2004/05/13/story147437.html
- ^ "GOP senator labels abused prisoners 'terrorists'". CNN. May 12, 2004. http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/05/11/inhofe.abuse/.
- ^ Adam Hochschild (May 23, 2004). "What's in a Word? Torture". New York Times. http://nytimes.com/2004/05/23/opinion/23HOCH.html.
- ^ MoveOn PAC
- ^ VandeHei, Jim; Ricks, Thomas E. (17 December 2004). "Lott Joins Republican Critics of Rumsfeld". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A4794-2004Dec16.html.
- ^ "Donald Rumsfeld Should Go". The New York Times. 7 May 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/07/opinion/07FRI1.html. [dead link]
- ^ "Rumsfeld must go". Boston Globe. 7 May 2004. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/editorials/articles/2004/05/07/rumsfeld_must_go/.
- ^ "Editorial: A failure of leadership at the highest levels". Army Times. 17 May 2004. http://www.armytimes.com/story.php?f=1-292925-2903288.php.
- ^ The New York Times > Magazine > Regarding the Torture of Others
- ^ "Rush: MPs Just 'Blowing Off Steam'". CBS News. May 6, 2004. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/05/06/opinion/meyer/main616021.shtml.
- ^ Media Matters - Limbaugh on torture of Iraqis: U.S. guards were "having a good time," "blow[ing] some steam off"
- ^ http://mediamatters.org/research/200405130004
- ^ "Vatican calls prison abuse a bigger blow to U.S. than Sept. 11". USA Today. AP (Gannett Co. Inc.). 2004-05-12. http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2004-05-12-vatican-iraqi-abuse_x.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-25. "The torture? A more serious blow to the United States than September 11, 2001 attacks. Except that the blow was not inflicted by terrorists but by Americans against themselves."
- ^ http://www.aclu.org/Files/OpenFile.cfm?id=18838
- ^ Palestinians destroy graves in Gaza Commonwealth cemetery, Associated Press, May 10, 2004
- ^ Top judge: US and UK acted as 'vigilantes' in Iraq invasion, The Guardian, November 18, 2008
- ^ "Israeli soldiers' 'trophy' pictures". The Guardian (London). August 17, 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/gallery/2010/aug/17/israel-palestinian-territories#/?picture=365845330&index=1.
- ^ "Army officer charged in Abu Ghraib prison abuse". The Seattle Times. April 29, 2006. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2002960310_ghraib29.html.
- ^ White, Josh (2007-08-29). "Officer acquitted of mistreatment in Abu Ghraib case". Washington Post. http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2007/08/29/officer_acquitted_of_mistreatment_in_abu_ghraib_case/. Retrieved 2007-08-31.
- ^ "Graner sentenced to 10 years for abuse." Associated Press at MSNBC. January 16, 2005. Retrieved on September 21, 2010.
- ^ Parents defend convicted Abu Ghraib guard, January 17, 2005
- ^ Dishneau, David, (Associated Press), "Abu Ghraib Abuse Ringleader Freed Early From Military Prison", Boston Globe, 7 August 2011.
- ^ a b Court sentences England to 3 years
- ^  Archived September 16, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Wired News. http://wireservice.wired.com/wired/story.asp?section=Breaking&storyId=939300&tw=wn_wire_story. [dead link]
- ^  Archived September 16, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Siegel, Andrea F. "Convicted reservist testifies." The Baltimore Sun. July 17, 2005. Retrieved on July 18, 2010.
- ^ The United States Army Home Page[dead link]
- ^ Beavers, Liz. "England back in Mineral County: Army reservist, notorious face of Abu Ghraib scandal, out of prison." Cumberland Times-News. "Friday, England family attorney Roy T. Hardy of Keyser confirmed England had been paroled March 1 after serving approximately half of her sentence at a military prison located near San Diego."
- ^ Zagorin, Adam (Nov. 02, 2006). "An Abu Ghraib Offender's Return to Iraq Is Stopped". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1554326-1,00.html.
- ^ Two more Soldiers sentenced for Abu Ghraib abuse Archived September 15, 2005 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Iraq abuse 'ordered from the top'". BBC News. June 15, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3806713.stm.
- ^ "US unit denies jail 'dogs' charge". BBC News. June 16, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3810791.stm.
- ^ Rumsfeld tried to resign during scandal - Conflict in Iraq - MSNBC.com
- ^ Justice Dept. Memo Says Torture 'May Be Justified'
- ^ a b From Bagram to Abu Ghraib
- ^ An Open Letter to US Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld (Human Rights Watch, 13-12-2004)
- ^ Afghan Policies on Questioning Prisoners Taken to Iraq
- ^ UK: Briefing for the Committee against Torture | Amnesty International
- ^ A few bad apples? video, CBC, November 16, 2005
- ^ Network Scan Data
- ^ "Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on the Treatment by the Coalition Forces of Prisoners of War and Other Protected Persons by the Geneva Conventions in Iraq During Arrest, Internment and Interrogation". ICRC. February 2004. http://cryptome.org/icrc-report.htm.
- ^ "The Rule of Law and the Rules of War", New York Times (op-ed piece), May 15, 2004
- ^ "The Road to Abu Ghraib", Human Rights Watch
- ^ "Report of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) on the Treatment by the Coalition Forces of Prisoners of War and Other Protected Persons by the Geneva Conventions in Iraq During Arrest, Internment and Interrogation (section 3.1)". ICRC. February 2004. http://cryptome.org/icrc-report.htm.
- ^ "UN: Try Bush NOW for War Crimes and Torture!date=January 2009". http://nauinfo.blogspot.com/2009/01/un-try-bush-now-for-war-crimes-and.html.
- ^ Parsing pain By Walter Shapiro, Salon
- ^ Torture and Accountability by Elizabeth Holtzman article in The Nation posted June 28, 2005 (July 18, 2005 issue) about The Geneva Convention
- ^ Former NY Congress member Holtzman Calls For President Bush and His Senior Staff To Be Held Accountable for Abu Ghraib Torture Thursday, June 30, 2005 on Democracy Now
- ^ Memos Reveal War Crimes Warnings By Michael Isikoff Newsweek May 19, 2004
- ^ US Lawyers Warn Bush on War Crimes Global Policy Forum January 28, 2003
- ^ The Gitmo Fallout: The fight over the Hamdan ruling heats up—as fears about its reach escalate. By Michael Isikoff and Stuart Taylor Jr., Newsweek, July 17, 2006
- ^ Pushing Back on Detainee Act by Michael Ratner, president of the Center for Constitutional Rights, The Nation, October 4, 2006
- ^ Military Commissions Act of 2006
- ^ Why The Military Commissions Act is No Moderate Compromise By MICHAEL C. DORF, FindLaw, October 11, 2006
- ^ Nat Hentoff (December 8, 2006). "Bush's War Crimes Cover-up". Village Voice. Archived from the original on 2009-08-13. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.villagevoice.com%2Fnews%2F0650%2Chentoff%2C75255%2C2.html&date=2009-08-13. Retrieved 2007-04-02.
- ^ The John McCain Charade by Robert Kuttner, the Boston Globe, October 1, 2006
- ^ Republican Torture Laws Will Live in History By Larisa Alexandrovna, AlterNet, October 2, 2006.
- ^ Charges Sought Against Rumsfeld Over Prison Abuse By ADAM ZAGORIN, Time
- ^ War Crimes Suit Prepared against Rumsfeld Democracy Now, November 9, 2006
- ^ War Criminals, Beware by Jeremy Brecher and Brendan Smith, The Nation, November 3, 2006
- ^ "German Prosecutor Won't Set Rumsfeld Probe Following Complaint," by Patrick Donahue, Bloomberg.com, 27 April 2007.
- ^ The War Crimes Act of 1996; The Nation June 28, 2005, http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0629-28.htm
- ^ http://www.aclu.org/torturefoia/released/FBI.121504.4940_4941.pdf
- ^ American Civil Liberties Union: ACLU Interested Persons Memo on FBI documents concerning detainee abuse at Guantanamo Bay
- ^ Darling clashes with rivals in TV debate[dead link]
- ^ "Red Cross saw 'widespread abuse'". BBC News. May 8, 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/3694521.stm.
- ^ Leigh, David (May 8, 2004). "UK forces taught torture methods". The Guardian (London). http://politics.guardian.co.uk/iraq/story/0,12956,1212199,00.html.
- ^ WorldNetDaily: U.S. losing 'hearts, minds,' despite sensitivity training
- ^ "General Granted Latitude At Prison". The Washington Post. June 12, 2004. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35612-2004Jun11.html.
- ^ "Wrong advice blamed for US abuse" (in eng). BBC NEWS AMERICAS (London: British Broadcasting Corporation). 2006-06-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/5090372.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-03. ""[...] most defendants say they were following orders.""
- ^ "US memo shows Iraq jail methods" (in eng). BBC NEWS AMERICAS (London: British Broadcasting Corporation). 2005-03-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4392519.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-03. ""The top US general in Iraq authorised interrogation techniques including the use of dogs, stress positions and disorientation, a memo has shown.""
- ^ Leon Worden. "Karpinski: Rumsfeld OK'd Methods at Abu Ghraib". Santa Clarita Valley Historical Society. http://www.scvhistory.com/scvhistory/signal/iraq/sg070204.htm. Retrieved 2004-07-04.
- ^ Release of Abu Ghraib photos ordered - Conflict in Iraq - MSNBC.com
- ^ Quoted in The Age, 6 December 2005, http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/america-abusing-mandate-in-iraq/2005/12/05/1133631201911.html
- ^ ACLU: Iraq Prison Photos to Be Released
- ^ "Rumsfeld okayed Abu Ghraib abuses according to former US general" – CBS News[dead link]
- ^ "Rumsfeld okayed abuses says former U.S. general" – ABC News[dead link]
- ^ – "Rumsfeld okayed abuses says former US Army general" Reuters News
- ^ The photos America doesn't want seen - World – smh.com.au
- ^ Anger at Abu Ghraib photos | NEWS.com.au[dead link]
- ^ elmundo.es - Fotografía - Más pruebas del horror en Abu Ghraib
- ^ Abu Ghraib Files - Salon.com News
- ^ Spillius, Alex (May 14, 2009). "Barack Obama attempts to block alleged torture photos". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/barackobama/5320559/Barack-Obama-attempts-to-block-alleged-torture-photos.html. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- ^ Foreign, Our (May 15, 2009). "Concern at 'prisoner abuse' photographs as Barack Obama prepares to block publication". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/barackobama/5325444/Prisoner-abuse-photographs-surface-as-Barack-Obama-prepares-to-block-publication.html. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
- ^ "CIA errors falling under scrutiny again", Daily News Journal. June 14, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2011
- ^ "Justice opens grand jury on CIA detainee's death", Newsday. June 14, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2011
- ^ "Torture Central". iUniverse. 2007. http://www.torturecentral.com. Retrieved 2007-11-11.
- ^ Mark Sherman (October 10, 2009). "Congress could thwart bid to view abuse photos". Associated Press. http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=D9B8FVF00&show_article=1.
- ^ On the Issues, David A. Larson, Candidate and Elected official
- ^ Yacoub, Sameer (15 July 2010). "Changing of the guard at last U.S. run prison". Burlington, Vermont: Burlington Free Press. pp. 8A.
- ^ Abuse and torture rife in Iraqi prisons
- ^ Iraq war logs: secret files show how US ignored torture
- ^ WikiLeaks' Iraq War Logs: US Troops Abused Prisoners For Years After Abu Ghraib
- ^ http://www.seattlepi.com/national/politico/article/SCOTUS-nixes-Iraqis-lawsuit-1441885.php
- ^ http://www.andyworthington.co.uk/2011/06/28/us-supreme-court-refuses-to-allow-abu-ghraib-torture-victims-to-sue-military-contractors/
- ^ "James Miller's online gallery Twisted Reality"
- Tucker, Bruce and Sia Triantafyllos (2008). "Lynndie England, Abu Ghraib, and the New Imperialism". Canadian Review of American Studies 38 (1): 83–100. doi:10.3138/cras.38.1.83.
- Clemens, Michael (2010). The Secrets of Abu Ghraib Revealed: American Soldiers on Trial. Potomac Books. ISBN 1-59797-441-2. http://www.potomacbooksinc.com/Books/SearchResults.aspx?str=secrets+of+abu+ghraib. Retrieved 2010-05-31.
- Zimbardo, Philip (2007). The Lucifer effect: How good people turn evil. Rider. ISBN 978-1-84604-103-7. http://www.lucifereffect.com/. Retrieved 2009-01-11.
- Abu Ghurayb Prison - Sexual exploitation point-of-view
- The Trials of Abu Ghraib: An Expert Witness Account of Shame and Honor by Stjepan Meštrović
- Racial Spectacles: Explorations in Media, Race, and Justice (chapter on Abu Ghraib, new media and lynching photography) by Jonathan Markovitz
- U.S. government documents related to Abu Ghraib
- U.S. soldier, Kayla Williams, chronicles abuse of Iraqi prisoners
- "You can't be a sweet cucumber in a vinegar barrel" – interview with Philip Zimbardo, scientist behind the Stanford prison experiment and one of the expert witnesses in the Abu Ghraib trials
- Bibliography: Iraq Wars: Prisons and Prisoner Abuse by Edwin Moise
- Hodge, James; Linda Cooper (November 3 2004). "The CIA and Abu Ghraib: 50 Years of Teaching and Training Torturers". Counterpunch. http://www.counterpunch.org/hodge11032004.html.
- Salon.com, index of Abu Ghraib documents and reports
- Salon.com, all 279 photos and 19 videos from Abu Ghraib
- Transcript of report Archived March 31, 2006 at the Wayback Machine
- The Torture Archive at The National Security Archive
- Abu Ghraib collected legal news at JURIST
- Ghosts of Abu Ghraib, a documentary film by Rory Kennedy
- Testimony of Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld before the Senate and House Armed Services Committees (prepared remarks). May 7, 2004
- Report[dead link] by Amnesty International. March 18, 2004
- The Road to Abu Ghraib by Human Rights Watch. June 9, 2004.
- Abuse of Iraqi POWs by GIs probed. April 29, 2004. (CBS / 60 Minutes)
- US commander 'allowed prison abuse' (Friday 27 August 2004, Aljazeera)
- "In Good Conscience", Alternet, 10 January 2005 – interview with Aidan Delgado, a soldier who worked at Abu Ghraib prison
- Iraqi General tortured and dies, Washington Post
- Full dossier of Abu Ghraib torture files, Salon.com
- Pentagon Not Pursuing Guantanamo Report; Guardian Unlimited, UK
- Abu Ghraib: The Dark Side of Human Nature; free video
- Annals of War Exposure: The woman behind the camera at Abu Ghraib. The New Yorker March 24, 2008.
- Morris, Errol (2008-05-19). "The Most Curious Thing". New York Times. http://morris.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/19/the-most-curious-thing/index.html.
- Iraqi Prisons: The Curse of Abu Ghraib 2009-08-12
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